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will he obtain it, who is not resolved to fight against sin in time coming, and to beware of it, Psal. lxvi. 18. There are two things frightful to a penitent, the guilt of past sin, and the power of sin før the future. He is equally concerned for justification and sanctification. They who separate them, aet hypocritically, and therefore cannot come speed at the throne of grace. They are unreasonable, in that they would be saved from death, and yet lie under the power of the disease. Unchristian, in that they would make Christ the minister of sin, and his pardon a sconce for a sinful life.

2. A pardoned sinner is not past danger. He is in a sickly country; and though he be recovered he is in danger of a relapse. He is still in the field of battle ; and though he is cured of one wound, he will be fair to get another, if the Lord do not shield him. Therefore he is to pray, Forgive our debts ; And lead us not into temptation, &c. Nay, Satan will be most apt to bait the pardoned sinner, Acts xiii. 8.

II. Let us consider the petition itself, in which we pray, That God would either keep us froin being tempted to sin, or support and deliver us when we are tempted. It consists of two parts.

I. The first is for preventing grace, Lead us not into temptation.
II. The second is for assisting grace, But deliver us from evil.
The FIRST is for preventing grace, Lead us not into temptation,
Here I am to shew,
1. What is meant by temptation.
2. What by leading us into temptation.
3. What is the import of this part of the petition.

First, What is meant by temptation? In general, it is a trial made on a man to see what is in him, and what he will do; and so the matter it is designed to bring forth may be good as well as evil. Thus God did tempt Abraham,'* Gen. xxii, 1. But ordinarily it is

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* The author, in his manuscript treatise on Genesis, of which several extracts bare been already given, thus renders and comments on these words : The God bimself; ! he tried Abraham ;' i. e, the true God, and no other, the God who had made him tbe ! promise of Isaac, and fulfilled it, who had promised to establish the covenant with him, and had declared, that in him only, Abraham should be called a seed; even be tried Abraham, and tried him exquisitely, by calling him to sacrifice, that his son, thereby discovering him, and, as it were, opening him out like a banner displayed to public view, whereby his most firm faith in God, and absolute resignation unto him, were laid open to the view of all, to whose knowledge this his trial might at any time

The word by which the trial is expressed, doth never, so far as I have ob. served, signify to entice unto sin. Neither was the thing sin which Abraham was by the trial carried to the very point of accomplishing ; since he had thereto the call of God, who was absolute Lord of the life of Isaac; as of all other men; and might vest whom he would with authority to take it away, as he has vested magistrates in other


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taken in an evil sense; and so it is here meant of temptation to sin,
which is the plying of a man with some engine or other to draw him
into sin. So in teinptation four things are to be considered.

1. The party tempted or liable to temptation.
2. The parties tempting, the black instruments of temptation.
3. The bait wherewith the hook of temptation is busked.
4. The mischievous design.

First, The party tempted, or liable to temptation, viz. ourselves and others, who live in this world of pits and snares, Cant. iv. 8. Those who are in the upper house are beyond the reach of temptation; no hissing serpent is there; they are not within bow-shot of Satan. But here he rangeth up and down, 1 Pet. v. 8. here he has the length of his chain. Adam in paradise was tempted,* and the

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But the matter was so suspicious like, that the infinitely holy Author of the trial is, by the sacred peoman, indicated in the strongest terms, for to cut off all sus. picion of delusion in the case. He tells us, it was the GOD, i. e. the true God; and that word is in effect doubled, 9. d. the true God, even the true God. And after all there is an emphatical stop after it, the GOD; he, &c. So that, with good reason, the force of that term is, with Junius and Termellius, thus expressed, God himself, to the exclusion of all other. Moreover, that term looks backward, q. d. the same who had made so great promises with reference to Isaac; all which were thereby threatened to be quite overthrown and buried in ob'ivion. The word, he tried, is also emphatically pointed to shew it to have been a most exquisite trial, far surpassing all that Abraham bad met with before. Nissah, he tried. It is of the form Phiel, and doth not clearly appear to be used in Kal at all. It notes an attempt, or essay, as David had not tried, viz. to go with Saul's armour, 1 Sam. xvii. 39. whether more full, as God tried Israel, Jud. iii. 1. and the queen of Sheba did Solomon, 1 Kings x. I. or more light, as the delicate woman had not tried the sole of her foot, to set it on the earth, Deut. xxviii. 56. made by some means, as by the nations, Jud. vi. 1. by hard questions, 1 Kings x. I. for discovering and laying open the object to view, as God tried the people, whether they would go in his law or not, Exod. xvi. 4. and Hezekiah, for to know all in his heart, 2 Chron. xxxii. 31. even as a banner displayed is set forth to view, for it is akin to Nasa, to lift up; and to Nasas, whence Nes, a banner or standard. It differs from Bahhan, to prove, as an action incomplete from itself as completed : Nissah, importing only the discovering or laying open of the object; Bahhao, nct only that, but also the judgment formed upon the discovery made. Hence, Psal. xcv. 9. Your fathers tried me: they proved me, &c. From all which, the for. mal notion of Nissah appears to be to try.

The temptation and seduction of our first parents is justly considered as the devil's master-piece, and a most glaring demonstration of that infernal spirit's implacable ma. lice and desperate hatred against God and his innocent creatures. It was at the same time attended with the most interesting consequences to the guilty pair, and their descendants. It may not therefore be improper to give here sevi ral particulars relating to this remarkable event, selected from the author's notes on part of the second and third chapters of Genesis. As the essay on this book was written posterior to this il. lustration, and as these remarks contain many striking and important things concern. ing the grand temptation, and the effects thereof, it was judged expedient to insert

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second Adam too; the one able to have stood, the other one who could not fall. What wonder then that he attack us, in whom he has bosom friends!

Secondly, The parties tempting, the black instruments of temptation.

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them here, though not the most proper place, rather than omit them altogether, as they were not adverted to when the discourses on the fall of our first parents, and on the first sin in particular, vol. i. were printing. And it is presumed, their getting a place in this work will not only be a valuable addition to it, but of no small advantage to the reader, as the extracts undoubtedly contain several observations new and upcommon, and which app ar to have escaped the notice of former commentators, all tending to shew the evil and horrid nature of sin, and the riches of sovereign grace in the salvation of ruined man, discovered to him immediately after his fatal transgres. sion; as well as they afford no mean specimen of the author's learning and skill in sacred criticism.

“Gen. ii. 25. Now they two were naked. Here begins the history of the fall of man; and this should have been the beginning of the third chapter. Though the di. vision into verses is of divine authority, the division into chapters is not so.—The man, and his wife. They were naked, not only in presence of one another, but separately wherever they were.—But they would not have been ashamed of themselves, notwith:tanding of their pakedness. The manner of expression bears, that so it was during the happy state they were in, but that it lasted not, that was soon over, and now is gone.

The distinctive in these words is emphatical, q. d. But they would not have, &c. i. e. they would not at all, in the least, have been, &c. Bosch is to be ashamed. If therefore, it were used in Pib. i. would be to shame, act, as the root in Kal is neuter. Here it is in Hithp. the relative of Pih, and therefore signifies for. mally to shame one's self. It is no where else used in this form, which is here purposely chosen, not only to intimate that our shame ariseth from a certain secret motion within our own breasts, but also, and chiefly, in opposition to Satan's endeavouring to shame them, on the account of their nakedness, which will appear by the sequel.

Gen. iii. 1. “ And the serpent was subtile, from every wild beast of the field; which Jehovah God had made, i. e. And the old serpent the devil, was subtile, nicely observing, and artfully improving, what might make for his mischevious design agaiast mankind; and in his attack he argued subtilely, from the state and case of the wild beasts; every one of which he observed to have been made covered, none of them paked, though not of an erect posture, as man was; and withal that they were left to range up and down in the field, at their pleasure. So Satan pitching upon the case of the wild beasts, as the great engine for the ruin of mankind, to be made effectual for that purpose by a comparison instituted, with hellish subtilty, between it and the case of our first parents, found in it a double topic, which he improved to the actual ruining of them, and of all their posterity in their loins. The first of these was the nakedness of our first parents, while the wild beasts were all covered and created so.

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. kedness, he would persuade them, was shameful and indecent; and that the wild beasts were in that respect in better case than they. This was the first temptation, as Moses shews us in these words, making up the first hemistich of this verse. And this is the plain literal sense of the words, as thus pointed. Compare Job xxxv. 11. • Teaching us, from beasts of earth : and from flying things of the heavens, &e'; with which compare chap. xii. 7. • Come now ask thou beasts, and it i. e. every one of

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1. The grand tempter is the devil, Matth. iv. 3. He was an angel of light, but is now turned to a tempting devil. An apostate from God, for whom there is no hope ; and being God's irreconcileable enemy, goes about withdrawing men from their allegiance to

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them) will teach thee: and Asing thing of the heavens; and it will tell to thee.' Ac. cordingly the context doth not obscurely intimate the nakedness of our first parents to have been the first topic Satan made uve of in his attack on them. God himself asks Adam, ver. 1). Who told him of his nakedness? which is no obscure indication, that the devil told them of it. Nowes takes notice, ver. 7. that after eating of the forbidden fruit, their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked, really needing clothes to bide their shame, wbich Satan would have persuaded them they were in need of before, and which they could not see while they stood in their integrity, there being really no such thing as the tempter alleged. Thus the connection is natural : • The two were naked.' — And the serpent was subtile from the wild beasts of the field, to improve their case against the naked pair. This is confirmed from the words used by the inspired penman. He tells us, chap. ii. ult. They two were Gnarummim (naked), and here the serpent was Gnarum (subtile). Thus, also the last clause, which Jehovah God had made affords a more efñcacious seose than otherwise, viz. being un. derstood, not of God's making them simply, but of making them covered. And here. unto titly agrees the Lord's clothing the sinful naked pair, with the skins of beasts ; which was a humbling memorial to them of the spring of their ruin. Nahhasch the serpent. Whether it is from the verb Nahhasch, or the verb is from it, is all a case in this point. But the verb does import, subtile observation, learning by ob-ervation; particularly it is used of observing omens, chap. xxx. 27. and xliv. 45. 2 Kings xxi. 6. And since Nahhasch is not the only name of the serpent in Hebrew, it would seem that primarily and originally it was the name of the devil, the old serpent, given him from this fatal event, and communicated to that animal, as having been the instrument of the devil in this mischief. Gnarum, subtile ; for the word is indifferent, either to good, as Prov. xii. 16, 23. or evil, as Job v. 12. Now, it is true the Hebrew forms its comparative phrases, by the preposition from, which in that case may be rendered above, as Judg. xi. 25. Good, good, Cart] thou; from (i. e. above) Balak, i. e. [Art] thou better, better; than Balak ? So Prov, viii. U. lag. ii 9. Eccl. iv. 9. and vii, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8. Isa liv. 1. Psal. cxviii, 8, 9. Prov. xxv. 7. But the comparative sense cannot be admitted here. For, (1.) The reading offered is the primary and literal one, therefore not without necessity to give place to another. (2.) The comparative phrase is eliptical. And no ellipsis is to be admitted without neces. sity neither. (3.) The word from all, doth not immediately relate to the adjective subtile, but to the substantive verb was, as the principal word of the part referred 10 : so the construction is not, The serpent was subtile ; [subtile] from, &c. but, The serpent was subtile; she was so] from, &c. If the comparative phrase had been de. signed, I conceive the adjective would have been set b'fore the substantive verb; that so it might have related immediately to the word from-all: thus, The serpent subtile was; from, &c. i. e. subtile from, that is more subtile than. And in all the above cited tests, bearing the comparative phrase, the adjective is so posted; being either the only or the first, word of the clause, or part of the clause, in which it is found : by which situation it plainly relates to the word that hath the proposition — ' And he said unto the woman, then, bow hath God said, Ye shall not eat of all, tree of the garden? The phrase not all is used for not any. Thus the woman understood it, as

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their sovereign Lord. He is an expert tempter; and has now had the experience of several thousand years in the hellish trade. He has his devices for entrapping poor mortals, and knows how to suit his temptations, as they may best take.

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appears from the following verse. And so Satan was a liar, in the strietest sense from the beginning. Here is the second topic Satan made use of, viz. the resiraint our first parents were laid under in respect of their food, while the wild beasts were at liberty in that point. In what words be proposed this second temptation, is here recorded; though his speech on the first is not But that he did speak on this mischievous design, and unto the woman too, before he uttered the words bere recorded, the text itself doth plainly intimate. The wori's, Then bow q. d. More than that, in the next place, shew that there was a foregoing speech he bad to her. Accordingly the text saith, He said unto the woman, q. d. unto the woman unto the woman ; i. e. be said unto the woman words agreeable to the narration foregoing, and he said unto the woman the words following. Accordingly the word He-said, is by the distinctive ft. ted to be constructed after this manner. Comp. 2 Sam. xi. 8. And said David to Uriah; Go down to thy house. And it is generally owned, that Aph ki, the first words of the devil which are here recorded, is never pat in the beginning of a speech : and that some words of the templer did go before these. I conceive, then, the boly text itself intimates to us, that the devil in the serpent spoke to the woman to this purpose. 'What can be the design of God in this? How is it, that when every wild beast of the field hath a covering put upon it by his own hand, though they do withal look downward; yet ye are naked, and that in an erect posture, in the which there is a shameful indecency, that ye would manifestly see if your eyes were opened: Then, in the next place, How is it, that, whereas they are at full liberty, in the open fields, ranging up and down at their pleasure, eating freely whatever is before them, ye are under a notable restraint as to your food, that ye may not eat of any tree of the gar. den?' Thus food and raiment were early snares to mankind.

Ver. 2. · And the woman said unto the serpent: of the fruit of the trees of the gar. den, we may eat.” Thus she repels this temptation, directly contradicting what Satan advanced concerning the restrain: laid on them as to their food : and she also bad repelled the other, con ing unashamed of her pakedness.

Ver. 3. “But of the fruit of the tree wbich [is] in the midst of the garden." This part of the woman's answer is elliptical : and the ellipsis is of that sort, which is caused by horror arising from the subject mentioned, q. d. “ But of the fruit of the tree which [is] in midst of the garden! Supply, for the sense, we may not eat, of it 'tis said lest ye die.” The last member of this verse, by the pointing, refers to both the preceding: and that points us to the latter part of the words understood, as the foregoing words, to the former part of them, “ God has said, Ye shall not eat, of it; and shall not touch on it, viz. the fruit of the forbidden tree.” They were forbidden, not only to eat of it, but even to touch it at all, though never so lightly. From these words, directed to a plurality of persons, it appears that God repeated, in the hearing of Adam and Eve together, the law concerning the forbidden fruit, together with the grant of the fruit of the rest of the trees of the Garden ; and consequently, that Ere had the revelation of the divine will and pleasure, in this matter, from the mouth of God himself. And the repetition of this law and grant, which were first given to Adam alone, chap. ii. 16, 17. seems to have been made at the solemnity of God's bringing in the woman to the man : for it natively takes place, in connection with

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