Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A Twentieth Century History
This book analyses the history of the international patent regime and the life science industries, both of which can be traced back to the late 19th century. The development of patent law is inextricably linked to expanding capacities to elucidate, manipulate and commercially exploit the molecular properties of micro-organisms, plants, animals and other organic raw materials. The story of the life science industries begins with the European synthetic dyestuff firms and culminates in present-day conglomerates like Aventis, Novartis and Pharmacia. Throughout the last century, chemical, pharmaceutical, seed and biotechnology firms were actively involved in reforming patent law and plant variety rights. The major beneficiaries have been the largest firms whose market dominance and influence over peoples' lives - aided by friendly intellectual property laws - has never been greater. This sparkling and stimulating book reveals the key repercussions caused by the expansion of life science industries for issues of international equity, public health, food security and biological diversity.
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Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A Twentieth ...
No preview available - 2003
adopted Agriculture AIPPI benefit biological biopiracy biotechnology breeding Britain British Chapter chemical industry claims commercial competition compulsory licensing corporations courts DBFs developing countries discovery Drahos drugs dyes economic Europe European Patent European Patent Convention example farmers firms gene Genentech German global ibid important Industrial Property innovation Institute intellectual property rights interest groups inventions inventors IP protection IP rights IP system issue Japan legislation London manufacture medicines microorganisms monopoly negotiations Nonetheless oncomouse Organization patent and PBR patent applications patent community patent law Patent Office patent protection patent rights patent system pharmaceutical companies pharmaceutical industry plant breeders Plant Genetic Resources Plant Patent Plant Patent Act political regulatory regulatory capture research and development role scientists sector seed sequence substances synthetic trade Trademark TRIPS Agreement University Press UPOV WIPO World World Trade Organization