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eHAP. vii.I.] CHRIST's satisfaction. 247

Jesus our Lord underwent. In a word, if, for the display of
that right, he might at times inflict such grievous torments, yet
he would withhold his hand from his most beloved and only
Son in whom he so clearly testified that he was well pleased. }

W. To insist upon it, that the whole of this affair was other-
wise ordered by the arbitrary will of God, for confirming the
saving doctrine of Christ, by this exemplary m om, is
contrary both to reason, scripture, and experience. For God
had many other means, of a far more easy nature, by which he
could confirm the doctrine of salvation, than by the dreadful
passion of his beloved Son. And the scripture shews us, that
this was done by Christ's miracles accompanying his most ef-
fectual preaching: and the native demonstration of the truth,
shewed the divinity of his doctrine. By these things he approv-
ed himself to John's disciples, Matt. xi. 5. and even to the
whole multitude, Luke vii. 16. and John vi. 14. and lastly, we
gather both from scripture and experience, that the cross of
Christ was “unto the Jews a stumbling-block, and unto the
Greeks foolishness, 1 Cor. i. 23. ...}}

WI. Nor are we to say, it was necessary we should be taught in so laborious a manner, or even by the very example of the Son of God, that it is through man to: We are; to enter into the kingdom of heaven. #. if nothing else was intended, we might have been sufficiently taught all this by the examples of other martyrs. And then further, there is scarce one in a thousand of those who are saved, who, in the way to salvation, secluding the curse of God, have been called to stiffer so many dreadful and great indignities as Christ did. "Why then were we all to be taught, by the example of the Son of God, that the gate of heaven is, on no other terms open, but by passing through those hard sufferings? Unless we say, that satisfaction was made to the justice of God by the o of Christ, and that in no other way satisfaction could be . thereto; there can no other just, #. , and wise reason, and worthy of God, be ever assigned for $. Certainly, for my own part, I never remember to have heard of any. of VII. If any affirm, that no satisfaction was necessary on ae-... . count of the justice of God, but that he exacted it on account of some other perfections, namely, to declare his power and will o punish sin, which he might suffer to go unpunished: I answer, such power and will are scarcely to be called perfections in God; seeing Christ, Matt, v.45, 48 reckons God's mercy, suffering, and bounty towards men, even the unjust, amonghi perfections. Which would certainly be most laudable, if go

, at pleasure, let sin go unpunished that impunit

could 34.

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248 of THE NEcEssity or ... [Book 11.

was no ways, inconsistent with his most holy nature. Nay, if God can, consistent with his highest glory, not punish sin, it

might be queried whether he can consistent with this inflict punishment at all; because, in that case, he seems to afflict the

sinner without a reason, and ill-treat the work of his hands.
But to do anything without a reason, can on no account be for
'the honour of God. * ***.*.*... . . . . to:* , - . . . . . .
VIII. Perhaps, some will judge it the safest course not to in-
, trude into the depths of the unsearchable wisdom, and infinite
power of God, and to say, God indeed was pleased for wise and
good reasons, though known to himself alone, on no other terms,
to set us at liberty, but by the satisfaction of his Son: but yet
could, in a far different way bring us to salvation, nay, and re-
deem us by a word or sign. ...And indeed, the great Augustine
formerly spoke in this strain, de agone Christiano: “ could
have done all things, had he so willed: but did not, and that for
wise reasons, though unknown and incomprehensible to us: but
though he had done otherwise, yet he would equally have dis-
pleased your folly.” And again, de Trinitate, lib. 13. c. 12,
“Let us maintain, that this method, by which God sees proper to
deliver us, by a mediator between §and man, the man Christ
Jesus, is perfectly good and for the honour of God: but also let
us acknowledge that God was at no loss for his power; but yet
none was more adapted to deliver us from our misery, o:
was, any necessary.” I am certainly much, pleased with that
extreme modesty by which we dare not determine any thing
rashly concerning the reasons and ends of the actions of God;
and judge inconsiderately about his ways, because there is that
o: in them, the reasons whereof our ignorance cannot unfold; nay,
which seems, to our presumptuous folly, to be against reason.
But when we are able to know and give such reasons for the
divine conduct, as tend to set the glory of his adorable justice,
wisdom, holiness, and goodness in the clearest light; it is no
longer modesty, but rather tends to darken the glory of the per-
fections of God, not to acknowledge them; which is the case
here. The reason why God, willing to save elect sinners, chose
to do it by the satisfaction of his Son, is because in his wisdom,
he saw no other way, by which satisfaction could be made to his
essential holiness and justice. And by affirming this, we dero-
gate nothing from the power of God, who doubtless cannot but
act agreeably to his holiness and justice: and we admirably pro-
claim his wisdom, which found a means, which appeared im-
' possible to every created understanding, whereby satisfaction
might be made to his justice; and the sinner, consistently with
his holiness, be saved. In order the more clearly to illustrate,
and, at the same time, the more firmly to establish all this, let us

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a tion was “a declaration of the righteousness of God,” Röm.

chap. vi.11.] chaist's SATISFAction. 249

attentively consider, what the scripture declares concerning the impulsive and final cause of giving Christ. * : . . . . . . . . . IX. The sacred writers on several occasions, inculcate, that God's not sparing his own proper Son, but giving him to us; and delivering him up to death for us, was the effect of his una love to mankind, John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8, 1 John iv. I0. But if we could be saved any other way, than by the suf. ferings of the Son of God, theslove of God would not shine with such lustre in that method. For love is truly great, and inexpressible to the last degree, when implacable justice having demanded the punishment of mankind, God's love to man, .# free purpose of salvation, have nevertheless prevailed, by finding out for that end, in the treasures of divine wisdom, an amazing method of reconciling justice with mercy; but it was such as could have no effect, without giving up the most beloved Son to the most cruel torments for us. But if, without any prejudice to justice, our salvation could be procured many other ways than this, and even by a single word or nod, what ardency of love was there in his giving the Son? It would certainly have been an instance of a very singular and notable mercy to have forgiven our sins. But to have effected this b the death of his Son, when without any urgent necessity, wit equal advantage he could have scattered our sins, some other more compendious way, by a nod or sign, as some affirm, wh is that urged by Christ and his apostles as an argument of . inconceivable love? o o X. The apostle declares, that the end of Christ's satigoe,

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iii. 25. “Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation

(propitiatory mercy-seat) through faith in his blood, usion or; analosing ore to declare his righteousness.” God set

his Son both to himself delighting in him, Isa. xlii. 1. as havii
appointed him, in his eternal counsel, to be the Mediator; sh
viewing him as thus appointed; and to us, placing him in
open view, and setting him on a throne of grace and glory, in the
sight of all. He set him forth as a propitiation (popitial
mercy-seat); where the apostle alludes to the cover -
ark of the covenant, called Üxasrārjoy the prop rty-seat: .
signifying that by which God was reconciled to men, in which
he dwells and rests, and from which he gives gracious answers.
Moreover, it is not called the propitiatory inergy-seat; unless it
be sprinkled with blood, o idous by otho That is

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wo. anere translate Pacaeiro anatonement; ito Christ, because he is §. sacrifice to be which coming in the room of the guilty, was to iment, and not only merit their #. from

Fo hut reconcile God, who before was offended, satisaction being made to vindictive justice by this vicarious punishment. But, to what purpose was all this?" To declare the righteousness of God, 31& rá, region for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God.” God had so passed by, and not punished the sins of believers in former times, that notwithstanding these, he called them to enter upon the heavenly inheritance. But it was necessary to shew, that this was done without any injury to the justice of God. Now it is evident,

that no satisfaction was made to divine justice, either by the

ntance of believers, or the typical of sacrifices, or by, i. sprinkled on the ...: It was to: necessary, that the righteousness of God should be manifested, in the propitiation and blood of Christ; by which was plainly shewn that God, agreeably to his justice, suffers not the sins of any to go unpunished. But if God, withoutinjury to his justice, without any difficulty and trouble, and without a satisfaction, canopardon sins, the whole appears to have been an empty shew,

and by no means worthy of God, without any . to apwith such terrible majesty in the most cruel death of his

most beloved Son. Which being so horrid to think of, we con-

clude from this discourse of Paul, that it was not possible but
God must punish sin, unless he intended to set forth Christ as .
so so declare his righteousness: because not to *

sim without a propitiatory atonement, would be a disap.

probation of divine justice. For, when justice is not manifested,

it is dissapproved of; especially in this grand work of our sal-
vation....For so God himself speaks, Isa. lvi. 1, “My salvation
is near to come, and my righteousness to be *
*XI. Some perhaps will say, that the righteousness of God
here means, as in other places, his veracity and constancy in

ing his promises; the apostle only intending, o: therefore set forth his Son to be a propitiation, in order to fulfil his prophecies and promises, and thus shewed himself just, that is faithful... But it is quite otheroise, for the righteousness of God here denotes that rectitude by which, according to his law, by inflicting condign punishment, he discovers the demerit of sin, and his hatred to it, and how unbecoming it is for him to have fellowship with the sinner at the expence of his own glory. And that this is the meaning is plain,” because the apostle

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