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good and evil; after he had presented to him the beasts in Paradise, that, upon enquiring into the nature of each (which - also he performed with great accuracy, as the great Bochart has very learnedly shewn, Hierozoic. lib. i. e. 9) he might call each by their proper names; after Adam had found there was not among them any help meet for him, for the purposes and convenience of marriage; and after God had east Adam into a deep sleep, and then at last formed Eve from one of his ribs. All these things are not of a nature to be performed like the other works of the preceding days, in the shortest space of time possible, and as it were, in a moment; but succeeded one another in distinct periods, and during these, several things must have been done by Adam himself. Nay, there are divines of no small note, who insist that these things were not all done in one day, and others postpone the creation of Eve to one of the §: of the following week: but we do not now engage in these disputes. After all these things the world was yet innocent, and free from all guilt, at o least on the part of man. “And God contemplating his works, . and concluding his day, approved of all as ve and beautiful. #. #. o: #. world, which would have been no ways inferior to the work of the creation. But what probability is there, that in those - very few hours which remained, if yet a single hour remained, Adam should have parted from Eve, who had been just created, exposed his most beloved consort to an insidious serpent, and that both of them, just from the hands of the Creator, should so suddenly have given ear to the deceiver? Unless one is prepossessed in favour of the contrary opinion, f what reason could he have, notwithstanding so many probabilities to the contrary, prematurely thus to hurry on Adam's sin P. Since therefore the whole of this foundation is so very weak, what solid superstructure can we imagine it is capable of Po. oo is of , o, : ' ' ... ... o. o. 3 o * - XXII. Let us now take a nearer view of the su . rture itself, and examine whether its construction be sufficiently P- firm and compact. The very learned person imagines he sees # * {

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i

a new labour, or work on the seventh day, and a new rest
succeeding that labour, which is the foundation of the Sab-
bath. The labour was a promise of the Messiah, by which

- the world, miserably polluted with sin, was to be restored; * * and that Moses treats on this, chap. ii. 2. “ and on the se

d - venth day God ended his work, which he had made.” The rest was the satisfaction and delight he had in that promise, and in the Messiah promised. But let us offer the following

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I28 OF THE FIRST, SABBATH. [Book 1,

considerations in opposition to this sentiment: 1st. If God, on the seventh day, performed the immense work of recovering the world from the fall, a work, which if not greater, yet certainly is not less than the creation of the world out of nothing, and he was again to rest when he had finished it, certainly then, the seventh day was as much a day of work to God, and no more a Sabbath, or day of rest, than any of the preoc'ing days. For God having finished the work of each day, rested for a while and delighted in it. 2dly. Moses in the second verse makes use of the same word by which he had expressed, the finishing of the world in the first. But the jinishing in the first verse, as the learned person himself owns, relates to the finishing of the creation ; what necessity then can there be for giving such different senses to one and the same word, in the same context, when there is not the least mark of distinction. 3dly. Hitherto Moses has not given the least imaginable hint of the fall of our first parents: is it then probable that he would so abruptly mention the restitution of the world from the fall; and that in the very same words which he had just used, and was afterwards to use for explaining the first creation? What can oblige, or who can suf. fer us to confound the neatness of Moses' method, and the rspicuity of his words, by this feigned irregularity, and amguity? . It may be doubted, whether we can properly say, that by the promise of the Messiah all things were perfected and finished; since God, if we follow the thread of Moses’ narrative, did, after this promise, punish the world with a deserved curse: and the apostle still says of the world, that “the creature was made subject to vaulty, and groans under the bondage of corruption,” Rom. viii. 20, 21. It is indeed true that the promise of the Messiah, which could not be frus. trated, was the foundation of the comfort of the fathers; but the scripture no where declares, that by this promise, as immediately made after the fall, all things were finished, nay, even this promise pointed out that person, who after many ages, and by various acts, not of one and the same office, was to effect the true consummation. XXIII. Our learned author urges the following reasons why those two finishings are not to be looked upon as the same : 1st. It would be a tautology, if not an inercusable battology, or idle repetition, in such a compendious narrative; and either the first verse, or the beginning of the second, would be superfluous. 2dly. The finishing or ending of verse 2. is annexed to the seventh day, by a double article in the same manner as the rest is. “And on the very seventh day

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God ended his work which he had made, and her on the * very seventh day from all his works which he: * **5

So that if the former verb how be rendered by the preterpl
perfect, and he had ended, the latter navn must be.

so too, and he had resteds, but this is incongruous. Nay,
since on the other days we reject the ..o.o.
last the works of the following day should be referredo,
those of the preceding, - - h;3 it oughk.
not then here to be admitted on the seventh-dayo
When the third-verseshews the cause of this rest, it
of distinct finishings, the latter of which is that of the saweath
day, “and God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, be:
cause that in it he had rested from all his work, which God

! | :

- chap. vii.] of THE FIRST SABBATH.

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- aris created and made”. By two verbs he describes two ac

tions; * denotes to greats, and rowy, to adorn, to poliths, o these words are frequently of the same yet when join . ed together they are to be distinguished, as is owned not

- only by Christian, but by Jewish interpreters. (Thus it is, Isa. xliii. 7. where another word is added, Fixt?, to form, and, as to all the three, tria certainly signities, the creation of the : soul, but ox", the formation of the body, and nwy, reforms”,

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the six preceding days, 4thly. To the same purpose is recapitulation of verse 4, which repeats and confirms the dio i tinction just now mentioned: “these are the generations - heavens and of the earth, when they were created; in th o that the Lord God, made the earth and the heavens.” Thus o be recites the generations both of the first six days, (in wh - the heavens and the earth, with their respective hosts, created) and of the beginning of that one day.” seventh, which is that of operation, in which polished, inverting the order; first the earth, vens. Thus far our very learned author, so fox IV. But we cannot assent to these things, fore we answer each in order.o. To the first, I would

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* 130 of THE FIRsr sabbath. *[Book 1.

words, at no great distance asunder. This very second chap

ter of Genesis, of which we now treat, gives us various exam

o. of o 3. reason of the sanctification of the seventh day, namely, the rest of God upon that day, is proposed in nearly the same words, in the second, and third verses... This

learned person himself calls the fourth verse a recapitulation of

what was just said.” And what is the whole of the second chap

ter, but a fuller explication of the formation of man, which indeed we have plainly, but more briefly related in the first chapter, or the whole of the second, is in a t measure, su

uous?, Or, shall we dare to charge of. tautologies, if not with inexcusable battologies P. Is it not more becoming

to tremble with awe at his words, and rather return him thanks,

that on account of the dulness of our apprehension, he has vouchsafed, to propose two or three times the same truths,

either in the same; or in a variety of words, having all the same

meaning? For my own part I would act in this manner without
any doubt of acting as becomes. ... -* - '...
XXV. To the second, I would answer. 1st. The words
of Moses may be taken in this sense; namely, that God
finished the work of the sixth day, and consequently of all the
six days, in the very moment in which the seventh began.
Thus the ancient: Hebrews, and, after them, R. Solomon, ex-
plains this manner of speaking; as thereby to intimate that
{}od, in the very moment in which he entered on the Sabbath,
finished his work; for God alone knows the moments and
least parts of time in another manner than men do. 2dly.
Nor is it an improper observation of Aben Ezra, that the
finishing of the work is not the work itself, but only means
the ceasing from work, and that the text explains itself thus;
and he finished, that is, and he rested; having finished his
work, he worked no longer. 3dly. But we need not insist
on this: Drusius' speaks to excellent purpose on this place:
“The E. Hebrew may be as well rendered by the
reterpluperfect as otherwise. It is really so: ; the Hebrews
j only one joi. which they use for every kind
of past time; and therefore according to the connection, it
may be rendered sometimes by the preterperfect, and at other
times by the preterpluperfect.” Let it therefore be rendered
here by the preterpluperfect, and he had finished, as the
Dutch translation has also done, and all the difficulty will
disappear. Our learned author may insist, that if this be
granted, then the following navy must be also rendered by
the preter luperfect. But it does not follow ; for we are to
consider the nature of the subject and the different circum-
stances. The learned person insists, that the word finishing,

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such an interpretation is contrary tooth
Which not being the case here, such are:
I will only add, if Moses wanted to say, wi
has said, et consummaveral die ima;i&c.
and on the seventh, God had finished, &c. and re.
he possibly have expressed in other words, or:

cording to the genius of the language, this s

learned person himself to render into Heb
these Latin words, he would certainly have
the same tense and mood, as Moses has done.o.
of XXVI. To the third reason, Ireply, 1st. The wo
is very general, and signifies, to do a thing anyhow
It is said of penal or physical evil, Amos iv. 18.
the morning darkness; and Ezek.oxxxvii.
(make) thee unto blood. And of morale
the morning is light they practise it; we sh
stances presently. Hence it appears, that:
too much restricts the meaning of this wo

it by the words, tead. r polish: e. -
precisely confine it to t
same wordis often expre
31, and God saw all tha

o 3dly. o * * * Christian and Jewish s when joined together;

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