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viously concluded with Sweden, of the allies would be certain : by which we had guarantied Nor. should he be neutral, his very neuway to that power, operated prin- trality, by showing that he no cipally against the success of count longer was afraid of Bonaparte, Bernstorff.

that at length he durst refuse that Thus we perceive, that, at the assistance, which doubtless would commencement of 1813, Great Bri- be demanded --must prove advantain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden, tageous to the allies : of his decided were decidedly against France, and zealous hostility to them they Great Britain indeed could lend could entertain no fears; since, in little military aid in Germany ; but the Russian campaign, at that peshe was fighting the cause of Ger. riod of it when the event was many in Spain ; and, as usual, she doubtsul, the Austrian auxiliary arwas liberal in her pecuniary assist- my had very faintly or reluctantly ance. The emperor Alexander co-operated with the French. The put forth all his might: all the re- hopes of the allies, with respect to sources of his extensive butun- Austria, were raised by an event wieldy empire were cheerfully de. which occurred early in the year : voted by him to the cause in which for the auxiliary army of that he was embarked. Prussia, greatly power, which had been censured exhausted by the exactions and con- by Bonaparte for not keeping open tributions of France, could not his line of communication when he bring into the field very numerous was compelled to retreat, entered armies: but her soldiers were ani- into a convention with the Rusmated by the best spirit ; her gene- sians, and agreed to remain neu. rals were experienced, and not only tral. incorruptible, but animated by a It was for a long time doubtful, deep hatred against Bonaparte; whether Bonaparte, in the German and her peasantry were eager to campaign which he was about to rise in defence of their sovereign and commence, would have the assiste their country. The army which ance of Murat and his Neapolitan the crown prince had landed in Po- troops ; as it was well known, that merania was composed of most ex- when Bonaparte committed the cellent troops ; brought into a high command of the remnant of his state of discipline under his own army to him, on his deserting it at immediate inspection, and feeling Smorgonie, Murat almost immeditowards him the most profound re- ately after the departure of his spect, and the most implicit confi- master also quitted Russia, and set dence.

off for Italy; indignant at the obNotwithstanding the reverses stinacy which had sacrificed so which Bonaparte had sustained, and many men, and put the suvereignty the strength of the powers which of both into such imminent jeoparwere now united against him, yet dy. Murat however, probably pera it was natural to feel apprehension suaded that his own power and respecting the issue of the ap- that of Bonaparte must stand and proaching campaign. The eyes and fall together, at length consented hopes of Europe were therefore di- to resume the command of the ca. rected towards the emperor of Au- valry in the German campaign. stria: should he take an active part Such were the forces on each against his son-in-law, the success side: but, on the side of Bonaparte, 1813.

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all the troops belonging to the kings free themselves from French tyrab. of Saxony and Wurtemberg, and ny: they had no wish to interfere to the princes of the confederation with the internal concerns of of the Rhine, in short, all the German France. But the princes of the troops, were no longer held to him house of Bourbon thought the re. by those ties which formerly united verses of Bonaparte presented an them; nor could he, after the de- opportunity which they ought not fection of D'York, place much de- to neglect, of appealing to the pendence upon them. While on French nation; and accordingly the side of the allies one spirit, an address to the people of France and that spirit of the most binding was issued in the name of Louis and animating nature, lived in them XVIIT. It was a cold and lifeless all: sovereigns and soldiers equal performance, which did not seem ly partook of it: both had felt the to come from the heart; and which tyranny of Bonaparte, and both certainly was not calculated to were anxious to shake it off.

warm the hearts of those to whom The allies were so true to the it was addressed. It even stooped principles on' wirich they declared to flatter the senate of Bcnaparte. They were determined to carry on It appeared from the answer given the war, that they made not the by ministers in parliament to some least effort to shake the power of questions put to them respecting it, Bonaparte in France, by encourag. that they had neither authorised ing the partisans of the Bourbons nor advised its publication. there : their object really was to

CHAPTER XX.

The Russians spread themselves over the north-west of Germany-enter

Hamburgh- Joy of the Inhabitants at their Liberation-their Joy of short Continuancethe French advance against it-distressed State of this City-Great Britain lends no Assistance the Crown Prince refuses do send Swedish Troops to defend it-the Danes at first defend it, and af terwards suffer it to be taken by the French-Position of the grand Allied Armies-und of the French Armies-Bonaparte's Object in the Campaign -is at first successful-the Allies retire from the Saale, and concentrate their Forces on the Elster-they determine to attack the French-Movements for that Purpose-Battle of Lutzen-the dllies remain Masters of the Field, but afterwards retreat the French advance to Dresden--prepure to attack the Allies at Bautzen-dreadful Battle therethe Allies again retreabthe French occupy great Part of Silesia Armistice comcluded.

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CAVING thus detailed the into the mighty contest which was

means with which each par. about to take place, we shall, be'y prepared himself for entering fore we proceed to the narrative

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of the contest is self, briefly relate against Hamburgh; and this dethe events which occurred in those voted city could expect no mercy parts of Ge: many over which the from them if it again fell into their light troops of Russia, and especie possession. They had been plun. ally the Cossacks, ** spread them. dered before: their youths' bad selves : and under this head, the been dragged away by tire conscriptransactions at Hamburgh have a tion; but this would be mercy strong claim on our' notice and in- ' compared to what they must suffer terest,

if the l'rench again entered their As the Russians naturally ex- city. They therefore prepared pected to be joined by the people every means of defence: the youths of Germany, as soon as they were pressed forward to enrol them. freed from the dread and the pre- selves: the utmost alacrity and sence of the French, they conceive zeal prevailed: but unfortunately ed it to be their policy to spread discipline and skill were wanting ; themselves as much as possible: and the epemy were greatly supeaccordingly, early in 1313, their rior in numbers. light troops pushed down the banks, Under these critical circum. of the Elbe towards Hamburgh. stances, the people of Hamburgh The liberation of this city was de- looked for assistance to Great Brisirable on many accounts: it had suf- tain: a few gun-boats sent up the fered more perhaps than any other Elbe might have protected the city in Germany by the oppression city--but they came not: Biitain, to and pillage of the enemy: if it were whom the possezsion of Hamburgh freed from them, commerce might by the French was highly detriagain be carried on' with Great mental, did not stir in her defence. Britain ; and the Germans, seeing The enemy came nearer; they'gain. trade and industry revive, would ed possession of the suburbs: the be the more willing to rise against armed inhabitants of Hamburgh the French, and to unite with those fought with remarkable bravery,-to whom they were indebted for but their bravery was in vain. those blessings. For a considerable They then applied to the crown: length of time before the Russians prince of Sweden: he had a large actually arrived, the inhabitants of force in the north of Germany, Hamburgh were tantalised with the which hitherto had been inactive, hope of their near approach : at and part of this, it was supposed, length they entered the city; and he might have spared for the pronever was joy superior to the joy' tection of the city. But he refused of the Hamburghers on this occa. to divide liis troops :-Hamburgh, sion. They saw their deliverers: he said, would follow the general they again breathed the air of free. fate of the war. If Bonaparte dom: the period of their oppression were decidedly beaten, it would beand depradation they trusted was come permanently free; but to beat at an end. But their joy and tran. him decidedly, it was necessary nog quillity and liberty were to be but to draw off any part of the allica of short duration. The Russians army for minor objects. The inhad run over more country than habitants of Hamburgh now gave they could keep possession of : the themselves up for lost: they preFrench, having rallied and collect- pared themselves for the immedi. ed their scattered forces, advanced ate capture of their city; when

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the Danes from Altona most un- tains. At this period the main
expectedly offered their assistance. armies of the Russians and the
The motive and object of the Prussians were concentrating in
Danish government in thus oppo.. the neighbourhood of Leipsic;
sing Bonaparte are not known: Wittgenstein's head quarters being
that they were sincere at the time twenty miles to the north, and
there cannot be any doubt, for they Blucher's thirty miles to the south
proved their sincerity by the firm of that city, while D'York was in
resistance which they made to the advance of Wittgenstein. The two
French troops. At last, probably main armies of the French evi.'
after they found that the mission of dently intended to form a junction
their ambassador to the court of near Jena.
St. James was likely to be fruitless, The left, under the command of
they withdrew their protection Ney, about the middle of April
from Hamburgh; but not until was in front of Erfurt; while the
they had stipulated with Davoust, ' corps of Bertrand, which formed
who commanded the French army, the extremity of the right wing,
that the citizens should not be plun. had at the same date reached Co-
dered quite so much as he otherwise bourg: in the rear of Ney, al Gotha,
would have plundered them. Marmont was posted, and Berthier

Many other places in the north- behind him. On the 19th of that west of Germany, of which the month there was a sharp affair beRussians had obtained temporary tween a body of Prussians and the possession, soon fell again into the advance of Ney's corps under the power of the enemy: indeed this command of Souham: the contest part of the plan of the campaign took place near Weimar: the Prusseems to have been arranged with sians behaved nobly: they drove little skill, policy, or foresight, by the enemy thrice through that the Russians, as it would have been town; but at length were obliged much more wise in them to have to yield to superior numbers, and secured what they wrested from retreated behind Jena. Towards the French, rather than to have ex. the end of April, the advanced, posed the inhabitants to the sharp- posts of the adverse armies were ened fury and revenge of the on the opposite banks of the Saale, enemy.

and it was evident that a general We have already mentioned that engagement would

take Bonaparte left Paris, early in the place. month of April, to take the com. So far Bonaparte had been sucmand of the army: the principal cessful in carrying his plan of the body of his old troops, the remnant campaign into execution; for his of those who had escaped out of plan evidently was, to concentrate Russia, were under Beauharnois in his forces on the right bank of that the neighbourhood of Magde- river, near the extensive plain of burghbut as soon as Bonaparte Lutzen. His army, superior in assumed the command of the new numbers to the army of the allies, levies, this general began to move he hoped would on this plain fight towards the upper part of the Saale, to great advantage. It seems to with a view to form a junction with have been the intention of the allies, him; while he, on his part, de by the early junction of Blucher bouched from the Thuringian moun- and Wittgenstein, to have com,

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pelled Beauharnois to have retreat- count Wittgenstein gave orders for
ed; but their junction having been several columns of the allied army.
delayed, the French general was to cross the Elster, and proceed
enabled to move up the Saale, down the course of a rivulet
while Ney descended its left bank, which falls into the Saale. He
and Bertrand its right. During thus hoped to turn the right of the
the movements necessary for this French between Lutzen and Weis-
purpose, the French, though they senfels, while their attention was
ultimately effected their object, en- directed to his left between Weis-
countered a formidable opposition; senfels and Leipsic.
for Lauriston and Macdonald en- The French occupied a strong
deavoured for three days succes- position : behind them was rising
- sively to force a passage at three ground, and a string of villages ;
points, and it was only at the third in front there was a hollow way
attempt that they succeeded. In and a stream of considerable depth:
consequence of these movements here they awaited the attack of the
on the part of the enemy, it was allies. The natural strength of
judged prudent for the allies to re.. their position was much increased
tire from the Saale, and concen- by an immense quantity of orda
trate their forces on the Elster. nance which

distributed
On the morning of the 1st of May throughout the line and in the vil.
the emperor Alexander and the lages; besides batteries in the open
king of Prussia arrived at Borna country supported by masses of in-
with the reserve; and the last divi- fantry in solid squares.
sion of general Tormasoff's corps

As it was of the utmost conse. having crossed the Elbe a few days quence to force the enemy from before, and moved forward by the line of villages which he oce forced marches towards the Elster, cupied, the plan of the allies at the the whole allied army was by the commencement of the engagement afternoon of the 1st of May col- was to attack Grosgorchen, the lected in the neighbourhood of principal of them, with artillery Boma on the plains of Lutzen. and infantry; and, while this attack The soil in this part of Germany is was going on, to pierce the enemy's dry, and light, the country unco- line to the right of the villages with vered and open ; but there is con. a strong column of cavalry, in orsiderable variety of hill and dale, der if possible to cut off the troops with many hollow ways and mill- in the villages from support. For streams, the former not discernible this latter enterprise the cavalry of till nearly approached. In the the Prussian reserve were selected : course of the 1st of May count they advanced with great steadiness Wittgenstein reconnoitred the coun- and gallantry; but when they try, and the situation and move- reached the hollow way, the showments of the enemy: the greaters of grape-shot and musketry to masses of the French were be- ' which they were exposed, rendered tween Lutzen and Weissenfels; it impossible for them to proceed. but there were several indications Here the conflict was most despethat they intended to move in the rate and sanguinary: the Prussians, direction of Leipsic. In conse- having partially succeeded in break. quence of these movements and ing into the squares of the enemy, indications on the part of the enemy, committed great carnage : but as

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