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ditions, in the eighteenth, by Rosenmüller. tion at the first. The covenant-people But what is wanted is the close combina- was to be the heart of the nations. There tion of scientific observation with philolo- fresh and healthy blood was to be prepargical research. To the botanist the publi- ed, and thence it was vigorously to circucation of the Hierobotanicon of Celsius in late through all mankind. Hence the 1745 is doubly interesting; for it was an land, in which these purposes were to be accidental meeting in the academical gar- realised, must have corresponded to them; den of Upsala, just after his return from and Palestine did unite, in an unparalleled the Holy Land, which led to his first en and wonderful manner, the apparently opcouragement of young Linnæus; and posed characteristics of being secluded and these small volumes, now rare and dear, yet central. From first to last we find it may really be regarded as the starting: impossible to dissever the seed of promise point of all researches into the Flora of from the land of promise. The connexion Palestine. What has been done since in was formed in the earliest period, while these directions is very fragmentary and the nation was yet a family. Under the incomplete. Something, but not much, patriarchs the house of Israel lived long has been contributed by some of the enough in the predicted land ‘for the authors mentioned in this paper, Lynch, home feeling, so important and necessary, De Saulcy, and Osburn. It is essential, to be deeply and ineradicably fixed in the in researches of this kind, that the usage national character. A man's home is of the Hebrew words should be carefully where he was born and where he has spent noted, and compared with observed facts. his childhood. And there, where the The Authorised Version is as liable to chosen race was to dwell after it had mislead us in phrases connected with grown into a nation, and where it had to natural history, as it is in the use of discharge its peculiar task, it was to spend topographical terms. We see the Kishon, the time of its infancy, in order that the the Arnon, and the Jabbok sometimes people might ever regard it as their procalled rivers and sometimes brooks,' per home, and that, as such, it might obneither term being strictly suitable: and, tain that deep hold on them which only a conversely, the same English word. valley' home has upon the heart. The conquest is used for at least three very different itself could not be accomplished, till the Hebrew words. So with the nomencla- nation was formed. Hence the nation was ture of Natural History. We shall re- formed elsewhere. With the Exodus and main very much in the dark concerning the crossing of the Jordan, we enter fully the plants and animals mentioned in Scrip- on the lively and mutual relation of the ture, unless the inductive process is fol. country and the people during the prolowed, which has been adopted with so gressive development of the latter. We much success in furtherance of exact topo- have been quoting from a German book, graphical description in the Appendix to one of the best of a large number of works Professor Stanley's 'Sinai and Palestine.'* of Continental theology which have been Some minds are impatient of such mi- recently translated.*
With another quonute details; and it may indeed fairly be tation from the sanie source we may concontended that they have little to do with clude. The bond still continues. As the dogmatic divinity, and that religions body is adapted and destined for the soul teaching may be very practical without and the soul for the body, so is Israel for them. But on a broad view of the whole that country and that country for Israel ; subject, we have no hesitation in saying without Israel, the land is like a body that the Biblical student must be very from which the soul has fled; banished careless, if he fails to notice how great a from its country, Israel is like the ghost part the Chosen Land had in the growth which cannot find rest.? and progress of the Chosen People. The patriarchal expectations were bound up in the future existence of a nation; and a nation requires a country. When the nation was formed, its institutions were ex. Art. IV.-1. The Order of Nature consiclusive. An isolated land, like Palestine, dered in reference to the Claims of Rewas almost essential. Yet the land was velation. A Third Series of Essays. so placed, that its reaction afterwards on By the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., &c., the world was as remarkable as its isola- &c. London, 1859.
* Kurtz's 'History of the Old Covenant' (in * Much of this Appendix is the work of Mr. Clark's Foreign Theological Library'), vol. i. pp. Grove of Sydenham.
147-150, 178, 214; vol. ii. p. 18.
2. Tradition Unveiled: or, An Exposi- | academic hood upon their shoulders; but,
tion of the Pretentions and Tendency at least, since Woolston, no such phenoof Authoritative Teaching in the menon as the present has appeared on this Church. By the Rev. Baden Powell, side of the Rhine in Europe, -the calm, M.A., &c., &c. London, 1839.
deliberate declaration, by a minister of the 3. Dr. Paley's Works. A Lecture. De Gospel, made professedly in the interest
livered by Richard Whately, D.D., of Christianity, that belief in miracles is
Archbishop of Dublin. London, 1859. no longer tenable, and that it only remains 4. Cautions for the Times. Addressed for the Church to surrender at discre
to the Parishioners of a Parish in Eng. tion the literal dogma of the resurrection land by their former Rector. Edited of her Lord. That Professor Powell by the Archbishop of Dublin. 2nd Edi- should have openly become, in all respects, tion. London, 1854.
one of the infidel party,—that, like the
Bishop of Paris in the first French Revolu“The Order of Nature considered in re- tion, he should have doffed his vestments ference to the Claims of Revelation' is a before sacrificing at the altar of Reason work which will attract notice rather from that, like poor, dissolute (but bluff and the name and position of the author than honest) Churchill, he should have from any intrinsic merits. It is loosely reasoned, and composed in a vague and 'Laid his ordlers at his bishop's feet somewhat heavy and verbose style. If it Sent his dishonoured gown to Monmouth Street,' had been published anonymously, we should hardly have thought it worth no before appearing in his present character, ticing in this journal.
would have been to such an enemy but a Its design is to consider miracles in small and vulgar triumph compared with reference to the whole relations of physi- what is actually obtained-a triumph not cal, to revealed or spiritual truth,' and over the reason only, but over the moral the discussion is declared to tend to the principle of a divine. conclusion of their independence; while
Meanwhile Professor Powell, unhappily the true influence of that revelation is se- unconscious of disgrace, is so satisfied with cured as based on the recognition of the his own position, that he warmly (or as important distinction, at once Baconian warmly as his nature permits) recomiends and Pauline, between the provinces and it also to his brethren :objects of reason and faith,'' The result of the inquiry is, that, in the present state of
'In many instances,' he observes, 'the Chrisscience, all physical miracles-as the resur
tian doctrines have been formerly maintained rection of Jesus, for example--are incapa- those ideas, and the views taken of them, must
in close connexion with physical jileas; while ble of rational proof; since, if viewed as of necessity be liable to change and improve violations of the order of nature, they are ment as science advances. And if some expresinconsistent with the grand Inductive sions, apparently implying such connexion, are Principle of the Cosmos,” or “Order of retained in the formularies of the Church of Nature, and viewed in any way as the England '—as, e. g., that Jesus Christ was cruci. acts of God, they require, to make them fied, dead, and buried, and likewise did rise credible, the ascription to Him of a kind again, the third day, which thus acquire a of omnipotence, that can be learned only that many points of great importance are there
modified interpretation, it must also be observed from the revelation itself, which they are left without any determination or mention. Thus, alleged to attest. These doctrines, coming to whatever extent individual or even general from such an author, we notice rather for opinion may have given a turn to such questions, the sake of morality than religion.
they are undenialy open questions to those who Among the retined luxuries that Sir adopt these formularies. Of this class are the Epicure Mammon, in Jonson’s ‘Alchemist, ral theology, the evidences of Christianity, the
entire subjects of philosophical theism or natuanticipates from the possession of the phi- inspiration of the Bible, the immateriality of sopher's stone, one is, that bis 'flatterers the soul, and the nature of miracles. Thit thus, shall be the purest and gravest of divines.' | in the nioderate tone of the requisitions of the If there be among the infidels of England | Church of England, free course is allowed to any of so rancorous a temper as to wish to more enlightened views, without impugning a see religion not only conquered but de system so biglıly and practically valuable, is at based, he must already experience a simi- once the security of the established institution lar exquisite enjoyment in reading Profes in an age of progress, and supplies the sure sor Powell's book. Strange things have without external innovation, will carry out its
means by which eventually the advance of truth, been said and done in times past by per- noiseless triumph over all artificial obstructions.' sons in the garb of clergymen and with an-0, der of Nature, Preface, p. vii.
On the part of the Church of England it professedly and essentially disclaims all we take leave emphatically to reject the connexion. It ‘rejects criticism.” (p. 375.) intended honour. She has no ambition to It receives the miraculous narratives of survive, for one hour, the faith of her the Gospel for the divine instruction they Master; nor, indeed, in this country is it were designed to convey, without prejudice possible that she should. The people of to the invariable laws of physiology, of England are at once too discerning and gravitation, or of the constitution of natoo truth-loving to tolerate a system of ture.' (p. 377.) It is nearly allied to the phenakism and reserve, whether in the æsthetic and imaginative faculties of our interest of Popery or of infidelity. The nature—MAY be most fervently and sin'honesta facies Ecclesiæ * cannot long be cerely associated with what is fábulous or conserved amongst us, without the incoc- mythical, or may attach itself to a high tum generoso pectus honesto' that would spiritual truth, under the outward imagery spurn all double doctrine and double deal of a marvellous narrative '-nay, “it has ing, alike in things sacred and profane. been contended,' and Mr. Powell does not Professor Powell's scheme is not calculated dispute the point—that mystery and parafor the British meridian. It would not ble are more congenial to the nature of endure our climate. Elsewhere a church faith than fact and history; which are may stand after Christianity has died out; rather subjects of reason and knowledge; but here the inwardly rotten whited se- far below the aspirations of the spiritual pulchre would fall to pieces in a week. The mind.
' (p. 428.) It transfers miracles to fabric would collapse at once under the the region of spiritual contemplation and scorn and execration of the multitude; Divine Mystery.' (p. 440.) It obviates and we should thank God for it; for pain- the difficulties of reason by claiming earthful as it is to contemplate a general aban- ly marvels to its own province and predonment of Christianity, it is still more rogative.' (p. 458.) Its objects are delivpainful to contemplate, along with that, a ered in traditional formularies-celebrated general abandonment of common decency in festivals and solemnities—by sacred and common morals.
rites and symbols—embodied in the creaBut the unsophisticated reader will be tions of art, and proclaimed by choral apt to ask, “How can Professor Powell harmonies.” (p. 460.) Such is the clearest reconcile a profession of Christianity in exposition of the wonder-working Princiany sense with a disbelief of its miracu- ple of Faith that we can gather from lous facts? Why, truly, the modus quo Professor Powell's book. Apollo “thunis a mystery less easily penetrable than dering down the Loxian steep' was hardly most of those we meet even in the vol- less obscure in his Oracles, and the profane umes of the mystical Schoolmen. There herd will be apt to conjecture that this is, it seems, a certain SPIRITUAL FAITH mysterious Spiritual Faith is no other that reconciles all contradictions; and that than Pantagruel's Chimæra bombinans can, without any change of his specific in vacno,' whose appropriate food is Sequalities, transubstantiate an Atheist into con Intentions. Seriously, we ask, does a Devotee. To discover what this Spiri. Professor Powell think that plain, mattertual Faith is-Ilic labor, hoc opus est : of-fact Englishmen can be imposed upon and Professor Powell, who can write by such galimatias as this?. If he does, clearly enough when he pleases, becomes, he is grievously mistaken. This coin may, on this subject, as obscure as the Seraphic for aught we know, still pass current at Doctor. It is not grounded on evidence. Tübingen or Jena, but it is not, and never It is a spiritual apprehension, the objects will be, a legal tender in London. of which are ideas not cognisable by rea
There was a time when Professor Powell son. (p. 217.) It is concerned only with better understood the moral feelings of objects, apart from the world of material Englishmen than he seems to understand existence, of ordinary human action, or them now. In 1844 he is known to have even of metaphysical speculation.' (p. 276.) reviewed in a periodical Journal, that Es. It has nothing to do with physical things say on Miracles by Dr. Newman, of which or even the moral order of the world. he makes such important nse against It does not at all appeal to the under- Christianity in his present work. He was standing, or to the laws of reason, with which not then, any more than now, blind to its
tendency, and it was thus that he stamped otherwise than (leeply offensive to every believer of tradition and church authority is to obliterate in Scripture, and whether, on the most candid the boundary line of distinctive evilence between interpretation, any meaning can be put upon the Nero Testament and the fathers and counthat language consistent with any real belief in cils ; between the apostles and their successors to rerelation. The writer of Tract 90 can of the present day. In this view both are placed course find no difficulty in vindicating the con- on the same fouting ; both must be equally insistency of such ideas with the loftiest preten- spired and divine ; or (we have the alternatire), sions of orthodoxy and honesty: the Christian both equally uninspired and human. It is on world may julge differently, and may find these all hands confessed that the subject of the miradisclosures open their eyes to the true nature of cles of the early church is not free from diffithe whole scheme, and stamp it with a far more culties; but, upon the system of church anthodeadly character than that of any apparent ten rity, they become serious. The state of things dency to Popery; as evincing, in fact, nothing in the Christian world, even to the present less than an entire rejection of all distinctive times, is thus identified with that wbici, in evidences of Scripture revelation, and, under other ages, was deemed miraculous. And this the most flimsy and transparent professions of manifestly tends to impugn all those distinct faith and sanctity, the adoption of a system un- notions of special divine interposition, which distinguishable from that of rationalism or deism, have been insisted on by those who have atagainst which its advocat's make so incessant a reinpted a logical discussion of the evidence of pretence of declaiming, and infinitely more of- miracles. According to the views so laid down fensive from the tone of equivocal inference and by the most eminent writers, the precise force indirect insinnation in which it is conveyed. of that evidence is, to supply a definite test of * * * For the worldly-minded, it is far easier that which is divine revelation, and that which to profess unlimited submission, than really to is not. Hence, any system which breaks down accept the Gospel as true, or even seriously to the boundary line, wbich disguises it, renders it inquire into its claims. Scriptural Protestantisin, hazy or ill defined, as effectually defeats and as such, is therefore nncongenial to their views; nullifies the evidence as if it were rejected and Popery of course is proscribed by their own denied alzogether. We have, then, to inquire previous professions; but the pretensions of further, how can the traditional doctrine be reAnglo-Catholicism offer precisely what they lieved from this serious objection? And we seek. The emptiness and inconsistency of these may consider the alternatives which present pretensions constitute no serious objection, -themselves. they even conspire to divest the doctrine of too • Ist, Is it alleged that the miracles of the severe a character, and are so far recoinmenda- primitive church were not evidential, but tions; moreover they will not be too curiously wrought for some otber objects ?—for the support inquired into by the many, if indeed they be of the church under difficulties? or, appealed to perceived at all. The mutilated church, with as a triumph over the magical pretensions of the its imperfections skilfully disguised, can süll heathen from their superior wonder and power ?* practically hold out much to which humna, na- And that, in fact, in an age where everything ture will fondly cling, especially when better aid was ascribed to the supernatural, no distinction cannot conveniently be resorted to. It puts would be perceived, no test afforded? It'so, how forth pleas which at once easily satisfy the igno- can we argne upon the miracles of the New rant and careless, the refined aud worldly, the Testament as being evidential? How are we to learned and sceptical, and harmonize with the draw the distinction? If several parties present various motives which lead men to adopt the the same credentials, how are we to distinguish external profession of religion, while they assert any as the ambassador ? & sublime influence over the sincere votary: Or, 2ndly, Are we (along with some eminent Dispensing with all considerations of truth, and writers) tv call in question the crelit of the having no reference to internal conviction, it miracles of the later ages, and contend that the suits equally the views of those who regard re- belief in demoniacal possessions and the power ligion as a mere matter of feeling or taste, as a ofexorcism, or the general proneness to the superquestion of party or political utility, or lastly, natural, was only what was common to the spirit as altogether a popular delusion in which it is of the times, to which the Christian teachers yet decent to acquiesce. Snch persons can were either not superior, or conformed ibemreadily ascend to Christianity when proposeil on selves? Or that legendary tictions and pious grounds which make it no better than a fiction, frauds were the admitted and justified vehicles and can sincerely adopt the happy mythology of orthodox instruction? If so, upon the tradiof tra lition, the convenient legend of catholic tional principle, how are we to avoid extending antiquity.'—British and Foreign Review, No. the same observations to the earlier ages ? If XXXII. p. 556-558.
it with his reprobation :Mr. Powell quotes and adopts a passnge in which Semler declares his intention of pursuing his "We place these passages before our readers free inquiries to the utmost conservato tamen or without cominent: We simply ask, whether dine, et honesta Ecclesiæ forma salva.'
their bare language, however intended, can be
tradition and authoritative teaching are com
bined uninterruptedly into one body with the IIe bad previously, in 1839, published a records of the apostles, how shall credit be given Tract under the title of Tradition Un- to one part, which is withheld from another, of veiled:' and it will be worth while to the same connected system of authoritative truth? compare at some length the Baden Powell low and where shall we break up the indivisiof '39 with the Baden Powell of '59. bility of the one body and scheme of Christian • Look first on this icture and then on
instruction and apostolic authority ? and of the this.'
* See Neander's Eccl. Hist. Transl., p. 67, and "Thus the manifest consequence of the systein Paley's Evid., vol. ii. p. 339.
evidences which authenticate it? It is not the of the miraculous evidence of the New Testarejection of the miracles of later ages, the par- | ment, when they ascribe exactly as much certial and one-sided criticisms of Middleton, which tainty to similar claims unsupported by such will avail; the traditionist must take higher evidence: e. g. " We must be as sure,” they ground, and rather seek alliance with. Gitibon say, “ that the bishop is Christ's appointed reand Hume. The same principle must apply to presentative, as if we actually saw him work the truth of mir:cles in the Church in all ages miracles as St. Peter and St. Paul did.'* At alike, if the teaching of all ages be alike authori: all events, it is ce that
very discussion tative and divine. Were then the successive of the entire question of Christian evilence is bishops and teachers of the Church divinely at greatly disliked and aroided, by the theologians tested messengers ? the accredited depositaries of of this school; they are fond of alleging the an infallible revelation, the oracles of Caristian seeming irreverence in its whole character and truth? or are the miracles of the apostles and spirit. Iuvolving as it does, as a first liypothetheir Lord to be rejected or expl:sined away? sis, the putting the inquirer, for the moment, are we to adopt faith in the futhers or rational. into the position of u sceptic, the very process ism towards the New Testament ! One of the of such argument is objected to as unbecoming, two courses we must follow, if this system be and even perilous. It is conceived to im;ly a
The advocates of authoritative tradition coldness, and a want of "loyalty" to the spiritual and an inspireol church must equally uphold or authority of the Gospel, so much as to stop to reject its external credentials in all times. entertain any question respectiug it, or discus
• 3rdly, Another alternative remains. We sion of its truth; the very attitude of challeng. have thus far assumed the correctness of the ing evidence is one which bears a bold and dicsview of the external evidence of Christianity, tile appearance, which can never be assumed by as laid down by the most approved writers: as the humble and cabu.issive votary of the Paley and others. Will the advocates of tra li- church. They affect to turn away in a fastidious tion contend that these views are altogether disgust from the subject of evidence, or perhaps faulty in principle ? will they reject, as fallacious really shrink from it in a correct peroption of and presumptu us, the idea of demanding mira- its inconsistency with their views. They regard cles as the indispen able* credentials of inspira- faith as degraded by the very mention of proof: tion? Shall we be told that these statements of " As it,” they indignantly exclain, "evidence to evidence are merely of a nature addressed to the word of God were a thing to be tolerated popular apprehension; and that, to insist on by a Christian, except as an additional condemnathem as the necessary proofs of our fuith, only tion for those who reject it, or as a sort of exer. shows that we have not fathomed the depths of cise and indulgence for a Christian understandthe subject? Or, allowing tio existence of those ing.'+ What are such ideas but the exact difficulties in establishing, their credibility, counterpart of those professed in a very opposite which have appeared so insurmou:table to school?-in which it is a constant topic tv urge sceptics, will it be considered better to avoid that the ardent spirit of faith, offended by cold discussing them, and thus to (liscaril such argu- discussion, dispenses with the dry details of eviments as altogether of no force and no value, dence; that our Lord's miracles were only and in fact concede everything to the unbeliever? | aslaptations to the prevailing superstitions of When we come to the actual declarations of the those to whom they were presented, and who traditionists, it is difficult to make out their , thus stood peculiarly condemned in rejectivg views on matters of evidence, or in the arnbithem; and that, in fact, he himself put them in guity of their language to discover which of the this light, and assigned them but a very secondabove alternatives they prefer. But their senti- ary importance. Or again, what is it but the ments, when they do break through what seems favourite speculation of a party, the most dea conscious shyness of discussion, appear, to say nounced by the orthodox, to give a wide scope the least, open to much doubt and suspicion. to the indulgence of a contemplative spirit, in Such ideas (for instance) as are implied in the tracing out the "mythic" interpretation of following passage, surely can but tend directly miracles (tho narratives of which ihey contend to cunfound all distinct notions of miraculous were only designed for religious parable); and evidence. " Whoso will not recognize the to fiod extensive exercise for an enlightened unfinger of God in his providential cures, will not derstanding, in applying the resources of learnsee it in his miraculous : .... When inen had ing and science to examine the philological anexplained away, as the mere effects of imagina, biguities of the text, or to explain the apparent tion, cures, in mdern time, out of the wonted miracles as only extraordinary naturul occurorder of God's providence, which, tlough no rences, cases of suspended animation, or of anicontirmation of a religious system, seem to have mal magnetisın? Or, while they are exoterically been personal rewaris to strong personal faith, condemned, are those some of the 'esoteric ducthey were ready to apply the same principle to trines into which only the privileged adepts in many of the miracles of the Gospel; when they the school of tradition are adınitted? bail ceased to see in lunatics the power permitted * Tuus, whichever alternative be adopted, to evil spirits, they were prepared), and did, as whichever view of the subject be preferrel, it soon as it was suggested, deny it in the demo- cannot but equally appear, that all distinctive niacs of the New Testament.”+ Again, we evidence is virtually lust, contounded, or rejectmay, perhaps, discover their sense of the value ed. And thus the traditionists in practice take
"See Paley's Evidences,' vol. i. p. 3. + Dr. Pusey's Sermon,' on 5th Nov., 1837, p. 3.
* Tracts for the Times,' No 10, p. 4.
. British Critic,'No. 48, p. 303.