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chap. ix.] FOR WHOM CHRIST SATISF1E1). 257

preached to every creature, that gross idolatry is abolished in
many parts of the world, that wicked impiety is much re-
strained by the discipline of the word of God, that they ob-
tain at times many and excellent, though not saving gifts of
the holy Spirit, that “they have escaped the pollutions of the
world, through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ,” 2 Pet. ii. 20. And who can in short enumerate all
those things which they enjoy, not through accident only, and
beside the intention of God, and of Christ, but by the appoint-
ment of God? Not indeed with a design and purpose of saving
them according to the Testament; but from a view to make
known his long-suffering towards the vessels of wrath, that is,
those who are to perish, who dwell among those who are to be
saved. For nothing falls out by accident with respect to the
intention of God; every thing being according to his determi-
nate counsel.
W. 4thly. That the obedience and sufferings of Christ are
of such worth, that all, without exception, who come to him,
may find perfect salvation in him: and it was the will of God,
that this truth should, without distinction, be proposed both
to them that are to be saved, and to them that are to perish;
with a charge not to neglect so great salvation, but to repair to
Christ with true contrition of soul; and with a most sincere
declaration, that all who come to him shall find salvation in
him, John vi. 40. -
WI. 5thly. That, however, Christ, according to the will of
God the Father, and his own purpose, did neither engage nor
satisfy, and consequently in no manner die, but only for all
those whom the Father gave him, and who are actually saved.
This is that truth which is controverted, and which we are
now to confirm, in a concise but solid manner, from the sa-
cred writings. * *

VII. The scripture declares, that Christ satisfied for the

whole body of the elect, when it declares, that he died for all, and by him reconciled all things, as 2 Cor. v. 15, Heb. ii. 9. Col. i. 20. And as this is not to be understood of all and every man in particular, it must be meant of all and every one o, * That it amo be understood of an and every

individual, I prove from the passages quoted in the *::: **

manner. Those all for whom Christ is said to have

2 Cor. v. 15. are those who are also dead, namely, as to the ,

old man, whom in virtue of the crucifixion of Christ, they

have crucified, Rom. vi. 6. and who “ live not to themselves,

but to Christ,” and to Christ indeed, who rose again for them. But these things can be applicable only to the elect. None

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WOL. I. Io.

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258 FOR WHOM CHRIST SATISF1ED. [Book it.

but they are dead to themselves, the world, and to sin: none else live to Christ. In a word, according to the very hypothesis of the Remonstrants, the efficacy of Christ's resurrection is restrained to believers alone. In like manner, those all, for whom Christ is said by the grace of God to have tasted death, Heb. ii. 9. are sons brought, or to be brought, unto glory, who have Christ for the captain of their salvation; who are sanctified, whom he calls his brethren, which God gave him, ver, 10, 11, 13. These things can be applied not to the reprobate, but only to the elect. In like manner, those

all things which are said to be “reconciled to God by the

peace made through the blood of Christ," Col. i. 20. can only extend to the elect. The thing is self-evident. For reconciliation and peace-making with God are peculiar to elect believers, Rom. v. 1. On the contrary, the reprobate are perpetual enemies to God, “the wrath of God .. on them,” John iii. 36. By those things which are on earth, are understood believers, who are still in the world; as by those things which are in heaven, are meant, not angels, but men in ‘. state of bliss, who enjoy, in the fullest manner, the fruits of Christ's atonement and reconciliation. VIII. Let us add that remarkable passage, 1 Tim. ii. 4, 6. * “God will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the [acknowledgment] knowledge of the truth: Christ gave himself a ransom for all.” Where by all, we are not to understand all and every one in particular, but the elect of whatever nation and condition; which I make evidently to appear in this manner: 1st. They for whom Christ gave himself a ransom, are actually rescued from the dominion of Satan, are brought to perfect liberty, and can never be thrust into an eternal prison, in order to satisfy again for those debts which Christ paid to the utmost farthing. . This we must certainly maintain, unless we would have Christ's payment go for nothing. But all, and every one in particular, are not set free from the dominion of Satan. Many are, and do still remain, “children of disobedience, in whom that impure spirit worketh,” Eph. ii. 2, and who are for ever held captive at his will, in the snare of the devil, and these shall be forced to satisfy for their own guilt. Christ therefore did not give himself a ransom for them. 2dly. Paul speaks of all those who have Christ for their Mediator. But he is Mediator, both by the offering of his body and blood, and by his powerful intercession. This latter part of his mediation can on no account be excluded here, when the apostle is treating concerning our prayers, of which we have a most perfect pattern in the

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chap. 1x.] FOR WHOM CHRIST SATISFIED. 259

prayers of Christ. Besides the Remonstrants acknowledge,
that Christ's intercession is not for all and every man in par-
ticular: therefore, he is not the perfect Mediator of all and
every individual. 3dly. What is here spoken is concerning
all o “whom God will have to be saved, and come to the
ol. knowledge of the truth.” But this is not

is will concerning every man in particular, because he will
have unbelievers condemned, John iii. 36. And the acknow-
ledgment of the truth, or faith, is not the privilege of all,
2 Thess. iii. 2, but of the elect, Tit. i. 1. Nor is it the will
of God it should. He hardeneth whom he will, Rom. ix. 18.

Besides, it is unworthy of the divine majesty, to imagine that

there is an incomplete, unresolved, and ineffectual volition in
God, Psal. cxv. 3. And it is mere trifling and mean, to un-
derstand a bare will of precept, enjoining all to work out their
own salvation with fear and trembling, and with all diligence
to seek the knowledge of the truth; or, a will of his good
pleasure, approving what is according to the precept; they
with whom we now argue do not take it in that light. 4thly.
The persons here meant are all those for whom we are to pray:

"but we are not to pray for all and . one in particular:
amned: not for the
*

not certainly for those who are already
salvation of all who are now alive, collectively taken; because
we cannot do it in faith; and we are sure that many of them
will be damned: nor in fine, for those who have sinned the sin
wnto death, 1 John v. 16. 5thly, and lastly, It is acknow.
ledged that these words are o: use of by the apostle, as
a motive for the prayers which he requires, and which shall
not be in vain. But the words of the apostle would infer no
such thing, if they only meant that Christ has, by his satis-

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faction, obtained no more than a possibility for to be re

conciled to all and every one in particular, though by the na-.
ture of that impetration, it is possible none may be actually
saved; because if that death has only procured a possibility of
salvation, and if our desires after that salvation might be inef.
fectual, we could neither be sure of their being heard, nor
have that hope of audience, which maketh not ashamed. We

must then conclude, that Christ gave himself a ransom of re

demption for all the elect, cowhatever nation and condition,
and that it is the will of God they all should be saved; con:

sequently, that it is our duty to be subservient, by our pray

ers, to this counsel of God; and as we know not how to dis

tinguish the elect from the reprobate, to pray indiscriminate

ly for all, referring it to God to distinguish those who are

his; especially, because we are certain, we shall not prayin'
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260 FOR WHOM CHRIST SATISFIED. [Book 11.

vain for those whom God wills to be saved, and for whom
Christ gave himself. -
IX. The scripture inculcates the same truth, when it says,
that “Christ gave his flesh for the life of the world,” John vi.
51. that he is “the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours
only, but also for the sins of the whole world," 1 John ii. 2.
That “God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself.”
2 Cor. v. 19. That Christ is “ the Lamb of God that taketh
away the sins of the world,” John i. 29. And other passages
to the like purpose. Where by the term world cannot, nay,
ought not be understood the whole of mankind, but the elect.
Which we prove by the following arguments: -
X. It is clear that in scripture things are sometimes said of
the world, as agree only to the elect and to believers. Thus
Christ prays, John xvii. 21. “that the world may believe that
thou hast sent me,” and ver. 23. “that the world may know
that thou hast sent me.” But these things belong to that sa-
cerdotal intercession of Christ, concerning which we may with
the greatest certainty conclude, that it will never be rejected,
says Arminius, in Oratione de sacerdotio Christi, and which, it
is certain, is not made for the world of reprobates, Christ hay-
ing ex y declared that, v. 9. and they with whom we
argue do not refuse it. It is therefore necessary, that by the
world, we here understand the world of the elect, who believe
on Christ, and know him by faith, by virtue of the intercession

of Christ, and by means of the ministry, together with the holy. t.

and glorious example of believers.
XI. Moreover, many texts which speak of salvation, not
only as impetrated, but as applied, ascribe it to the world.
Thus Christ declares, John iii. 17. “for God sent not his Son
into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through
him might be saved.” But the intention of God, in sending
his Son, is not to save all, but “that whosoever believeth in
him should ;: but have eternal life,” as Christ explains
himself in the foregoing verses. In like manner, John vi. 33.
“ the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and
giveth life unto the world.” But Christ gives life only to the
elect, to the sheep, and not to the goats, John x. 27, 28. Thus
Christ in prosecuting his discourse above quoted, John vi, re-
strains the term world, to those “whom the Father gave him,
who see the Son, and believe on him,” v. 39, 40.
XII. These expressions likewise, the father of those that
believe, and the heir of the world, denote the same thing in
the promise made to Abraham, Rom. iv. 11, 12, 13. Abra-
ham is the father of those that believe, 1st. As a pattern of

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*
cHAP. IX.] For WHOM CHRIST SAttsfied. 261

faith. 2dly. As a pattern of the blessing, or of justification.
by faith, 3dly. On account of Christ who descended from
him, and by whose Spirit the elect are born again: hence
Christ, along with his mystical body, is called the seed of
Abraham, Gal. iii. 16. He is the heir of the world, that is,
of all the families of the earth, who are blessed in him as in
the pattern of faith and of the blessing by it, and in his seed
Christ, as the fountain of every blessing. For this is that
world which Christ receives for an inheritance; as also Abra-
ham, and consequently every believer who is his seed in Christ;
or who becomes Christ's own possession, and with whom Abra-
ham and every believer have communion, exulting in the good
things which are bestowed upon them, 1 Cor. iii. 21, 22. For
that strict union and sincere love which subsist between them,
are the reason that every one rejoices in, and glorifies God, on
account of the benefits bestowed on his neighbour, as if bestow-
ed on himself. And thus we have made it appear that the
term world, sometimes in scripture, denotes the collective body
of believers, or of the elect.
XIII. We add, that the Holy Ghost speaks in this man-
ner with great propriety for several substantial, reasons. For
1st. The term world, generally in the common way of speak-
ing, denotes any large body or multitude of men whatever.
Thus the Pharisees said among themselves, “perceive ye *
how ye prevail nothing P. Behold the world is gone after
him,” John xii. 19. We have a like phraseology in Horajot,
c. 3. In Gemara, “when Rabbi Simeon the son of Gama-
liel entered (namely into the synagogue) the whole world
rose up before him ;” that is, . who were present in the
synagogue. Why then should not a very large and almost
infinite multitude of the chosen people from among all nations;
“that great multitude which no man can number,” Rev. vii.
9. be elegantly designed by the appellation world? Rdly. Elect
believers, considered in $o. and before effectual call-
ing, are a part of “the world § in wickedness,” 1 John
v. 19. “In time past they wa in trespasses and sins, - -
according to the course of this world,” Eph. ii. 1, 2.; and so
far they belong to that world “which is become guilty be-
fore God,” Rom. iii. 19. But this tends to illustrate the
glory of the love of God and Christ, and to the humiliation
of believers; that while they were Rol. of the wicked
world, Christ was given to be their eemer. 8dly. Elect
believers are, after so." calling, considered as beautified
with divine grace, though the less, yet the best part of the
world. “The saints and the excellent that are in the earth,”

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