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bome, and considered the orders of soon after complied with by the
the English ministry which he had British ministry.
received, he conceived himself bound The army in North Finland had
to return home directly without all this time been left to itself, yet
waiting for any farther orders, un- it had begun to oblige the Russians
Jess the British troops were imme- to retire; and bad it been properly
diately permitted to land. He wrote reinforced, there can be little doubt
a note to that effect to Mr. Thorn- that Finland might have been re-
ton, the British ambassador at Stock- covered. Two expeditions were
holm, who laid it before the King. indeed sent out by the King for the
Gustavus was incensed, and without recovery of South Finland, consist-
farther ceremony ordered Sir John ing each of a few hundred men;
Moore to be confined to bis house. one to land at Obo, the other at
Strong remonstrances on the absur- Vasa; but they were too insignifi-
dity and danger of this step were cant to accomplish any thing, and
made by Mr. Thornton ; but with- served only to diminish the strength
out effect. At last Sir John Moore of the Swedish army. Early in the
made his escape to Gottenburg, and summer the Russians in North Fin-
the British troops returned home to land, who had been much weaken-

ed by their winter campaign, were * All this while Finland and the not able to stand their ground Swedish army in that country were before the Swedish army, which, abandoned to their fate, while including the Finnish militia, 15,000 Swedish troops lay in Sconia amounted to about 13,000 men. because the king had again resumed The Swedes recovered a considerathe project of invading Zealand. ble space of ground, and conducted With this small arms lie proposed themselves with the utmost gallanto besiege Copenhagen, and conquer try and skill; but they were left Zealand: the proposal was referred totally unsupported, and by the to a committee, who' pronounced it month of Septem ver were reduced altogether impracticable. Supposing by continual fighting to about 6000 it even possible for this little army men. All the losses of the Russians to take Copenbagen, it was clear had been supplied, and they were that they could not keep it, now stronger than when they first because the Danes bad it in entered the country. Some trilling their power immediately to besiege expeditions were indeed sent to assist them with a much greater army. the Swedes; but by the express Gustavus sailed for Oland, and after orders of the King, they were obliged writing some ridiculous letters to the to land at so great a distance, and to Russian general, and sailing about fight their way through so great a for weeks in quest of the Swedish space, that they were destroyed galleys, he at last established his piecemeal without being of the least head quarters at Grelsby. Mr. service to the common

cause of Thornton bad recommended open- Syeden. Baron Vegesack, indeed, ing'a negotiation with the Russians at the head of six battalions, by disand Danes; but Gustavus treated obeying the king's commands and the proposal as an insult, quarrelled landing at Christinestadt instead of with Mr. Thornton, and insisted Björnet.orgt, succeeded in reaching upon his recal, a demand which was the northern army, when it was


driven almost to the polar circle, and where they would find ships that quite unable to oppose the Russians. would make them acquainted with TheKing upon this occasion express- their destination. They did so, but ed the greatest displeasure that his found po vessels at the appointed

orders liad not been exactly obeyed, place. The orders given to the though it was demonstrated to him, different commanders were incon. that if the troops had landed atsistent and contradictory, so that Björnebourg not one of them could they had no means of dividing have escaped the Russian troops. the object of their expedition. A

“ South l'inland, which storm arose and scallered the transalready lost, and covered with ports; some were wrecked, and some Russian troops, was more an object toially lost. Meanwhile two sets of consideration with him. He sent of orders had been issued by the a standard bearer to Obo to collect king; one ordering them to the information respecting the state of north, and the other to the south. the country: this man brought back One battalion and two companies of intelligence that 13,000 peasants ColonelSkjöldebrard's brigade meetwere ready to rise in arms against the ing at sea with the vessels carrying Russians. He sent back this man the first orders, joined the army in and one of his life guards to take the north; but only served to inthe command of this supposed arny crease the confusion, arising from of peasants ; 2600 troops were to the want of provisions and resources be sent at the same time under the of every kind. Most of them pecommand of Count Lantingshausen. rished in these dreary iegions, Bot These troops were 'supplied with more than 90 returning again to only sixty rounds of ball cartridges Sweden. apiece: and thongh the general " I shall pass by several other exremonstrated on the insufficiency peditions to Finland, undertaken of such a supply, which would be during the course of this year, all of exhausted immediately, he could them small, and all of them as in. procure no more. This liti le army judiciously contrived as possible. was ordered to land at Lokalax, take Had the object of Gustavus been Obo, and then to join General Vege- the loss of Finland, and the desack's corps. After various delays, struction of the Swedisb arms, this small body of men landed at he could have taken no steps Varanpä, and took possession of a better calculated to accomplish strong fort about four miles from them. No valour on the part of the place of debarkation. They were the Swedish troops, no skill on the immediately attacked by the Rus- part of their commanders, could te sians, who were repulsed; but the of any avail : because, by the conSwedish ammunition being speedily summate folly of the King, tliey expended, while the number of their were exposed every where to ieu enemies had increased, they were times their number of Russian obliged to return to their trans troops, without any of the requisites ports, which they effected without which constitute an army; and Joss.

every expedition was left to its fate An army of 6000 mer without inquiry, and without recollected at Gefle, and ordered to luctance. T'he Swedes are unanibail to the northern coast of Oland, nously of opinion that Finland was



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lost, and their army ruined, by the den, that monarch, whose finances extreme folly and incapacity of the were in the most deplorable state, King; that the resources of the imperiously demanded an increase country were quite sufficient to of the subsidy advanced to him by have defended it; and that the Great Britain, and the immediate Swedish army, had it been judi. Payment of a sum of money to ciously placed, would have bid de- answer bis exigencies. Mr. Merry fiance to all the efforts of their ene- informed bim that he had no powers mies, at least for several years. to enter upon any such negotiation; But Gostavus was dreaming of con. but to prevent an immediate quarrel quests, and his eager desire to copy between the two countries, he after the example of Charles XII. allowed him to draw bills for could ill brook the idea of defence, 300,000l. without any orders from to which, in bis circumstances, any his own government. These bills King of common sense would have were returned dishonoured by the restricted himself. Of all the race British ministry, and a note was of Gustavus Vasa, he was by far written at the same time, advising the weakest that had ever sat upon Gustavus to make peace with the the throne of Sweden,whilst his pas- belligerent powers, assuring him sion for war, and the erroneous that ihe British ministry would with opinion that he had formed of his pleasure release him from his enown abilities and qualifications, made gagements, and keep up the usual him the most injurious to his communications between the two country of any prince that Sweden kingdoms, even supposing him to had ever obeyed.

make peace with France and Russia. “I am conscious that this picture Gustavus was indignant at this note. of the conduct and capacity of Gusta- He again declared his unalterable vus IV. is very different from what is resolution never to make peace generally entertained in this country. - with Buonaparte or the Emperor of It is very different from what has Russia. He immediately ordered been uniformly inculcated in all our an embargo on the British mernewspapers, and, indeed, as different chant ships at Gottenburg, comas possible from the opinion which manded that pilots should be reI myself entertained before I went fused to the British ships of war, to Sweden. But it is an opinion and that if they attempted to sail which must be adopted by every without pilots they should be treated person who will make himself ac- as enemies. He wrote a letter with quainted with the facts which took his own hand to the King of Denplace in Sweden during his reign. mark, informing him that he was I have already stated a considerable already at war with England, and number of these; but more are still requesting an immediate cessation wanting to complete the picture. of hostilities, and a negotiation for

" In consequence of the quarrel peace. But before this letter was between Mr. Thornton, the British sent off he received information that ámbassador, and Gustavus, that the Danes had circulated revolugentleman had been recalled by the tionary proclamations in Sconia. British government, and Mr. Merry He immediately tore his letter in sent out in his place. In his first pieces, recalled the embargo of the conversation with the King of Swe- British vessels, and entered into a


new treaty with the British minis- small number; such the discontent ter,

both of the officers and men ; such « The crisis of Sweden was now the want of provisions and ammu. at hand. The Swedish army in nition, that very little resistance Finland bad been driven out of the could bave been opposed, and Swecountry and nearly annihilated. The den must infallibly have been overarmy of the west had been equally run and divided. In this dreadful unsuccessful in Norway, and the dilemma, when no hope was left, Norwegians had actually invaded the country was saved by an unforeSweden. The Swedish supplemen- seen revolution, which wrested the tary army of 30,000 men had been sceptre from the unworthy hands of nearly destroyed, partly by want of Gustavus, and saved the country clothing and exposure to severe cold, from partition by a speedy and ne. and partly by being sent upon ser- cessary peace. I shall give an acvices quite unsuitable to the tender count of this revolution, with as age of the troops, wbo' were mostly much precision as my information boys not more than 19 years of age. on the subject will perinit.The treasury was absolutely ex- " It is a fundamental maxim in hausted, and the violent taxes to the British constitution that it is the which the king had recourse were duty of prince to promote the wel. so tyrannical and unjust that they fare of his subjects and county; could yot be levied. The whole and that whenever his conduct bemoney remaining for carrying on the

comes' unequivocally inconsistent war, i had been credibly informed, with the interests of his people, redid not cxcced 2,000l. sterling. sistance becomes not only innocent Nicanwhile four separate armies but an indispensable duty. It was were preparing to invade the king- by this maxim that the revolution dom on every side. Two Russian of 1688 was justified, which hurled armies were ready to march ; the the family of the Stuarts from the one from Obo over the ice was des throne, and introdaced a new and tined to take possession of Stock- a foreign dynasty. Never did a holm, an open town, and incapable greater necessity for a revolution of any defence; the other was to exist in any country than it did in proceed from the north and fall Sweden in the beginning of the dow'n upon Delecarlia and Nerike. year 1809. The finances of the A French and Danish army in con. country were in the most deplorable junction were to cross the Sound state, the army was harassed and upon the ice. But they were for- cut up in detail, as if it had been tunately prevented by the sudden the professed object of the king to breaking up of the ice, and the ap- annihilate it. Three powerful napearance of some British ships of tions were preparing to invade and war. Finally, the Norwegian army, divide the kingdom of Sweden under the command of Prince Au. among them. Gustavus had quargustenburg, was to take possession relled with bis only ally, and obstiof Wermeland and West Gothland. nately refused to listen to any terms Such was the weakened state of the of peace with France and Russia; Swedish army, which in one year though it was demonstrated that had been reduced from about such a peace was essentially neces100,000 men to a comparatively sary, for the interests of his country,


and that perseverance in the war count of the origin of the conspiracy. could lead to nothing else than com- Every body asserted that the Duke plete ruin.

of Súdermania was altogether unac“ The liberty of the press had quainted with it. This is possible, been totally annihilated in Sweden, though from the subsequent conduct so that the people in consequence of that prince I can hardly bring were but imperfectly acquainted myself to believe that this was the with the state of Europe. The King case. The two gentlemen, from had all along been very popular with whom my principal information was the people, who, ignorant of his real obtained, were neither of them character, ascribed all his errors in actors in the conspiracy; though Germany to the want of capacity of they took a very active part in the his ministers. Even the com- framing of the new constitution, mencement of the Russian and and one of them indeed was for a Danish war did not alter their sen- ort time a secretary of state, I timents, and, the losses sustained in must satisfy myself with giving the Finland served only to irritate the particulars, such as I learned them, minds of the people. Popular en- without being able to throw much thusiasmi was raised to the highest new light either upon the origin, or pi:ch, and the most glorious results the names of the original conspiwould have taken place had the rators. But the conspiracy appears throne been filled by a prince who to me to have originated in the understood how to profit by the army, and to bave been very genedisposition of bis subjects. But the ral all over the kingdom. The management of the war in the sum- actors in it were all officers in the mer and autumn of 1808 opened army, and even some battalions of the eyes of the whole Swedish common soldiers were let into the nation. The army were disgusted secret. with a prince who expected from “Various projects and consulta. them impossibilities, who paid no tions about a revolution took place attention to their lives or their com- at different times, and were so pubforts, and who refused to share the licly talked of, that if the governtoils and hardships to which he ex- ment of Gustavus had possessed the posed them. The barbarous treat- least vigilance, the whole project ment and cruel fate of the supple- must have been discovered. Difmentary army excited the compas- ferent schemes were proposed and sion of all ranks, and raised a corre- abandoned in succession, and the sponding abhorrence at the unfeel- ardour of the conspirators began to ing mind of its author. The de- cool. At this time an officer of plorable state of the finances, the high rank, in the disguise of a serdetermination of the king never to vant to his own adjutant, arrived make peace, and the absurd plans from the army of the north. He which he bad projected for the next found about twenty persons in campaign, awakened in the mind of Stockholm anxious to bring about every thinking man the pecessity of a revolution ; but not determined taking some immediate step to save either about the time or the meatheir tottering country.

sures to be pursued. After some It was impossible to obtain in consultation, the different senti. Sweden any very satisfactory ac- ments of this body were reconciled,


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