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therefore suppose applicable to the prophecies in the fecond and third chapters, and the more fo, as the eighth and ninth seem to relate to the rise of other powers in Asia, namely, the Saracens, the Bowides, the Turks, &c. which History tells us, conquered and governed Persia. The Apocalypse has no reference to the Revolution in Persia ; yet with refpect to Eastern Rome, it certainly has : for all the calamities it fuffered, to its final fall, are defcribed in it,

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We conceive alludes to the troubles which exifted while Persia* remained under the Saracens, or the Empire of the Caliphs, for 304 years, to its total fall in 933 ; during which time, the Magian religion was supplanted by Mahometism. The innumerable occurrences which History furnishes during this period, render it impossible to apply any to the particular sound of the trumpets. We therefore shall suppose it to allude to the invasion of the Arabs in Asia, Africa, and Europe, and to the sieges of Constantinople: Perhaps the 8th verse, “A great

* Gib. Vol. 10, p. 83.



'mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea*,” may allude to the Greek or artificial fire at the first siege of Constantinople.


This chapter begins with opening the bottomless pit, from whence we have already remarked, the greatest evils are to spring: And the conclusion of the last chapter, “ Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to sound ;” marks the heavy calamities which are to follow.


Verse 3

« And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power.

Verse 4. “ And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.

* Invention and use of the Greek fire, which they deno. minated liquid. np maritime fire. Gib, Vol, X. p. 14, to 16.


Verse 5. “ And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months.”

In the language of prophecy, five months are considered to be equal to 150 years. In the History of the final conquest of Persia by the Bedoweens, A. D. 1062, we read * that “ Abusaid, and his son Abu Taher, were called to the prophetic offices of Imams, by the voice of God, and the people, who in the city of Cufa, and other countries, had been converted to the doctrine of Carmath, an Arabian preacher, who styled himself the Herald of the Messiah, who had conversed with him in a human shape, and the representative of Mohammed the son of Alit, of St. John the Baptist, and of the angel Gabriel. That in his mystic volume the precepts of the Koran were refined to a more spiritual sense : and that these rebellious Imams could mufter

107000 fanatics.

That after his death his twelve Apostles dispersed themselves among the Bedoweens, “a race ofmen”, says Abulfeda, “equally devoid of reason and religion.” Abu Said and his son Abu Taher, between 900 and 929, continued their conquests until they pillaged Mecca; the well of Zemzem overflowed with blood, the veil of the Caaba I was divided among these * Gib. Vol. X. p. 74, &c. + p. 75. #p: 77:

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impious sectaries; and the black stone, the first monument of the nation, was borne away in triumph to their capital.

A general revolt of the provinces in different parts of the Saracen empire took place, by the Viceroys or Governors, from A. D. 800, to A. D. 936, during which period the slaughter of the Mahometans must have been very great.

We conjecture this as a sufficient proof, that the three verfes, viz. 3, 4, and 5, allude to this period; for, although Syria and Egypt were twice difmembered by their Turkish Naves of the race of Toulun and Ikshid", we do not read of any fufferings of the Christians : So that this part of the prophecy is so far fulfilled, by killing those who had not the mark of God in their forehead: As the war arose from the heresy in the religion of Maho


The first great battle recorded in history was in the year goo.

If we are permitted to state the date of the entrance of the Bedoweens into Syria, in A. D.912, it will enable us to account from that period to the capture of Conftantinople by the Turks. * Gib. Vol. x. p. 82.


The five verses, from the seventh to the eleventh, inclusive, by the figurative expressions “ The shapes of the locusts were like unto horses, &c." We conceive represent the increase of the power of the Bedoweens, until the defeat of Mahmud the Gaznevide, the last Imam, A. D. 1038, at the small town of + Chorasan, in Perfia.

Verse 11. “And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit.”

That is, their first king was elected by a people ripe for rebellion against their Sovereign and gavernment, and by fanatics.

“ Which is the angel of the bottomless pit?”

The first evil or messenger to another, which is to arise out of the bottomless pit in Roman Asia, and to which we apply the 6th vial.

Verse 12. “One woe is past, and behold there come two woes more hereafter, viz."

1. The invasion and conquest of Persia and of Asia Minor by the Turks.

II. The capture of Conftantinople.

+ Gib. Vol. X. 344.

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