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it was evident that Bonaparte was Te Deum' on the occasion, in lan. resolved to preserve the line of the guage that would have disgraced villages at any expense of men, the the meanest sycophant of the most Prussians were at last drawn off.



despotic Asiatic Hitherto the allies had been the court : according to him, the geassailants; but towards the even- nius of the emperor was again triing, Bonaparte, having called in umphant : in his last address to that division of his army which the legislative body, when he in. was near Leipsic, and collected all formed them that he was going to his reserves, made a most furious put himself at the head of his attack from his left on the right of troops, he had foretold what had the allies, while at the same time happened: after the prodigies which he supported and covered this at- he had performed, the rank to tack by the fire of several batterie: which he had raised France, it was advancing. The allies seem not scarcely possible to regard him as to have expected, or been prepared mortal. Such was the language of for, this movement ; and therefore cardinal Maury ! found it necessary to change the When once the allies had deter. front of the nearest brigades on the mined to retreat (from whatever right, and to order up the whole cause or with whatever object they cavalry from the left to the right, came to this determination), it was to turn this attack : but before the of the utmost consequence that cavalry could arrive, night put an Bonaparte, superior as he was in end to the combat; the allies re. numbers, should not throw himself maining in possession of the dis. first upon the Elbe, or get into the puted villages, and of the line on rear of the allies, so as to endanger which the enemy had stood. their communication : they there

The subsequent operations are fore continued their retreat in the not very clearly detailed in the of. line of the river Mulda : but its ficial accounts which the allies pub. banks not affording any tenable lished respecting the battle of Lut. position, they afterwards retired zen. Orders, it is said, were given through Dresden, in order to oc, to renew the attack on the morni- cupy a defensive position behind ing of the 2d of May: “ but the the Elbe. They were thus conseenemy did not wait for it; and it quently obliged to give up Dresden was judged expedient, with rese.. to the enemy: but if all circumrence to the general posture of the stances are taken into consideration, cavalry, not to pursue.” In fact, their retrograde movement must the allies the next day commenced be deemed prudent and skilful. their retreat; and in consequence The consequences of avoiding a of this retreat, Bonapute claimed decisive action with Bonaparte, the victory in the battle of Lutzen. of drawing him on by degrees from

But that it was by no means his resources, and at the same time such a victory as he had been ac- weakening him by attacks, or by customed to, or had reason to boast acting on the defensive in favourof, was sufficiently evident even able positions, had already been from his own account, and from proved in the Russian campaign. the extreme pains which were taken Bonaparte, on the contrary, was in France to represent it as such. anxious to bring the campaign in Cardinal Maury issued orders for Germany to a speedy issue : he

must congress was formed,

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must have known that a suspicion about thirty miles from Dresden :
had gone abroad, and had found its this army consisted of about 100,000
way.even into the minds of his men, under the personal command
own subjects, that he was no longer of Bonaparte. The second army,
the child of fortune ; and his sus- which was about 50,000 strong,
picion he could drive out only by commanded by Ney and Lauriston,
a victory as splendid and decisive moved at the same time from Tor.
as those of Jena or Austerlitz. The gau on the right of the allies. The
result of the battle of Lutzen, it is third army, which was composed
true, he had represented in this of the troops under Victor, Sebas.
light; but he could not hope that tiani, and Regnier, and amounted
he would long succeed in conceal. to between 40,000 and 50,000,
ing its real character from the were marching from Magdeburgh,
French nation. After the victories in the direction of Berlin.
of Jena and Austerlitz there was · About this time, that is, the mid.
little or no opposition: all was tri- dle of May, count Bubna arrived
umph on his part: all was submis- at Dresden with a letter from the
sion on the part of his opponents. emperor of Austria to Bonaparte :
If therefore, as he knew must be from what occurred afterwards,
the case, the allies still fought after there can be no doubt that he
the battle of Lutzen,-if his own brought proposals for an armistice,
progress was slow and difficult,-- with a view to a general pacifica-
his claim to victory in that battle tion: and it is worthy of remark,
would be denied.

that the same French papers which But though Bonaparte was not announced the arrival of the im.' decidedly victorious, yet the retreat perial ambassador, give an account of the allies, especially the circum- of the departure of Beauharnois for stance of their yielding up Dres- the north of Italy; which circumden without opposition to the stance seems to prove, that even at French, rather injured their cause this time Bonaparte anticipated the in Germany. The Saxons, whom hostility of Austria, and had rethey had invited to take up arms solved to assemble an army on her against the tyranny of France, per. southern frontier. At the same ceiving how little able they were

time that the count de Bubna was to protect them, began to incline sent to Dresden, count Stadion was towards Bonaparte ; while the dispatched to the head-quarters king of Saxony more than ever of the allies. The emperor Alexyielded himself up to his plans and ander and the king of Prussia, it is wishes.

said, agreed to the proposal of the While the French head-quarters emperor of Austria for an immecontinued at Dresden, their army diate suspension of hostilities; while received considerable reinforce- Bonaparte eluded it, by saying that ments, so as to form a mass little he would accede to it as soon as a short of 200,000 men. They were

The em. divided into three armies: the peror of Austria, in order that his principal, consisting of the 4th, 6th, mediation might be the more ef11th, and 12th corps, and the ficicnt, 'gave orders to place his young and old guards, were col- army on the full war establishment; lected opposite the position which and, what was certainly no favourthe allies had taken up at Bautzen, able indication to Bonaparte, in,

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trusted the command of the Bohe. on the left, for the purpose of mian army (which was nearest the threatening the right of the allies, scene of military operations) to and also that, if it were necessary, prince Schwartzenburg, at whose he might det:ach a division to com. conduct in the Russian campaign municate with the other great ar. Bonaparte had expressed strong my which Bonaparte had ordered dissatisfaction.

to move up from a village about Hostilities, in the mean time, 30 miles to the north of Bautzen. went on: the allies, as we have al. Thisar my consisted of about 60,000 ready mentioned, retreated from men, composing the 3d, 5th and the line of the Elbe to Bautzen, 7th coups, under the command of where their whole front was covered Ney, Lauriston and Regnier. Bofor several miles by the river Spree: naparte meant, by means of this their first line rested its left on the army, to turn the right of the allies, heights which overhang this river; while he himself attacked them in while its centre was placed behind front, In this part of his plan, Bautzen, and its right at the village however, he completely failed. of Niemschutz: this position was Such were the arrangements and naturally very strong and advan- strength of each party before the tageous; but they moreover took baitle of Bautzen. On the 19th those precautions which marked Bertrand detached a division, which their skill and judgement. Another was intercepted, and beaten with line was formed and strengthened considerable: loss : at the same by field works, at some distance in time Ney, Lauriston and Regnier, their rear, near the village of Hoch- · moving forward to join Bertrand, kirken. Here they coolly and con- were opposed with


inferior fidently waited the attack of the numbers by D’York and Barclay enemy.

de Tolly; and after three hours Bonaparte had joined his princi- very hard fighting they were only pal army before Bautzen on the able to gain possession of a small morning of the 19th of May, and village, at too great a distance from spent the whole of that day in re- the proposed scene of action to connoitring the strength and posi- enable them effectually to follow tion of the allies : his force in this out the original plan. place consisted of the 4th, 6th, Ulth These were only preliminary and 12th corps, amounting in all movements : on the 20th the grand to about 80,000 men; besides attack began. The first object of 12,000 of his guards, 14,000 ca- the French was to force the passage valry, and a very numerous and of the Spree, which was effected powerful artillery. The right wing (with dreadful loss from the fire of was formed of the 12th corps, un- the artillery of the allies) by the der the command of Oudinot: the corps under Oudinot, Macdonald Ilth, under Macdonald, formed and Marmont: the contest lasted the centre; and the 6th, under seven hours, and the French at Marmont, formed the left : Mortier length accomplished their object, had the command of the guards, only by the very great superiority which were stationed in reserve : of their numbers. As soon as the the cavalry were commanded by enemy had gained the opposite general Latour Maubourg. Ber. banks of the river, the allies retired trand was posted beyond Marmont, to their second position :this was


SO 1

so strong, and the day already so still continued to maintain their far spent, that the French did not ground; nor did they begin to reattempt to force it. The result of treat, even according to the French this day's engagement was, that account, till four hours after the the enemy occupied the village of reserve under Soult was brought Bautzen; but they took no artille. up. Their retreat appears to have ry, no trophy of any kind, and been conducted in a very orderly scarcely any prisoners.

manner; and an attempt made by Bonaparte the next day made the cavalry of the enemy to cut off, another attempt to turn the right if possille, some part of the artile of the allis ; but in consequence of lery and baggage, was completely the failure which Bertrand's corps unsuccessful. The loss of the had experienced on the 19th, he French, in this obstinate battle, was was still further from his object very severe: indeed, like the battle than before. This general had, of Lutzen, though Bonaparte gainindeed, passed one of the branches ed ground by jt, he gained it at of ehe Spree; but he could not form such an expense of men, and with a junction with Ney, in consequence such a conviction of the bravery of the allies retaining possession of and skill of the allies, that he must the heights on his right, between have been very unwilling to have that general and himself.

obtained many such victories. But On the 28st the battle was most the most alarming circumstance obstinate and bloody: the left of which occurred during the battle the allies was attacked by Oucinot of B:nutzen was the desertion of a and Macdonald, but notwithstand.. whole battalionof Wurtemburghers, ing their superiority they made as well as a body of Saxon troops, scarcely any impression upon it: -~à circumstance which decidedly at the same time Ney, Lauriston proves that the victory of the French and Regnier made an attack on was not so great as Bonaparte retheir right: Ney advanced fight, presented it, wiile it must have ing along the banks of the Spree, convinced him, how little depend. as far as the village of Prieloiiz, of evce he could place on the German which he gained possession; but troops. he was soon afterwards driven from The allies continued their retreat it with very considerable loss. As for several days successively: on the occupation of this village was the 21th of May their head quarters of the utrnost consequence to his were wittiin eighteen leagues of future operations, and indeed to Berlin. his success, Bonaparte ordered the We have mentioned, both in the whole of the reserve to be brought account of the battle of Lutzen and up, under the command of Soult. of Bautzen, the great superiority of The allies, in consequence of this the French: this seems a surprising movement, were obliged to turn and uncountable circumstance. their force from attacking Ney to According to the statement given defend themselves against Soult; in our gazctie, the army of the aland Ney, taking advantage of this lies, in the latter battle, did not circumstance, advanced again in amount to 60,000 men, while the front, and thus the whole French force of Bonaparte is calculated at force was at last brought into ac. 120,000.

With this very great tion together. The allies, however, disproportion, the allies stood no


chance with their opponent, unless along the course of the river Katz, they persevered in their plan of re- bach to the Oder: the space betreating; only offering resistance tween the respective lines of dewhere their interiority was com- marcation, including the city of pensated by the strength of the po- Breslau, was declared neutral.' By sition which they were enabled to this agreement, nearly the whole of occupy.

Prussia was left in the occupation While one part of the French of the allies; the whole of Saxony army advanced towards Berlin, and the Rhenish confederacy in another took the route into Silesia. that of the French : the fortresses On the 24th, Ney, Lauriston and of Dantzic, Zamose, Modlin, StetRegnier forced the passage of the tin, and Custrin, in which were Neiss, and on the 25th, that of the French garrisons, and which were Queiss: after the passage of the lat. besieged by the allies, were to be ter river, three divisions of Macdo. victualled every five days. As the nald's corps attacked the allies, in actual state of Hamburgh, at the the hope of intercepting their re- period of the conclusion of the artreat; but they failed in their pur- mistice, was not accurately known pose. The allies, after this, seem to either purty, it was agreed that, to have deviated from the direct if it was only besieged, it should line towards the Oder, and to have be treated like other besieged moved upon Schweidnitz: this towns ; and in this part of Ger. change in the direction of their re- many the Elbe was to be the line treat probably was occasioned by of demarcation between the bellitheir desire to occupy the strong gerent arnjies, Hostilities were places of Silesia, and by their hope not to recommence till six days afibat Bonaparte would noi dare to ter the denunciation of the armis. follow them so far into that coun- tice at the respective head quarters. try. In this, however, they were It is difficult to determine on mistaken; for he pushed one divi. which side the advantage of this sion so rapidly after them, as with. armistice lay: both were probably in ten days after the battle of Baut- desirous of it; and as the emperor zen to have advanced 100 miles of Austria pressed it with great into Silesia.

earnestness, each party readily The emperor of Austria, in the agreed to it, in the hope of gaining mean time, was exerting himself to his assistance, or avoiding his hosbring about an armistice; and from tility. It was, however, extremely the frequent mention which was unpopular throughout Germany, made of it in the French papers, and especially in the Prussian it was evident that Bonaparte was states; so much so, indeed, that anxious that it should take place. the king of Prussia deemed it ne. At length on the 4th of June it cessary to issue a proclamation, in was concluded; it was to continue, which he declared that the armistice on all points, till the 20th of July: was not sought for by the allied the line of demarcation for the al- powers ;--that Bonaparte had relied army extended from the fron- quested it ;-and, that the allied tiers of Bohemia to the Oder, powers would make use of it only through Bettlern and Althorf: the to reinforce their armies, and attack line of the French army extended the enemy of Germany, at its exfrom Bohemia - Lahn, and thence piration, with more vigour.



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