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strenuous friends and advocates of bious of the results. The battle of
continental resistance to the French Alexandria first contributed to give
were most anxious to embrace. The confidence to the nation with re-
first events of the war in the penin- spect to the discipline and valour of
sula, especially the convention of their soldiers, and the skill of their
Cintra and the retreat of sir John commanders, when opposed to the
Moore, were certainly by no means French : but in this battle there
calculated to establish our military were so many circumstances favour-
character: but after lord Welling- able to our troops and disadvantage-
ton had obtained the sole command, ous to the enemy, that it neither
and had thoroughly considered the would have been safe nor fair to
nature of the service on which he have drawn any general inference
was employed, of the people and from its result. T'he contest in the
government in whose defence he peninsula, therefore, was regarded,
was fighting, and of the enemy to both by those engaged in it and by
whom he was opposed, the penin. the nation at large, as calculated
sular warfare took a different cha- most decisively to try the compaide
racter, and the nations of Europe tive merits of the British and French
regarded it with considerable inter- officers and soldiers : and the ina
est. The thought that their opera- terest in this contest was very con-
tions and exploits were thus regard. siderably augmented, as we have
ed, must have had a wonderful effect already remarked, by the reflection,
at least on the British officers ; even on the part of the nations of Eu.
the common soldiers in our army rope, that on its fate probably de.
must have felt this in some degree: pended their ultimate and perma-
for it is absurd to suppose, that, nent fate ; and on the part of Bri.
while British seamen pride them- tain, and especially of her soldiers
selves on being superior to the sea. who were engaged in the contest,
men of all other countries, a similar by the reflection that exhausted and
feeling or wish should not exist in oppressed Europe was looking anxi-
the breasts of British soldiers. Be- ously to its issue.
sides, the latter had an additional He must be sadly and profoundly
incentive :- British seamen have ignorant of human nature, who can.
been so long superior to the seamen not at least obscurely and in some
of France in bravery and skill, that measure perceive how all these cir.
now they regard victory as a mat- cumstances and considerations must
ter of course; and unless the enemy have operated to raise the character
should be very superior, they hardly and condition of the British army
claim to themselves any merit for in the peninsula. Headed by a ge-
having achieved it. But this feel. neral whose whole soul was intent
ing had not been handed down to on his profession; who suffered no
British soldiers :--on the contrary, personal or party views or objects
even before the. French revolution to interfere, even for a moment,
had given such perfection to the arwith the grand and extensive
mies of our enemy, a Briton would schemes which he had formed; who
hardly claim for his countrymen regarded and treated his soldiers as
more than anequality in landengagehis children, and who had the rare
ments; and after the revolution, and admirable talent of impressing
the most dispassionate and unpre- his own character on his officers
judiced would have been very du- and troops; who called for no fa.

S 3


tigue or privation from them, which ard appreciate the advantages he was not willing most cheerfully which the Spanish and Portuguese to endure himself; and who to all governments and people ,will pro. these qualifications added the most bably derive from the contest which profound and comprehensive milita- has been carried on in the peninsula; ry skill; they were determined to we of course mean the advantages prove themselves worthy of the independently of those which must cause in the defence of which they flow from the regained freedom and were engaged, and worthy of being security of their respective countries. considered as the harbingers and As far as present circumstances will pioneers of the restored liberty and enable us to discover and appreciate independence of Europe.

those advantages, it would seem In the third place, the war in the that the Spanish government has peninsula was highly advantageous been little, if at all, benefited to the British military character, that the Spanish people have been not only by adding to the experience benefited in some degree ;--and that of her cers, but also by giving the Portuguese government, people, a more scientific turn to their mi. and soldiery, but especially the sol litary knowledge. For !ord Wel. diery, have reaped very considerable lington was not a man who could advantages. In some of our prebrook inferiority or ignorance in ceding volumes we endeavoured to any respect in his officers : he him. explain the causes which stood in self was intimately conversant with the way of the reform of the Spanish the theory of war, and he expected government, and the melioration that those who entered into the ar- of the Spanish people ; as well as my should qualify themselves com- the causes which produced a more pletely for the service. Not only hearty and general co-operation of did he direct his thoughts to the the Portuguese government and purely military organization of his people with onr army. As each army, but to every branch, how. succeeding year serves to prove the ever remotely connected with its continued existence of these causes, well being and success, and parti- or to bring up to view others either cularly to the reform of the come counteracting or assisting them, wa missariat department. In shost, so shall, in the remainder of this chapsignal and numerous have been the ter, sketch out what in our opinion advantages that our troops have de. will be the effect of the contest on rived from the Spanish campaign, the government and people of the under the command of lord Wel. peninsula. Jington, that even had they not suc. In the first place, the Spanish ceeded in liberating the peninsula, and Portuguese governments, as the blood that has been spilt and they existed previously to the comthe treasure that has been expended mencement of the peninsular war, could hardly be regarded as with. were, perhaps, more than any other out their adequate reward and re- of the old European governments, compense. The British soldiers can sunk in imbecility and profligacy, now proudly claim the right hand of We have been so long accustomed fellowship with the British sailor ; to think highly of the Spanish na. and this country can boast of a tional character, to regard it as an Wellington as well as of a Nelson. excellent and well proportioned It is more difficult to point out compound of dignity, a high sense


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of honour, and a spirit of inde. other nations, their surprise and in-
pendence, that it is not without re- dignation that they do not obtain
luctance we can look into its de. that esteem and good opinion re-
fects, or, when they actually ob- gularly increase in proportion as
trude themselves on our notice, be. they deserve it less.
lieve in their existence and opera-

Another feature in the Spanish tion. But during the peninsular war national character, and which may the Spanish character has developed be very clearly and distinctly traced itself more completely; and as the in their government, is suspicion character and conduct of every go- and jealousy, Too selfish, or too invernment must in a great measure dolent, to exert themselves for the result from or depend upon the cha. good of others,---if others come for. racter and feelings of the people ward in their behalf, they regard whom they govern, by examining and treat them as if their motives closely the Spanish character we and objects were completely intershall be enabled more satisfactorily ested. It is scarcely necessary to and fully to estimate the character observe, that this feature in the of the government as it existed pre- Spanish character has been too fully viously to the revolution, and thus to exhibited during our military ope. form a pretty accurate opinion of rations on the peninsula. Towards the change which that revolution the French they undoubtedly felt ahas produced, or will probably pro- strong national antipathy, united to duce on it.

a contempt for their thoughtless and The most prominent and obtru. undignified disposition : these feel. sive feature in the Spanish national ings had been rendered much more character is pride ; not that pride, acute by the misery which the however, which is ashamed of ig. French had inflicted on them, and norance, which stimulates to indus- by the wound which they had given try and active exertion, which is to the pride of the Spanish characnearly allied to an honourable and ter---by depriving them of their leuseful ambition, and which exalts gitimate monarch, and endeavour. the individual or nation in which it ing to fix upon them a sovereign of exists and operates ; but a passive a foreign race and a low family. pride—a sullen satisfaction with And yet, notwithstanding they their own excellence-a foolish and thus felt towards the French, notobstinate belief that the mere cir- withstanding they had suffered so cumstance of being Spaniards, quite much from them, they looked coolły apart from any regard to their in- and suspiciously on the English, tellectual or moral qualities, or their who came professedly to liberate conduct, raises them far above all them from the yoke of their inother people. Perhaps no feature vaders and tyrants. No conduct of in the character of a nation is more. ours, neither cur splendid and de. at variance with their improvement cisive successes, nor the liberal aid than this ;--it effectually prevents which we have given to their cause them from perceiving their defects, in other respects, has been able to or from attempting to rectify and do away their coolness and suspicion remove them : they suffer them- towards our troops. It, perhaps, selves to sink in apathy; and while would have been foolish and absurd every day renders them less worthy to expect that they should have of the esteem or good opinion of given us credit for entire disinterest.



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deness in the exertions which we absolutely impossible that these made on the peninsula ; but had the should flourish with their ancient Spaniards been endowed with com- and accustomed vigour, even where mon sagacity.--or rather, had not a moderate share of talent and in, that sagacity been blinded by their formation existed. obstinate pride and suspicion---they Still, however, we are disposed might have been convinced that the and willing to believe and hope that very interests which we sought to the events of the contest in which serve and promote, by engaging in they have been engaged, and that the the peninsular war, so far from re- very nature of the contest itself, will quiring the sacrifice of the Spanish improve the condition of the Spanish interests, or being incompatible with people, and place them under a them, were actually necessary to more wise and enlightened govern. their security and enlargement. But ment. In spite of the narrow and this idea never entered their minds: jealous policy of their rulers, in and the French, well knowing the spite of their own bigotry, and inobliquity of the Spanish understand. difference or antipathy to the Bri ing, and their jealous and suspicious tish, much intercourse must neces, disposition, have taken advantage sarily have taken place between the of these circumstances to increase two nations; and the Spanish chaq their distrust of the English. racter is of such a nature and de

The two features in the Spanish scription, that it must improve by national character which we have intercourse : they cannot witness just touched upon, their pride and the character and conduct of the jealous suspicion, are much aggra- English, they cannot associate with yated by the mediocrity of their in- them, without feeling a disposition tellectual talents. Before the com. to alter some of their own habits ; mencement of the peninsular war, or, even if they do not feel that disthe Spaniards had credit given them position, without gradually, in. for a considerable share of acuteness sensibly, and almost without their and solid sense ; and it was anti- own knowledge and consciousness, cipated by their friends and advo- assimilating themselves to the Bricates, that these intellectual qualities tish in opinion, manners and con, would be brought into full opera- duct. tion by the necessities and events of But putting out of consideration the revolution : but certainly, nei- the effects which their intercourse ther on the part of the nation at with our troops will produce, the large, nor on the part of the go- very circumstance of their having, vernment, has there been any dis- been so long in a state of activity play or exercise of superior or even and exertion (though they have not of moderate talents. And this cir- been at all commensurate to the occumstance we conceive to be one of casion) must create or bring into the least promising and satisfactory action those qualities, both of the to the friends of Spanish meliora. mind and heart, that cannot fail to tion; for, undoubtedly, did they meliorate their character and conimprove in talent, did they display dition. The violence and unsettled, any anxiety to rise


nations ness of revolutions and civil wars in the scale of intellect, their moral have justly been compared to the faults--their pride, suspicion, and hurricanes and tempests which agiþigotry--would soon give way; it is tate the atmosphere: they both disa


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pel what is noxious, and leave what Portuguese and English governthey operate upon in a state much ments and people, for upwards of a better adapted to the wholesome and century, have had a much greater happy existence of mankind. Al. share of intimacy and connection though, therefore, the efforts of the with one another than the English Spaniards must have disappointed all and Spanish governments and peothose who gave them credit for intel- ple have had. To this cause we lectual and moral energy; although should ascribe much; but there is hitherto there have been scarcely still another, which must be sought any proofs that their character has for in the difference of character of been changed by the revolution, the Portuguese and Spaniards. The while on the contrary the same im- former are destitute of that haughty becility marks all the proceedings and retiring pride which distin. of their government ; yet we are guishes the latter : it might have still disposed to believe that, when been supposed that on this account order is completely restored, and they would have been less susceptheir national independence and se. tible of improvement, since they uncurity placed on a firm footing, it doubtedly are marked with almost will be found that the Spanish peo- all the other bad features of the ple and the Spanish government Spaniards : but it has so happened, have been considerably benefited by as we have already seen, that that their sufferings and exertions. very pride, from which energy and

Our remarks have hitherto been melioration might have been anticonfined to the Spaniards: we turn cipated and expected, has done with more pleasure to the Portu- more harm to the Spaniards than guese---to that nation which used all their other distinguishing qualito be reckoned almost if not quite at ties; while the Portuguese, destitute the bottom of the scale of European of this pride, have been benefited nations, both in respect to intellectual by the very circumstances which and moral qualities. Whence has it have left the Spanish character unhappened, therefore, that they are altered. improved in a much greater pro- In the second place, if from the portion than the Spaniards ? 'for consideration of the effects which there can be no doubt that the Por- the peninsular revolution and con. tuguese government, people, and test are likely to produce, or have soldiery, but especially, as we be- already produced, on the character fore remarked, the soldiery, are of the Spanish and Portuguese gomuch improved. The immediate vernment and people, we pass to and direct cause is sufficiently ob- the more particular consideration of vious ---they have associated more their effects on the soldiery of the with the British---they have suffered two nations, all that we have adthemselves to be directed and in- vanced will be illustrated and constructed by their allies : but the firmed. Of the fact that the Portu. question still recurs, How comes it guese soldiery are very much imto pass that the Portuguese have proved since they were under the been more willing than the Spa- command and discipline of British niards to take advantage of these officers, and served along with Bricircumstances? In a former volume tish troops, there can be no doubt ; we have adverted to one cause : the but it seems impossible, as least so


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