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be objected to, and there is space lost in the founded very much on the Bedford model, construction of the staircase. The elevation has the same shortcoming in the thickness would be improved by making the windows of the walls. By a judicious arrangement of broader and lower, and the panneled front the upper story good-sized bedrooms are disdoor and knocker might be dispensed with. tributed, two to the two central cottages, The plainer elevation is far superior to the three to the outside houses, the ground-tloor gabled and ornate one. The estimated cost accommodation being nearly the same in all. of the former is 1701. These estimates are Their elevation would be greatly improved too low for the work. The Duke of Bed- by more prominent eaves and by a happier ford's design for three cottages, two with composition of the double porch. Mr. three bedrooms, and one with two bedrooms, Weaver's are of that ornamental style now has many points to recommend it. The bed- happily abandoned, and offer no special adroom accommodation is superior to Mr. vantages of arrangement beyond that of utilizIsaac's, but the size of the wash-house, 15 ft
. ing the space over the porches for bedroom. X 11 ft., is unnecessarily large. It would Mr. Roberts, the active Hon. Architect to the be better to have exchanged the uses of Society for Improving the Condition of the kitchen and wash-house (we whould rather Labourers, gives a large number of very wellcall them "living-room' and scullery'), but arranged models in his 'Dwellings of the La that the larger room is placed at the back. bouring Classes,' especially in the subordinaThe elevation is thoroughly cottage-like in tion of the scullery to the living-room, and in appearance. There is a pump and large oven the 11-inch hollow walling. The operations in common; but the latter, when provided, is, of the society which he represents are, howas far as we can judge from our own experi- ever, now chiefly directed to town habitations. ence, but little used.
,We should prefer to have the quasi-Gothic A row of six cottages with three bedrooms hoodmouldings over the windows and doors to cach (No. 6 of the Duke of Bedford's plans) omitted in all these designs. The Prince is most excellent, both in elevation and in the Consort's cottages, of which examples were distribution and arrangement of space. The attached the Great Exhibition of 1851, are living-room, 15 ft. X 11 ft., is a larger size too complicated and costly for ordinary purthan common, but not too large for a family poses, and are rather suited for towns than occupying three bedrooms. The same design for rural districtes. Of the prize models apmight be carried out in pairs. It would proved by the Society of Arts in 1848, the make the division of the upper rooms more first by Mr. Hine is exceedingly well concomplete, and more truly express the inside trived and complete, but we mach question construction, if the two-light windows in the the possibility of building it for the sum gables were each parted into two windows of named, though that exceeds a remunerating a single light. The whole of the Bedford price. The stone jambs and mullions, howdesigns show a thoroughly practical under- ever, might be well omitted, and some of the standing of the wants of the labouring class, interior fittings simplified, to reduce the cost. and are in look exactly what they should be The second, equally expensive, has fewer con--not villas or town houses in miniature, but veniences, and externally fails in simplicity unmistakable English cottages. The only and proportion. Mr. B. Allen, in bis Cotgeneral objections which could be raised are tage Buildings,' flies off into architectural exto the thinness of the outer walls (9 inch) travagances, and is more successful in his throughout, and to the doors opening directly lodging-houses than in his cottages. Mr. on the living-room ; but this latter fault is Sanderson's 'Rural Architecture' is both too one far more noted by the builders of cot- ambitious and too discursive, though the tages than by their occupiers. Bills of quan- ground plan (Plate VIII.) is good, and would tities in every case accompany these designs, do well for a pair of superior cottages, when and thus the cost, varying so much accord- denuded of its shields, hipknobs, bargeboards, ing to locality, may be at once ascertained. and other pseudo-Elizabethan quirks. As they embrace, moreover, every variety of Every province, nearly every county, has ordinary cottage accommodation, none have some special circumstances of its own which been published, even by professed architects, would "modify ahy well-contrived building so useful to the country builder, as these erected in it. Nothing is more to be deprewhich emanate from the study of Woburn. cated than the idea of a model cottage to be The Duke has been as conspicuous in his multiplied throughout the land. English deeds as in his plans. He has erected scores proprietors have often overlooked this, and upon scores of new tenements for the labourer, have sent over to Ireland models at once and the result bas been a marked improve incomprehensible and impracticable.
There ment in the well-being of their inhabitants. are habits of domestic life to which the pea
Lord Spencer's plan of four cottages, santry of the North or the South, of Wales or of Ireland, are wedded, which would require either side of the border. He has been one a very differently arranged house from that of the most useful members of the Associawhich would suit the midland counties; and tion for promoting Improvement in the Dwellthis has now been recognised by the several ings and Domestic Condition of Agricultural districts taking the subject of their own par- Labourers in Scotland,' which has continued ticular requirements in hand. As long ago since the year 1850 to put forth annually a as 1841 the Rev. Dr. Gilly made his appeal series of economic plans adapted to the wants in behalf of the Border peasantry. The of the northern labourer. Much valuable instate of the hinds as described by him was formation is to be derived from the Reports striking in its difference from the southern of this Association, wbich appears to be in labourer, and still remains very little altered. excellent working condition, though hardly Being hired by the year, and living in a house yet supported by the landed proprietary of or rather hut found by the employer, they Scotland to the extent which it is benefiting require to be 'spoken to' if they are to stop them. The published plans show generally Thus they are constantly flitting, and that at one story only, with all the bedrooms on the the most inconvenient season of Whitsuntide. ground floor, and bed-recesses in the livingThis prevents a tidy house and garden, and rooms, after the custom of the country. This destroys the home feeling. Yet their greater very much simplifies the design, especially as physical comfort has been extolled over the all fancy fittings and ventilations—in which more domiciled peasant of the south. The English architects too much run riot-are hind is paid in kind, the keep of his cow, also omitted. The wholesome thickness of which he always possesses, being found by the good stone walls—the material universally his master, who also gives him the carriage employed-makes up for many deficiencies ; of his coals, finds wool for the women to spin but the sash-windows militate against the and knit, and continues his allowance in sick- rural associations of the south. ness. He usually kills two pigs in the year, The wants of the mountain districts of and these, with porridge and the cow's milk, Wales have been well met by Mr. Poundley's supply the main food of the family. The plans, superintended, as they have been, by children are generally kept at home, and all Mr. T. Turnor, Lord Bagot's agent in Dencan read and most are good arithmeticians. bighshire, who has had wide experience in Dwelling altogether in one room, and sleep-cottage-building. The houses are altogether ing in recessed beds, the moral evils of this larger than those usually built in England, cohabitation seem fewer than might be ex- and the form of one bedroom is inconvenient. pected; and, though they have little care for Here again the sash-window is at variance the house, they are proud of what little fur- with the rustic aspect we look for iq such niture they possess in crockery or metal. localities. A second design is for a double They are a most self-contained household. cottage of one story, of flag and iron, for disThe father is nearly always able to mend the tricts where flag-stone abounds, and the carshoes of the family'; the women spin, and the tage of materials is expensive. Mr. Marley, village shopbill is unknown. Each hind is an Irish proprietor, has bestowed great pains bound to find bis master the labour of a wo- on a design adapted to Ireland, wbich the man or a boy, and hence the women work Cottage Improvement Society are likely soon too much in the field, and the more domestic to publish. Mr. Wheeler's Homes for the comforts are neglected. There is an inde- People of America teaches us nothing we pendence and plenty in their coarse, rough, might not as easily have learnt in England; and primitive life, which may counterbalance and it is singular how little there is characthe absence of the higher civilisation of the teristic of a new country, either in his cottage south; but the worst result of the system is or mansion plans. the extreme wretchedness of their houses, The publications which we have selected which the unceasing flitting perpetuates and for notice, and the large number of designs aggravates. Mud-floors and bad drainage sent in whenever prizes have been offered, and ventilation entail the misery of typhus and show how wide is the interest taken in this low fever; and it is not worth while for a matter both by landlords and architects; and temporary tenant to insist on any permanent this has led to the formation of a new Socieremedies.
ty in London, called • The Cottage ImproveDr. Gilly gave designs for a better class of ment Society.' Unfortunately, though comcottages, though curiously behind the present menced with the best motives, and supported demands of the South; but the Rev. Henry by an influential council, it has been too much Stuart, in his work entitled · Agricultural La- clogged by its provincial antecedents to make bourers,' bas more fully entered into the re-as fair a start as it should have done when it quirements of that body, and drawn up some assumed metropolitan life; and designs to excellent plans for houses and bothies on which the Kent Society, from which it sprung, were pledged, have been circulated without almost universally fatal to the obtaining three that careful revision which might have been good bedrooms above without loss of space expected from a new and central society. We below. In his own plan he departs from this should bave severely criticised their two first rule, thereby entailing some extra complicaplans, did we not understand that in the re- tion and, probably, expense in the construcorganization which the Society is now under- tion of the roof, but his whole arrangement going they are likely to be withdrawn. We is so excellent that this slight increase of prefer a third plan of the Society's, only par- cost should not deter the proprietor from tially circulated, where, by placing one of the adopting so perfect a model, especially as bedrooms on the ground, two other sufficient much picturesqueness is gained to the buildrooms are gained on the upper story. It | ing by the break in the side-wall. This dewould seem an improvement on this plan if sign has every convenience which has ever the pantry or north end of the lean-to were been called for in this class of building; an continued, so as to be flush with the back entrance giving separate access to the livingwall, giving room for a porch at the south or room, the staircase, and the pantry; the scul. front end, with a side entrance into the living-lery communicating with the living-room, room,
and having a back-door of its own; the best In 1858 Mr. Bentley, of Rotherham, offer- room, above and below, is to the front, as is ed prizes of 201. for the best and 5l. for the also the entrance door; of the three bedrooms second best design for a pair of cottages two have fireplaces, and all are of fair size, (which might also be built singly), the ex- with windows and bed-site well placed. The pense not to exceed 1102. for the single cot- actual and relative proportions of the livingtage or 2001. for the pair. The conditions room, scullery, and pantry are very good, were very well considered, except, perhaps, and, granting that the cottage faces south, the requirement that the plan should equally the pantry has a north aspect. The chimapply to a single and double tenement. Se- neys are all in the centre of the house and venty-six plans were sent in, and exhibited at carried up into one stack. The dust-bin, of the show of the Yorkshire Agricultural Soci- fice, &c., are supposed to be detached. The ety at Northallerton. Mr. C. W.Strickland, whole contrivance is so good that, by placing in the most practical pamphlet on “Cottage a kitchen-range in the scullery, and making Architecture which we have seen, gives an the scallery-door open, as it might, into the account of the competition, and ably analyses lobby, any lady with one servant might comthe respective merits of fifteen selected de- fortably live in the cottage and miss no point signs. The first prize was assigned to Mr. of arrangement which the best class of houses Blackmoor, to whose block-plan there seems offer, while nothing is sacrificed to take away no objection but the very small dimensions from the more hand-to-mouth conveniences (7 ft. 6 in. by 6 ft. 6 in.) of the third bed- and homely comforts of a working man's room. The elevation might be greatly im- large family. It is equally good as a cotproved by better proportioned windows and tage of gentility' and as a labourer's dwellby the omission of their hood-mouldings and ing. It might, perhaps, be still further imtransoms. The second prize plan, by Messrs. proved by an angular porch over the front Hickes and Isaac, fails rather in the dimen door or by a lean-to passage, closed or open, sions of the largest bed-room and in the ar- its entrance ranging with the front wall of rangement of the entrance, which, however, the house. might readily be altered, and advantageously, We have gone into details which will be according to our views, by turning the porch- dull to those who think that a cottage just entrance to the front instead of the back. consists of four low walls and a roof; but the There is, too, an unnecessary variety in the gist of the whole matter lies in these minnside-windows, which might easily be made tiæ, and it is only by the study of them that inore uniform.
any substantial benefit will accrue to our Into the details of the other plans we can peasantry from the present movement in fanot enter, except to draw attention to Mr.vour of cottage-improvement. Most of the Strickland's own design, which we conceive to plans we have reviewed have been largely be by far the best yet offered to the public. adopted on the authority of the important It is an acknowledged rule, that the nearer a names or societies from which they emanate, building approaches to a cube the greater will and continue to be erectod at a cost which be the economy of construction. All cottage- would furnish far more perfect buildings. designers have therefore endeavoured to avoid Though it has hitherto been found a most difprojections and recesses of any kind, and to ficult matter to build a good cottage, yet the bring their ground-plans within a square or requirements are so comparatively uniform a parallelogram; but Mr. Strickland rightly and within compass, that the principles at remarks that this arrangement has been found least only want a fair amount of attention
Area not less than
bestowed upon them to procure universal this silly arrangement, as in Mr. Strickland's assent,
proportions, which may be well adopted. A dry and gravelly site is of course the first desideratum, but cottagers cannot always be choosers, and therefore freedom from damp Living-room, 168 ft
. For bed-rooms, No. 1 150 ft. Scullery, 80 ft
90 ft. should be secured by foundations not less
3 60 ft. than 18 in. deep, with space under the wooden The height of all rooms to be 8 ft." floors of 12 in., or, where tile flooring is used, the same depth of rubble, brickends, and con
The scullery should have a back door, and crete. Close under the floor-line a course of the chief entrance by all means be in front, slates embedded in cement, or a layer of as always supposing the house to have a southphalt, should be laid in the walls. As slate ward aspect
. The role for a cottage is the is impervious to damp, it stops the rise of the reverse of that which holds good for a great moisture which the bricks suck up from the house. There, the garden front should be to soil. No outlay pays so well for keeping the the south, and the entrance anywhere else ; walls dry; and this precaution is imperative. in the cottage the garden front and entrance The thinness of the outer walls'in most new should be the same; for garden privacy here cottages is the disadvantage which the poor al is neither desired nor obtainable, and the most universally set against the gains of mod-cheerfulness and tidiness of the cottage is ern improvement. Nine inches is the ordi- much enhanced by the front door opening nary thickness allowed; and this, as in the towards the road, from which a straight path Bedford cottages, where the walls are built of about six yards should bring the workman partially hollow, and where many cottages are home, through the little plot of ground dejoined together, may be sufficient; but for a voted to herbs and flowers. single cottage, with ordinary brickwork and
The great crux in cottage-building, already second-rate bricks, it is often cruelly starving. alluded to, is to get three convenient bedThe best walls are those which either in the rooms over the ordinary amount of ground bricks themselves, or in the mode of working floor required by the cottager; but it is a them, are partially hollow. Though it is mistake to suppose that these three bedrooms often objected to, we are in favour of the in- are always necessary. When boys and girls ner walls being plastered, if only to encourage are not at home together, a second only is the furnished look which papering and pic-wanted; and two large rooms are often pretures give, and which cottagers are so fond of. ferable to the common modern arrangement, If the living-room is not floored with wood, where all are spoilt to obtain the desired the best and hardest tiles should be used, or three. Nor, admitting the evils which somethe cherished operation of 'swilling' will times arise, can we forbear to add that much keep up a perpetual damp. The habits of that is false and foolish has been written on the poor vary much in different places as to the moral aspect of large families sleeping in the occupation of their house; but in the the same room. Fine people judge of their midland and southern districts it is quite use- poorer neighbours from their own highly artiless to provide a living-room independent official and dressing-room point of view; yet the kitchen. One family-room, where the it is not many hundred years ago since meals are cooked and eaten, and where the lords and ladies and their families and retainparty gathers round the fire on a winter's ers slept in the same hall, with no greater inevening, with a smaller scullery or wash-jury to their morals than the refinements of house at the back, and a pantry or larder the nineteenth century bave produced. The with opening window, best meets the re- Irish peasants of the present day, who hardly quirements of the ordinary labourer. This know the luxury of a separate bedchamber, living-room should be fitted up with a grate are most honourably conspicuous for their containing a boiler and an oven, not, as in chaste and correct conduct. Travellers in many cases, with what the people themselves the East, who have been thrown together, day call • a boiler and a sham,' where the corre- and night, in large mixed companies, know sponding space to the boiler is occupied in how readily the manners accommodate themmockery by a brass handle and nothing more. selves to such a phase of life. It is a great Several ranges are recommended by the so- libel upon our poor and upon human nature to cieties, but few are sufficiently simple. When suppose that the common sleeping-room of a the scullery or back room is the larger, and family necessarily involves those offences the chief fireplace is placed there, the family against purity which over-refined people will almost invariably crowd into this room, imagine. It is full as much on the ground of reserving the front room in its musty finery health as of morality that a change is refor company at fair or feast tide. The rela- quired; but where a given amount of space tive sizes of the two rooms should prevent is broken up into small and ill-partitioned
apartments, there is no gain to the physical | rated projection of eaves. The cave is as the nature, and perhaps some loss to the moral
. brow to the eye, and the want of it is always In the instance already referred to of a a deformity. crowded bedroom, there were only 100 cubic It is the windows, however, that give the feet of air to each occupant, whereas the character to every building and mark its Lodging-house Act requires 700—most of style; and this to the cottage as much as to our bospitals calculate on 1000, and the Vic- the palace. From old association we should toria Hospital has given 1500 cubic feet to regret the substitution of the sash for the
No partition is preferable casement-window; but in fact the latter, if to an imperfect one; and a curtain is often of three lights and opening outwards in the better than a thin wall. Fireplaces should centre, is also more convenient for the cottage, always be made in two bedrooms at least, for being much more easily repaired when out ventilation more than firing. Where, an
of order, and its interior sill serving as a useopen chimney does not exist, a ventilator ful shelf. If lead lattice is objected to, the should be placed in the roof; but it should best caseinent is a wooden frame with square be very unassailable and simple, for cottagers, lights. Large diamond panes never look like bees, will stop up every ventilating well, and are particularly ugly either in wood cranny in their way, especially if constructed or cast-iron. If the windows are sufficiently on some highly scientific principle. For large there can be no objection to small lead general ventilation below, there is nothing lattice, as a cottage window is not wanted to equal to the open hearth and a good fire in look in or out of, but simply for transmisit; but iron perforated bricks should be in- sion of light. When near the road, large serted flush with the outer wall, beneath the panes render the interior too public. A sinfloor, and tiles may also be used in the inside gle sash-window can never be made proporclose under the ceiling, and communicating tionate to a low room; for all low buildings with ventilating pipes conveyed into or up the windows should run in horizontal not the chimney shafts.
vertical length. Good proportions for cottage We have referred to Mr. Strickland's plan window lights are 4 ft. high by 18 in. wide, as almost perfect in its arrangement of en
or 2 st. 9 in. by 15 in. trance, stairs, and room-communication, but The chimneys should be gathered up into these points are much less regarded by the the centre of the house for economy, warmth, cottagers themselves than by those who think and effect. The heavy brick chimney top for them. They seldom allege any objection of the Kent cottages always looks well, and, to stairs springing from the kitchen or scullery, by its projection, assists the draught of the outer doors opening upon the living-room or Anes. These should be of round or oval bed-rooms one within the other. To avoid glazed pipes, enabling the tenant to sweep his cold and draughts are their main considera- own chimney, and, if this is tolerably well artions; and they willingly sacrifice barge- ranged below, they almost certainly prevent boards and pretty porches for thick walls, the smoke descending. If the stack of chimwell-placed doors, and well-drawing chim neys can be built with wind-breaks between neys. There is much difference of opinion the flues, the effect, as well as the draught, is whether the bedrooms should be partly in improved. the roof; the great objection is the cold; but We have all along taken brick as our mathis may be obviated by a layer of straw, reed, terial, bnt where stone is at hand it will of or felt, beneath the tiles or slates; indeed, course be used as cheaper, and from its pecesslates, which are rapid conductors of heat, sary bulk, warmer. In this case the single letting it out in winter, and conveying it in chamfered stone mullion may economically in summer, should never be used for house- replace that of wood. Thus we perpetuate roofing without some such addition. With the style of old English cottage which, with this modification, they form the best of all very little variation, has continued in the coverings. But the roofing of cottages will stone districts of England from the earliest always be determined by the cheapness of the time of house-building to the present day. material at hand—stone, slate, tiles, or thatch. The stone cottages of the midland counties, The latter is excellent as being cooler in sum- and we may add the brick rural villages of mer and warmer in winter, but its constant the south, have all along been so thoroughly want of repair, and the backwardness of the domesticated on our soil
, that they may be tariner to give up what he requires for his truly viewed as the uninterrupted continuafarinyarı), are fatal to its general use. Gut- tion of that school which built our catheters and pipes should always be provided; drals, castles, and manor-houses. * and herewith we must ask the one sacrifice, not of convenience but of money, for appear- better dame, we must call Gothic, which-while
* This unbroken thread of what, for want of a anco sake, to effect a certain, but not exagge- Classic revivals and foreign fashions were from time