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of their sovereigns; now they were frontier to defend her indepen. cordial and zealous in their co- dence: but she was at war with operation. The allied powers also England and the Porte, and soon very wisely made use of other wea- after with Sweden. pons besides those of war: the most 5. This latter power was in a eloquent and popular writers in state of neutrality with France; Germany were employed to rouse and Napoleon offered her subsidies the people ; to hold out Bonaparte to induce her to declare herself for as no longer formidable; as having him. been conquered; but still as the 6. Napoleon had an army of implacable enemy of the happiness 500,000 veterans upon the Oder and peace of Germany; as the de- and the Vistula to attack Russia: stroyer alike of the liberty of the this war drew more than 600 mil. sovereign and the peasant.' These lions out of his treasury, and 2,000 writers particularly dwelt on the pieces of artillery from his arsenals. contrast between Bonaparte before The Poles supplied him with 80,000 he crossed the Niemen and invaded men, and 100 millions. He brought Russia, and Bonaparte at the per into this war 70,000 cavalry. riod when Austria joined the coali- 7. Napoleon had in his own tion against him. We shall give hands the monopoly of colonial the following as one of the best and products throughout almost all most striking: the details which it Europe. This monopoly brought contains will, we trust, justify us 'him in 100 millions. for inserting it entire, notwithstand- 8. Napoleon drew contributions ing its length.

from Austria, from Prussia, and

from Illyria. He had the revenue ECONOMICAL,

of all Italy, from the confederacy OF NAPOLEON,

of Germany, from Poland, and IN THE Years 1812 and 1813. that of the French empire, which JANUARY 1812.

amounted to nearly 1000 millions.

Notwithstanding those resources, 1. Napoleon was in absolute pos. the deficiency for the year 1812 session of the French empire, the was doubled. kingdom of Italy, Illyria, and the 9. Notwithstanding the battles southern part of Spain.

of Aspern and Eylau, Napoleon 2. He was undoubtedly master had preserved the reputation of of the states of the confederation of being invincible; he enjoyed an the Ruine, of Prussia, of the king- opinion that nothing could resist dom of Naples, and the grand him: it was sufficient for him to duchy of Warsaw; he had pos. order, and every thing gave way session of the fortresses on the to his will, to order, and it was Oder, and a limited alliance with done,—to direct, and every thing Denmark.

bended to his wish,-10 announce 3. Austria dreaded his power ;

an event, and the prediction was her mütary system was reduced fulilled. Spain alone formed an circunstances rendered her his al. exception; which however had not ly; she consented to give him dissipated the belief. 30,000 men. 4. Russia kept her ports shut;

AUGUST 1813. she had 120,000 men upon her 1. Napoleon his lost a part of

the

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE
PHYSICAL,

AND
MORAL FORCES

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the 32d military division, a part of exists a continental system against Illyria, all Spain, and the Dalma. England; it is, in fact, destroyed. tian islands.

9. The battles of Smolensk and 2. Prussia, Mecklenburgh, and Borodino, of Krasnoi, of Lutzen, the grand duchy of Warsaw are and all the last campaign, prove now no longer his dependencies; that with inferior forces he can be Prussia and Mecklenburgh are, on resisted and beaten; and that, conthe contrary, in arms against him. sequently, he must be beaten with

3. Austria has an army of up- equal forces, and destroyed with wards of 400,000 men; she is no superior ones. longer allied to France, but has acceded to the new alliance against her. From this comparative statement

4, Russia has beyond her fron- it results that Napoleon's power tiers 200,000 men: she occupies and glory have sensibly declined the grand duchy of Warsaw ; her since the year 1812. His army ports are open ; she is united with had then besides 110,000 auxilia. England, Prussia, Sweden, and ries-viz. 50,000 Poles, 30,000 Spain; she is at peace with Tur- Prussians, and 30,000 Austrians ; key, which considerably increases his enemy now has an auxiliary her moral force, and it has been force of 330,000,--yiz, 200,000 proved by facts that she cannot be Austrians, 100,000 Prussians, and conquered.

30,000 Swedes. His revenues have 5. Sweden, having entered into decreased 100 millions; and the dithe new war, furnishes more than minution will be still much greater, 30,000 men, who are acting on the if we take into consideration what continent.

he drew by requisitions from Prus, 6. Those 500,000 veterans of sia and the countries of the confeNapoleon have disappeared; he deration of the Rhine, and the war has lost all his cavalry,--several contributions of Prussia, Poland, marshals,—80 generals ;-of this and Austria. army only some thousands of of. There was no alliance against ficers remain to him. The cannon, him, except that of England and arms, effects, the 600 millions are Spain; no other power that could lost, together with Prussian and make war against him, none other Polish contingents. He has only than Russia which was able to re, of the latter 15,000 men, with the . sist him. A new alliance now sub. maledictions of the country.

sists between four powers, which 7. That monopoly has almost en- are in a condition to oppose him tirely disappeared since the ports of with 500,000 combatants :--whole Russia and Prussia have been open- nations will, should it be necessary, ed, since the war terminated be- be under arms. Napoleon so fully tween the Russians and Turks, feels the difficulty of resisting them, and the English occupied the Dal that he almost abandons the penin. matian islands.

sula, which exposes the southern 8. The Austrian, Polish, and provinces of France to invasion, Prussian contributions have ceased. His army is no longer composed of Illyria is exhausted, The war and veterans; his cavalry is no longer army expenses have doubled. formidable, nor the most warlike What then will be the deficit for in Europe. Four fifths of his army the year 1813? There no longer are composed of young men, im. 181%,

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perfectly disciplined, and torn from to pay, with his own finances, those the arts and agriculture, which who serve him; and maintain at produces an enormous deficiency home an army which will increase in the total revenues of his states. the malady which is undermining

The allies, or rather the slaves of his gigantic empire, and which wili Napoleon, especially Saxony and crush him under its ruins. Bavaria, are no longer able to fur. nish the contingents he had im - We have already stated that Boposed on them. Deprived of the naparte preserved a profound sigreater part of his former resources, lence as long as he possibly could rehe no longer possesses either the specting the Austrian declaration of means or the right of dictating the war : he was equally silent respectconditions of peace: he will not ing the crown prince of Sweden: but be able to procure new states; he equally from this silence, and from can only obtain it by sacrificing a his invectives against him when he part of those he possesses, which could no longer pass him over un. will augment the relative power of noticed, it might be inferred that his opponents.

he dreaded his talents. Hitherto If he continues the war, the indeed the crown prince had done chances are against him; the loss little or nothing for the common of several states, which he has ale cause : while the Austrians and ready sustained, has not been Prussians were combating Bona. counter-balanced by any new con. parte at the battles of Lutzen and quests. In losing 600,000 of his Bautzen, the Swedish army was troops, he acquired new enemies, stationed at a great distance from who will combat him with the the scene of action, in Pomerania : same forces which have before sup- even here, however, they were of ported his cause and his interests

. some service, for they kept in check Six millions of Prussians, nineteen the army of Davoust. But as soon millions of Austrians, and four as it was determined to recommence. millions of the duchy of Warsaw, hostilities, the crown prince prein all twenty-nine millions of men, pared to take a more active parts who were under his control or his and much was anticipated from his allies, are now united against him. talents; from the excellent state of The deficit in his finances will aug. discipline into which he had brought ment without measure, and force the troops under his command; and him to aggravate the state of con- from the confidence with which his straint and the sufferings of -his junction would inspire the allies. subjects, which he can no longer According to the plan laid down relieve by his foreign receipts. Åll by the allies, the protection of Bere those considerations should have lin was assigned to him; and for induced him to make peace; but that purpose, about the middle of it now remains for the allies to August he removed his headquarconclude it on such a basis as will ters to Potsdam : at the same time Grender it solid and honourable... he issued a most energetic and ani

They will augment their physical mating proclamation to the troops and moral force ; draw closer their under his command. He told them reciprocal ties; whilst he, directed that the extraordinary events of the by the same ambition, the same last twelve years, of that period dura destructive objects, will be obliged ing which Bonaparte bad ruled over

France,

France; had rendered it necessary peace, which all other governments for him to conduct them into Ger- anxiously desired, and which was many: had it not been for those necessary for the establishment of events, Europe would still have ye. his own power, and for the wellmained as one great family, con- being of France; but he had invinced of their mutual dependence, dignantly rejected it.-—" Soldiers! and anxious for their mutual wel. it is to arms then we must have refare. But those events had render- course, to conquer repose and ined it necessary for Sweden to cross dependence. The same sentiments the sea that divided her from Ger- which guided the French in 1792, many: the cause of Europe was and which prompted them to asintrusted to the protection of sol. semble, and to combat the armies diers from the banks of the Wolga which entered their territory, and the Don; from the shores of ought now to animate your valour Britain, and the mountains of the against those who, after having in. north. At such a time, when the vaded the land which gave you happiness of a large portion of the birth, still hold in chains your bre. civilized world was at stake, rivalry, thren, your wives, and your chil. national prejudices, and antipathies dren. Soldiers! what a noble ought to disappear before the grand prospect is opened to you! The liobject of the independence of na- berty of Europe ; the re-establishtions. Why were they called to ment of its equilibrium; the end arms? Not to gratify ambition, or of that convulsive state which has to achieve conquest; but for a more had 20 years duration ; finally, the justifiable, a nobler, object. The peace of the world will be the reemperor Napoleon could not live sult of your efforts. Render your. in

peace with Europe unless Eu- selves worthy, by your union, your tope was his slave; and to prevent discipline, and your courage, of the this, to oppose the restless and un- high destiny which awaits you !" satisfied desire of conquest which Besides the crown prince of Swedwelt in his bosom, they were called den, another Frenchiman entered to arms. Did they doubt that such the lists against Bonaparte. Ge. was the character of Napoleon ? neral Moreau, after he was liberawere they afraid to combat with ted by him, had gone over to the him? He had proved that this was United States of America, where, his character, and that he was not in peace, quiet, and retirement, he unconquerable, by the 400,000 men spent some years of his life: but whom he carried 700 miles from whether he grew weary of his contheir country, and the greatest part dition there, or whether he consiof whom féll victims to his mad dered himself called upon by the ambition. Had he been a man of voice of patriotism and the duty he common humanity, or even of owed to his fellow-creatures, or common policy, after this signal whether both these motives acted disaster he would have been dis- upon him, is not certain; but it posed for peace: but neither his appears that the emperor Alexanmisfortunes in Russia, nor the de- der, as soon as he found thilt war feats which his armies experienced with Bonaparte was inevitable, sent in Spain, effected any beneficial al- over a contidential person to Ameteration in his character or views. rica, with whom general Moreau. Peace was offered to. liim; that returned to Europe. He joined

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allied army soon after the congress but feebly under the strict discipline at Prague was dissolved.

of an army, and among men who On two accounts his presence with have scarcely any opportunity eithe allies was deemed of importance: ther of knowing one another's sen-, in the first place, his military talents timents, or of acting together. were undoubtedly of the first order; It is foreign to our purpose to they had been proved such by his examine minutely or elaborately conduct in every campaign in which whether Moreau was justified in he had been engaged, and most taking up arms against his country; conspicuously so by his celebrated we shall, however, offer one or two retreat out of Germany. His mia remarks on the subject. In the first litary talents were indeed of a dif- place, those who contended that he ferent class and description from was perfectly justified, grounded those of Bonaparte; perhaps there their argument on this considerawas in him less quickness of con- tion, that it was not against but for ception and c.mbination ; but, on his country he was about to fight: the other hand, he possessed a cool but by thus arguing they admitted and comprehensive judgement, virtually, though not directly, that which penetrated the most obscure the person himself was the proper and difficult parts of the most in- judge of what was for the benefit of tricate plan. On him and on the his country: or, in other words, crown prince the allied powers de- they admitted that in some cases pended for the arrangement of the it was lawful to oppose the regal campaign; and as they each had authority; for it will avail them great military talents and expe. little to contend that Bonaparte rience, and besides were well ac- was an usurper and a tyrant: still quainted with the favourite plans the question recurs, If it be lawful of Bonaparte, and with the princi- to oppose an usurper and a tyrant, ples on which he conducted his who can be the judge, whether the campaigns, it was hoped that they sovereigu deserves those appellawould be able to oppose him with tions, but the person who is about

to oppose him? In the second place, some expec

In the second place, those who tation seems to have been enter- exclaimed against the conduct of tained that the presence of Moreau Moreau, for taking up arms against with the armies of the allies might Bonaparte, and yet retained their induce the French troops to with. doctrine, that resistance to tyrants draw their allegiance from Bona- ' was lawful, were equally inconsistparte, or at least might render them ent, unless they were prepared to discontented with the war in which assert that the rule of Bonaparte they were engaged. Moreau had was beneficial to France. But, undoubtedly been a great favourite perhaps, in no former wars was with the French soldiers : but those there observable such inconsistency who indulged this expectation do of opinion as in the French revolu. not appear to have been aware, or tionary wars: very many who ad recollected, that soldiers of all na. vocated the cause of the revolution tions soon lose any attachment at its commencement, because they which they may have formed to a conceived it to be advantageous or general; and that, even if it did necessary to France, very strongly continue to exist, it could operate and absurdly transferred their ad.

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