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chap. v11.] . OF THE FIRST SABBATH. - 117

: :reasonings, we may justly reckon the tree of knowledge among the sacraments of the covenant of works. ". to . . . .

. . .

of the First salian

I. We said, that the first Sabbath was the fourth sacre.
ment of the covenant of works. In order to treat somewhat
more fully on this, it will not be improper to make it the
subject ya whole chapter: Moses gives us the history of it,
Gen. ii. 2, 3, in these words: “And on the seventh day
God ended his work, which he had made; and he rested on
the seventh day from all his work, which he had made:
and God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because
that in it he had rested from all his work, which God. created
and made.” The more fully to understand these words, and
from them to answer our design, we shall distinctly discuss
these three things: 1st. Enquire, whether what is here said
about sanctifying and blessing the seventh day, ought to be
applied to that first day, which immediately followed u
the six days of the creation, and which was the first t
shone on the works of God when completed; or whether it
be necessary to have recourse to a prolepsis, or anticipation,
by which we may look upon those things as spoken of the
day on which many ages after the manna was given in the
wilderness. 2dly. We shall explain the nature of that first
Sabbath. 3dly. and lastly, Point out in what respect it was a
Sacrament. . . . • * *
II. There is no occasion to mention, that the first of these
points has been matter of great dispute among divines, with-
out coming to any determination to this day; nor do I choose
to repeat what they have said; I shall only observe, that
perhaps the parties might easily agree, did we know what we
are to understand by sanctifying and blessing the seventh day,
mentioned by Moses, and which we shall presently consider.
But if we suppose in o that God rested on seventh
day from his work, ". is, not .*.*.*. creating”
new ies of creatures, but iesce complacency”
in o. which he had o finished, especially in man, so
who was formed after his image, and furnished with those
faculties, by which he was enabled to acknowledge, and ce- . .
lebrate the perfections of God, shining forth in his works; 3
and that he set this his resting before man as a pattern, by


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118 of the First sabbath. [book 1.

which he should be taught to acquiesce in nothing but in God,
for whom he was created, o in nothing but in glo-
rifying God, which is the end of his creation; moreover, that
he sanctified this day, of which we are speaking, by command-
ing it to be employed by man for that sacred work, adding a
romise, that . that time, thus employed by man, should be
{j blessed to him: if I say, we thus in general suppose, as *
all these things are evidently truth, there is good hope, that
all equitable judges will allow that we adhere to the simplicity
of the letter, and interpret this history of Moses as the narra-
tive of a thing done at that time, which the holy Prophet was
then describing.
III. I am glad to find the celebrated Cocceius assents to this.
His words are these, on Gen. ii. § 6. “Some imagine, that
this verse (namely 3.) is put by way of anticipation.—But
it is not probable that Moses, in recording this blessing and
sanctification, did by no means speak concerning the original
Sabbath, but only concerning the Jewish Sabbath. This is
plainly doing violence to the text, if one day be understood,
which God blessed and sanctified, and another on which he
rested from his work.” And the very eloquent Burman,
though inclining to an anticipation, yet owns, that “the
words of Moses may be understood of that perpetual Sabbath,
the seventh day after the creation, which first saw the works
of God, perfected, and most auspiciously shone on the world;
whence it is said to be peculiarly blessed by God, and after-
wards to be celebrated and sanctified by man, for all ages to
come.” Synops. Theol. lib. 2. c. 5. § 11. See the same author;
deaconomia faderum Dei, $208,209. We shall say no more
on this, as we could rather wish to see the orthodox agreeing
among themselves, than contending with one another. And
indeed this must be acknowledged, if we would properly ex-
plain, in what manner this Sabbath was a sacrament of the co-
venant of works. -
IV. The best Hebrew authors, on whose authority those of
the opposite opinion are wont to build upon, agree with us
in this dispute. For in the Talmud they enquire, “why man
was created on the evening of the Sabbath,” and of the three -
reasons they give, this is the last; “ that he might immediately
enter on performing the command.” The famous Ludovicus
de Dieu, mentioning these words, on Gen. i. 27, adds by way
of explication; “for, since the Sabbath immediately succeeded
the creation of man, he immediately entered on the command
of sanctifying the Sabbath.” Baal Hatturim, after various in-
terpretations of this passage, also subjoins this other; “in the

chap. vii.] OF THE FIRST SABBATH". 119

hour, that he created the world, he blessed the Sabbath and the world.” Jarchi also mentions this opinion, though himself was otherwise minded; “what would the world have been without rest; on the coming of the Sabbath came rest, and

thus at length the work was finished and completed.” By

which he intimates, that the institution of the Sabbath was
joined to the completing of the works of God. There are.
also some Jews, who will have Psal. xcii, whose title is, “a
Psalm or Song for the Sabbath-day,” to have been composed
by Adam. For thus the Chaldee paraphrases: “a Hymn and
Song, which the first man said of the Sabbath.” And R. Levi
in Bereschit Rabba, sect. 22. at the end : “the first man spoke
this Psalm, and from his time it was buried in oblivion, but
Moses came and renewed it.” . Now I bring these testimonies
to shew that they speak too confidently who assert that it is
running counter to the unanimous opinion of the Jews, for any
to insist that the precept of the Sabbath was enjoined on the
first man. Whoever wants more to this purpose, may consult
Selden de jure nature, &c. lib. 3. c. 13. - - . . .
V. These things supposed, we are further to enquire in
what the nature of the first Sabbath did consist. Here again
the learned run into very different opinions. I now take it to
be my province, to ji. such propositions, to which it is
to be hoped that the orthodox, who are lovers of truth, will
without difficulty give their assent. to * * -
VI. We are to distinguish first between the rest of God,
and the rest of man, which God enjoined upon him, and re.
commended by his own example: in this manner also, Paul
distinguishes, Heb. iv. 10. “he also hath ceased from his own
works, as God did from his.” . . . . .”
VII. The rest of God consisted, not only in his ceasing from
the work of any new creation, but also in that sweet satisfac-
tion and delight he had in the demonstration of his own at-
tributes and perfections, which were gloriously displayed in
the work he had now finished, especially after he had added a
lustre to this inferior world, by bestowing upon it 2-most
excellent inhabitant, who was to be a careful spectator, and the
herald and proclaimer of the perfections of his Creator, and
in whom God himself beheld souxgoy rion; aurs aravyagua, no
small effulgence of his own glory. Wherefore it is said, Exod.
xxxi. #. ** and % the seventh day he rested, and was refresh-
ed;" not as if he was fatigued, but as rejoicing in his work so
happily completed, and in which he beheld what was worthy of
#. - ... . . . . . . . . . .
VIII. God having rested on the seventh day, sanctified it,

120 OF THE FIRST SABBATH. [sook 1.

as well by example as by precept. By example, in as much as he brought man, whom he had newly formed to the contemplation of his works, and revealed to him both himself and his perfections, that he might love, thank, praise, and glorify him. And indeed, because God rested on the seventh day from all other works, and was only intent upon this, we may conclude, that he sanctified it in a most extraordinary manner. He likewise sanctified it by precept, enjoining man to employ it in glorifying his Creator, “To sanctify, (as Martyr, whom several commend, says well,) is to set apart something for the worship of God,” as it is also taken here. And it was very justly observed by Calvin, that it was the will of God, his own example should be a perpetual rule to us. Rabbenu Nissim, quoted by Abarbanel, on the explication of the law, fol. 21. col. 3. is of the same opinion: “ and this is the sanctification of the Sabbath, that on that day, the soul of man low- on nothing profane, but wholly on things sa

IX. God's blessing the seventh day may be also taken in a twofold sense: First, for his declaring it to be blessed and happy, as that in which he had peculiar pleasure to enjoy, by observing all his works in such order as to be, not only to himself, but to angels as well as men, a most beautiful scene, displaying the glory of his perfections. This is what David says, Psal civ. 18. “the glory of the Lord shall endure for ever, the Lord shall rejoice in his works.” Thus, God himself rejoiced on that day, and consequently blessed it. For, as to Curse a o is to abhor and detest it, as unfortunate and unhappy, as afflictive and miserable, Job ii. 14. Jer. xx. 14. so, by the rule of contraries, to bless a day is to rejoice in it, as delightful and prosperous. And indeed, what day more joyful, more happy, than that which saw the works of God perfected, and yet not stained by any sin either of angels or probably of men? There has been none like it since that time, certainly not since the £ntrance of sin. Secondly, It was also a part of the blessing of this day, that God adjudged to man, if he religiously imitated the pattern of his own rest, the most ample blessings, and likewise in that very rest, the earnest of a most happy rest in heaven; of which more fully presently. Elegantly said the ancient Hebrew doctors that the “blessing and sanctifying the Sabbath redound to the observers thereof, that they may be blessed and holy themselves.”

X. The rest here enjoined and recommended to man, comprises chiefly these things: in general, that he shall abstain

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chap. vii.] of THE First sabbath. #2I

from every sin, through the whole course of his life, that giving nothing but uneasiness, both to himself and his God. As the Lord complains, Isa. xliii.22, “thou hast been weary of me, O Israel,” and ver. 24. “ thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities.” 'sinning, we dreadfully transgress against the rest of God, who cannot delight in a sinner, of whom and his work he says, Isa. i. 14. “they are a burthen to me, *I am weary to bear them.” But more especially, it is likewise man's duty, that as he is the concluding part of the works of God, and the last of all the creatures, that came out of the hands of his Creator, not so to harass and fatigue himself about the creatures, as to seek his happiness and good in them, but rather, by a holy elevation of mind, ascend to the Creator himself, and acquiesce in nothing short of the enjoyment of his unbounded goodness, of the imitation of the purest holiness, and of the expectation of the fullest rest, and intimate union with his God. ... This indeed is the true and spiritual rest, always to be meditated upon, sought after, and to be observed by man. * - . * - , * * * XI. Moreover, as man, even in the state of innocence, was to perform solemn acts of piety, together with his consort and children, and to be their mouth in prayer, thanksgiving, and praises; it was necessary, at that time, that laying aside all other occupations, and all cares about what related to the support of natural life, and ordering those about him to rest, he might, without any hindrance from the body, religiously apply himself to this one thing: which I hope none of my

brethren will refuse. At least the celebrated Cocceius readily

allows it. , Whose words are these, Sum. Theol. c. 21. § 10. “It is right in itself, and a part of the image of God, that man should, as often as possible, employ himself in the worship of God, (that is, laying aside the things pertaining to the bod and its conveniencies, be wholly taken up in those duties whi become a soul delighting in God, so. him and celebrating his praise,) and that too in the public assembly, for the common joy and edification of all. * XII. After man had sinned, the remembrance of God's resting and sanctifying the seventh day, ought to rouse him from his slowness and dulness, in the worship of God, in order to spend every seventh day therein, laying aside, for a while, all other employment. But it will be better to explain this in Calvin's words: “God therefore first rested, and then he bless

* N. B. This is not to be understood, as if the blessed God could be wearied,

but only that if such a thing was possible, sin is of such a malignant nature, that

it would do it. --- * * * *.

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