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employed six months in condensing their baggage, and, in short, every and bringing into a mass all his la- thing that constituted the materiel bours and researches, and he had of an army. They liad been comlaid before the house the result of pelled to abandon the strong milihis six months' concoction. After tary positions on the Ebro, which so long an absence from his parlia: they had been fortifying for months, mentary duty, he presented himself, and where they reckoned upon at the end of the session, just in time making a stand, if forced to relinto tell his constituents that he had quish that portion of Spain which been labouring for the service of they had previously heid. But the the navy. All the resolutions, with great talents of lord Wellington the exception of the first, constituted were not less displayed in the decia gross and scandalous libel on sive battle of Vittoria, than in the the navy; and although the house skill with which the campaign had could not consent to become parties been planned, and the rapidity with in the libel, he assured the noble which it had been conducted. Inlord, that if he thought proper to deed the enemy, confounded and write a pamphlet on the subject, subdued by superior skill, even beinstead of making a speech or pro- fore the action, seem not to have posing resolutions, he would pledge displayed that valour for which himself to answer it. All his they have been distinguished on statements and assertions were un- other occasions. They appear to founded imputations against the have fought with spirit only on two navy, against the house, against points: the one on their right, the country.
He trusted they where it was their object to cover would be met with a decided ne- or regain the main road to France gative, for the sake of the glory, by Bayonne, but in which they the reputation, and the valour of were completely repulsed by the the navy—of that great bulwark troops under sir T. Graham : the of our national independence, and other point was on the left, where of that safeguard of our liberties they endeavoured, in vain, to retake and happiness. He therefore im- the commanding positions that were plored the house, if the noble lord forced and maintained by the divi. dared to try the question, to reject sion of sir Rowland Hill. It was it by such a majority as would in this part of the field that colonel mark the sense and indignation of Cadogan received the wound which the house.
cost him his life. Feeling that his The motion was accordingly ne- wound was fatal, he made it his last gatived without a division.
request to his brother soldiers, that July 7, in the house of lords, earl they would convey him io a small Bathurst rose and observed, that eminence in the rear. There, seated the victory which their lordships with his back leaning against a were now called upon to comme- tree, he gazed on the field of battle morate, was of a nature as decisive till death shut his eyes in darkness, in itself, and as gigantic in its re- He was a gallant officer, as brave sults, as any which had graced the in accion as amiable and respectamilitary annals of England. Not ble in private life. He lord Baonly were the enemy defeated and thurst) lamented sincerely the losses driven off the field, but they had which our army su tained; but he lost all their artillery, their stores, believed they would be found in
considerable, when compared with ledgements to those who had ad-
Lord Rosslyn rose merely for the reasons.
2 monument ought to be erected ment. But he was sure the house to the memory of col. Cadogan. would hear with peculiar concern,
Lord Liverpool said, that as a that accounts were received, of the member of the government, as a correctness of which there could be peer, and as a man, he was bound no doubt, that notwithstanding the to attend to that suggestion; and solemn pledge of the prince regent more particularly as colonel Cado- of Portugal, the trade of the Porgan had been a private friend and tuguese in African slaves tad, since acquaintance.
the abolition of that traffic, increased Lord Castlereagh made a similar in a very considerable degree, and mộtion in the house of commons, accompanied too with fresh cirwhich was carried nem. con, cumstances of aggravation, with
July 14, in the house of com- such circumstances, indeed, as were mons, Mr. Wilberforce rose, pur- outrageous to common humanity. suant to notice, to move an address After expatiating with the most to the prince regent for the pro. impressive eloquence upon these duction of such information as had descriptions, the hon. member exbeen received with respect to the pressed his hope that Portugal, conduct of the Portuguese govern. which in fact owed to our navy
the ment, in consequence
of the treaty protection of the very vessels thus signed at Rio de Janeiro in Feb. ignominiously occupied, would be 1810, in which treaty the prince of yet brought to act upon her treaty, Brazils had pledged himself to co- and to respect the rights of justice operate with his Britannic majesty, and humanity. by adopting the most efficacious Lord Castlereagh expressed an means for the gradual abolition of entire concurrence with the sentithe slave trade throughout his do- ments of his hon. friend, and acminions. The hon. member read knowledged his forbearance in not the words of the treaty, containing bringing forward his motion at an a statement of the grounds upon earlier period, in consequence of which this pledge was entered into, the disappointment alluded to. He and observing that he need not re- lamented that disappointment; but mind the house of the resolutions in as it would be impossible to lay the same strain, adopted in 1806 any information upon this subject and 1810, for promoting the abo- before the house within the present lition of this odious traffic. He sessions, he submitted whether it expressed his satisfaction that our would not answer his wishes better government had evinced the utmost to withdraw his motion at present, sincerity and zeal in its endeavours giving notice of his intention to to accomplish the object of these bring it forward again, if he saw Tesolutions, not only in the treaty occasion, at an early period of the alluded to, but in its more recent next session. communications with Sweden. On the 22d of July parliament Therefore he wished it to be di- was prorogued by the prince regent; stinctly understood, that he did not on which occasion the speaker of mean to impute any disappoint, the house of commons addressed ment of the wishes of justice and his royal highness in a long speech, humanity upon this interesting sub- which, with the speech from the ject, to any want of zeal or exertion throne, will be found among the on the part of our own govern- Public Papers.
N 4 сHAP.
vill. Necessity and Importance of taking a retrospective View of the Events of 1812
-Moral and political Change produced on ihe Coniinent of Errope during that rear-Great political Changes always attended with moral Changes instanced in the French Revolution-Sketch of the Causes of that Event, preparatory to the Sketch of the Causes of the Overthrow of the French Power The French rendered almost invincible by the Spirit of National Independence -by absurd but enthusiastic Id as of Liberty—by the Development and proper Application of political and military Taleni— by tbeir Love of Glory-Causes of the Decline of the Power of BonaparteOppression of the conquerid Countries-anti-commercial System Haired of England-Character of bis
Armies destroyed in Spain-His mod Obstinacy in the Russian War. TH
THE change that took place in dily, clearly, and comprehensively.
the political and moral appear- In the midst of the wonderful events ance and condition of Europe, in of the year 1812, succeeding cach the course of the year 1812, was so other as they did with so much ragreat and momentous, and burst pidity, and confounding the conupon the astonished and delighted jectures and calculations of the eyes of the friends of human inde. most profound and experienced popendence and happiness so suddenly liticians, the heart was too much and unexpectedly, and in such a elated, the faculties of the mind were complete and perfect form, that we too much overpowered, to see them consider ourselves not merely justi- in all their importance, to trace them fied, but imperiously called upon, to back to their causes, or to anticipate devote this first chapter of the histo- the consequences which they were rical department of our work to a likely to produce. The annalist too, rapid sketch and development of the obliged from the very nature and causes which produced it. We have object of his work to confine his atcalled it a moral as well as a politi- tention to the events and transac. cal change; because we are firmly tions of the passing year, is necesand clearly of opinion, that every sarily cut off from those campre. great political change in the state hensive views which the historian and condition of nations must be (especially if he writes when all is preceded, accompanied and follow- before him, and when the feelings ed by a moral change; and to this which such events as those which moral change historians in general, occurred last year are calculated to too much occupied with the detail excite have subsided into tranquil. of battles, or with the characters of lity, and given ro
and kings, and what are called and es- nity for cool and sober judgement teemed great military and political and reflection to come in and exer; men, have paid too little attention cise their powers,) can minutely and and respect. We are induced to fully attend to. take this retrospect, because, while Before, however, we enter into a the change was taking place, or developnient and explanation of the rather while the consequences of its
causes which have tended so comhaving begun to operate were ma- pletely, and we trust permanently, nifesting themselves, it was impossi- to alter the appearance of Europe, ble for the mind to view them stea and the fate and fortunes of her in
habitants, it may be proper to point With regard to the origin of the
they were called to fight for the