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miration from it to the person who Dresden a few hours before the alopposed the very principles on lies appeared in sight of the place. which it was brought about; while The allies entered Saxony from those who opposed it at first, and, Bohemia by different routes, in orin their mistaken and outrageous der to act on the enemy's flank and zeal against it, exclaimed against rear; while the Prussian army unthe doctrines of liberty, as soon as der the command of Blucher was the people of the continent rose in directed to move from Silesia, and arms against the tyranny of Bona- to threaten Lusatia in front, but to parte, became the warm and en- avoid a general engagement, espethusiastic defenders of those doc- cially against superior numbers. trines.
At first the French advanced to the On the 17th of August hostilities frontiers of Saxony; but they were recommenced : Bonaparte imme- beaten back towards Dres.len, aldiately, with a large force, made a though they endeavoured to defend push against the city of Prague; every inch of ground. The period but when he had advanced within was now arrived when the plan of twelve leagues of it he receivedinfor- the allies was to be put into commation that the positions of some of plete execution; the different cohis corps at Goldberg, &c. in Silesia dumns of their armies were to dewere in imminent danger by the bouche from the mountains and march of the Russians and Prus- passes at such periods as would sians from Breslau. He was there have placed the enemy in a most fore obliged suddenly and rapidly to critical situation; but some of the leave Bohemia ; and on the 21st of troops pushed on with so great eaAugust he succeeded in driving his gerness that the right corps was opponents from the line of the brought into action before the other Bohr. Scarcely however had he a
ac- divisions had gained their proper complished this, when his presence stations. To this corps were opwas absolutely necessary in another posed 15,000 men under general quarter: the allied powers had St. Cyr, supported by 6,000 men formed a bold and comprehensive under general Bonnet: a sharp plan, by which, if they had suc- action commenced, wiich lasted ceeded in it, they would at once some hours; after which the allied have placed Bonaparte in a most force drove the enemy from all desperate situation. The united points, and took some prisoners. army of the Russians, Prussians, The French now returned into their and Austrians, amounting to about entrenched works in the front of 150,000 men, under the command of Dresden, which place the allied arWittgenstein, Kleist, and Schwart- mies encircled. “On the 27th the zenberg, made a movement for the enemy withdrew from their enpurpose of cutting him off from the trenchments into the city and subline of the Elbe, by seizing Dres- urbs. By this time Bonaparte had
When Bonaparte received arrived there. information of their design, he was The allies, having driven the 120 miles from that city: this di- French into the city and suburbs, stance he marched with a strong resolved, if possible, to drive them body of troops in four days, amidst thence also: this, however, they torrents of rain, and in most tem- were sensible was an enterprise of pestuous weather; and reached considerable difficulty, as the na:
tural defences round the town ther was very bad on the day of had been much improved by the attack; it rained almost incessantly. skill of the enemy; and the ex- Bonaparte took advantage of all treme importance of the position these circumstances, and brought led them to expect a very obstinate out an immense number of pieces defence. At four o'clock in the of artillery: the battle consisted evening the troops moved to the as. on both sides chiefly in heavy can. sault, the Prussians forming the nonading, except where charges centre attack.
The operations were made by the allied cavalry: were begun by a tremendous can- the main bodies of infantry, in both nonade: the batteries being placed armies, were never engaged. After in a circular form round the town, several hours of cannonading, the the effect is described as magnifi- French, perceiving that they could cent: the troops moved forward make no impression on the position with the utmost steadiness, and in of the allies,, retired into Dresden. perfect order to the assault. Al. The allies, however, notwithstand. ready they were close to the town ing they had succeeded in repulsing on all sides: an advanced redoubt the enemy, could not remain where with eight guns was taken by the they were, as they were exposed to Austrians in the most gallant man- the risk of having their rear occuner; the enemy flying in all direc- pied by the French, if Bonaparte tions to shelter themselves behind thought proper to pass a considernew defences. It was soon per- able body of troops across the Elbe ceived that it would be impossible at Koningstein and Pirna. Orders to effect practicable breaches in the were therefore given to retire ; and thick wall of the town; so that the the allied army took up a position Austrians could not proceed be in the valley of Toplitz in Bohemia. yond the out-works. Night was The plan of the allies in their atapproaching: the loss of the allies tack on Dresden was undoubtedly was great: the French to the masterly; and though the official amount of 30,000 made a sortie in accounts of the action point out order to separate the allieď troops, some of the causes of its failure, and to take one wing in flank and they do not satisfactorily explain rear. Their design was seen through it. The most disastrous event in and prevented; but at the same the course of this battle was the time it was necessary to draw off mortal wound of general Mcreu: the troops from the assault. towards the middle of the day,
The French, having thus suc- while he was in earnest conversaceeded in repulsing the allies, came tion with the emperor of Russia, on out to attack them on the morning the movements and operations that of the 28th. They possessed great were going forward, he had both advantages in their position for at- his legs carried off by a cannon tack: in their rear was Dresden shot, the ball going through his lined with guns; their communi- horse. At first he gave a deep cations were not intersected: if groan; but when the agony of pain they were unsuccessful, they could was over, he spoke with the utmost retire ; if they made an impression, tranquillity, and called for a segar. they could pursue it up; while the He was carried off the field, on a allies could not follow them under litter made of cossacks' pikes, to a the gurts of the place. The wea cottage at a short distance: but as
This was much exposed to the fire, account the Austrian division of the he was removed further off to the allied army was nearly annihilated: emperor of Russia's head quarters, Te Deum was ordered to be sung at where one of his legs was ampu. Paris ; and the speedy and glorious tated. When the surgeon inform. termination of the war was predict. ed him that he must deprive him ed. In most of this there was his of the other, he observed, without usual exaggeration and deceit; but manifesting any pain or peevishness, he actually appears to have conbut in the calmest manner, that sidered the loss and discomfiture of had he known that before his other the allies as much more serious than was cut off, he should have pre- it really was; and in order to infetred dying. The litter on which tercept their retreat into Bohemia, they had hitherto conveyed him he dispatched Vandamme with a was covered with nothing but wet force, which it would have been straw, and a cloak drenched through madness to have sent against them, with rain, which continued in tor- had he not believed their army to rents the whole day : but they now nave been not only much reduced put more cloaks over him, and laid in numbers, but retreating in great him more comfortably in a good disorder. Vandamme himself was litter, in which he was carried to not only ignorant of the strength of Dippolswalde. Long, however, be- those whom he was to intercept, fore he arrived there, he was again but also of their movements. He drenched with rain: from this place had under his command two corps he was taken to Laun, where every and a division, amounting in the attention and care was bestowed whole to about 30,000 men; with
For some time he this force he crossed the Elbe at seemed to be doing well, and hopes Pirna, and had actually gained were entertained that he miglit possession of the mountain passes, survive his wounds, till a long con- when the Russians under the com. ference took place between him and mand of count Osterman forced three or four of the allied generals, their way through them with the by which he was completely ex- bayonet. The action continued till hausted: soon after this he became late in the evening of the 30th, and extremely sick, and hourly grew was renewed with great obstinacy
« Through the whole of on the 31st, till the French troops, his sufferings he bore his fate with being attacked on all sides, were heroism and grandeur of mind not compelled to retreat: throwing to be surpassed, and appeared to down their arms in every direction, those with whom he conversed, to and abandoning their cannon and endure but little pain, from his ex- standards, they sought shelter treme composure and calmness.' among the woods and mountains. He died at six o'clock of the morn- Vandamme and six other generals ing of the 3d of September.
taken prisoners: besides Bonaparte represented the battle 10,000 men, 60 pieces of artillery, of Dresden as most decidedly fa- and 6 standards. yourable to him: according to his
Position and Strength of the contending Armies- Campaign in Silesia
Battle of the Katzbach- French completely defeated— Blucher's Address
more clearly and thoroughly riority was on the side of the allies ; understand the operations subse, but their superiority in other re. quent to the battle of Dresden, it spects was much more striking and may
be necessary to advert to the important. The greater part of the position and strength of the contend. French soldiers were conscripts ; ing armies previous to that event. not merely unused to war, but either Of the French army, four corps very young or very old, and con. were in Silesia ; four, besides the sequently unfit to endure the fa. guards, near Dresden; three, under tigues of the arduous campaign the command of Oudinot, threaten- which had just commenced.' The ed Berlin from the south ; while soldiers of the allies, on the conthe same city was to be approached trary, were in a most admirable by a strong force under Davoust state of discipline; most of them from the north. Probably the in the vigour of life, and inured te whole of these forces amounted to fatigue and privation. Their con300,000 men. Besides these, Bona- fidence in their leaders, too, must parte had armies of reserve in Fran- have been much greater than that conia, Bavaria, and Italy: the last 'which the French soldiers possessed was under the command of Beauhar- towards Bonaparte. nois, and had been assembled there We have already adverted shortly in order to invade Austria in that to the operations in Silesia ; but it direction.
will be now proper to consider The grand army of the Russians, them more minutely. The cam. Prussians and Austrians, which was paign opened there on the 18ih of united in Bohemia, amounted to August, the allies moving on to. about 280,000 inen: the army in wards Dresden. They first came Silesia, under the command of up with the 3d French corps un. Blucher, to 100,000; and the forces der the command of marshal Ney, under the crown prince, consisting which was driven across the Bohr. of Swedes, Russians, &c. to rather Bonaparte, alarmed at the approach more than 100,000 men. Hence it of the Silesian army, set out to re
inforce Ney on the 21st; and the delivered Prussian Silesia from the
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