Who Is Rational?: Studies of individual Differences in Reasoning
Integrating a decade-long program of empirical research with current cognitive theory, this book demonstrates that psychological research has profound implications for current debates about what it means to be rational. The author brings new evidence to bear on these issues by demonstrating that patterns of individual differences--largely ignored in disputes about human rationality--have strong implications for explanations of the gap between normative and descriptive models of human behavior. Separate chapters show how patterns of individual differences have implications for all of the major critiques of purported demonstrations of human irrationality in the heuristics and biases literature. In these critiques, it has been posited that experimenters have observed performance errors rather than systematically irrational responses; the tasks have required computational operations that exceed human cognitive capacity; experimenters have applied the wrong normative model to the task; and participants have misinterpreted the tasks.
In a comprehensive set of studies, Stanovich demonstrates that gaps between normative and descriptive models of performance on some tasks can be accounted for by positing these alternative explanations, but that not all discrepancies from normative models can be so explained. Individual differences in rational thought can in part be predicted by psychological dispositions that are interpreted as characteristic biases in people's intentional-level psychologies. Presenting the most comprehensive examination of individual differences in the heuristics and biases literature that has yet been published, experiments and theoretical insights in this volume contextualize the heuristics and biases literature exemplified in the work of various investigators.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
A Direct Test ofthe Domain Generality of a Cognitive Decontextualization Skill
CHAPTER8 Has Human IrrationalityBeen Empirically
Questionable Task Interpretations
Education and Normative Rationality
Thinking Dispositions and Decontextualized
An Empirical Study
Other editions - View all
Who Is Rational?: Studies of Individual Differences in Reasoning
Keith E. Stanovich
Limited preview - 1999
algorithmiclevel alternative analysis andthe argued argument evaluation assumption Baron Bayesian behavior chapter choice cognitive ability cognitiveability computational limitations conjunction fallacy consequentialist context correlations Cosmides covariance decontextualization Dennett descriptive models discussed displayed DrinkingAge Problem epistemic Evans evolutionary example experiment experimenter false consensus effect framing effect fundamental computational bias Gigerenzer goals heuristics heuristics and biases hindsight bias human rationality indicates individual differences intentional stance intentionallevel interactional intelligence interpretation inthe irrationality Kahneman Linda Problem Meliorist need for cognition nondeontic nonnormative normative model normative rationality normative response normative/descriptive gap notQ Oaksford ofthe one’s onthe optimal overconfidence overconfidence effect Panglossian participants perfect rationality performance errors predict prescriptive prior belief probability processes Psychology reflective equilibrium SAT scores SAT Total selection task significantly Stanovich and West statistical reasoning subjects sunk costs Syllogisms syllogistic reasoning task System Table task construal tendency thatthe theory thinking dispositions tothe Tversky twotailed understanding/acceptance principle variables variance Wetherick withthe