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feedeth them. It is a manifest Argument of the divine Care and Providence, in supplying the World with Food and Necessaries, that the Ravens, accounted as unclean, and little regarded by Man, destitute of Stores, and that live by Accidents, by what falleth here and there} that such a Bird, I say, should be provided with sufficient Food} especially if that be true, which Arijlotk (/)» Pkny (?)> an£l Ælian (/&), report of their unnatural Affection and Cruelty to their Young: *' That they expel them their Nests as soon as *' they can fly, and then drive them out of the "Country".
Thus having considered the wife Appointment of the Creator, in suiting the Variety of Food, to Variety of Animals: Let us in the
IV. Place, Take a View of the peculiar Food, which particular Places afford to the Creatures inhabiting therein.
It hath been already observed (*")> that every Place on the Surface of the terraqueous Globe, is stocked with proper Animals, whose Organs of Life and Action are curiously adapted to each respective Place. Now it is an admirable Act of the divine Providence, that every Place affords a proper Food to all the living Creatures therein. All the various Regions of the world, the different Climates (£), the various Soils, the Seas, the
(/) Ariftot. I. 9. c. 31. Hist. Animal.
(g) Pliny affirms this of the Crow as well as Ravin 1 CfUrt omnes [j. e. Cornices] ex todem genere fellunt nidis pullos, ac volart cogunt, stcut & Corvi, qui —— robustos funs fœrus fugant longiks. Nat. Hist. L 10. C. iz.
ih) Var. Hist.
(k) Admiranda Naturt difpensath est, ut aliter, aHoqm tncio, temport, &t indusirid colatur terra septentrional'n, aliter ^Ethiopia, &c. Quoad AyMJlopares, hoc ctrtum est, in pleris
Waters, nay our very Putrefactions, and most nasty Places about the Globe, as they are inhabited by some or other Animal, so they produce some proper Food or other, affording a comfortable Subsistence to the Creatures living there. I might for Instances (/) of this, bring the great Variety of Herbs, Fruits and Grains on the Earth, the large Swarms of Insects in the Air, with every other Food of the Creatures residing in the Earth, or flying in the Air. But I shall stop at the Waters, because the Psalmist, in the sore-cited civth Psalm, speaks with relation to the especial Provision for the Inhabitants of the Waters; and also by reason that many Land Animals have their chief Maintenance from thence.
que agris Vestrogothorum, parte objecld Meridional} plagt, Hordeum /patio 36 Dierum a Jemine projttto maturum colligi, hoc est a fine Junii usque medium August's, aliquando celerius. Ea namque maturitas ex soli natura, aerisque dementia, ac humore lapillorum fovente radices, Soleque torrente, necejfario provenit, ut ita nafcatur, ac maturetur, talefque [pica, sex ordines in numero arista, habent. Ol. Mag. Hist. 1 1 $. c. 8. Prota cr pafcua tant.i luxuriant gramtnum ubertate ac dherfitate, ut necejsum fit inde arcere jumenta, he nimio herbarum tsu crepcnt, &c. Id. ib. I. 19. c. 36.
(i) Among the many noble Contrivances for Food, I cannot but attribute that universal Alimenc, Bread, to the Revelation, or at least the Inspiration of the Creator and Conservator of Mankind; not only because it is a Food used in all, or most Parts of the World; but especially because it is of incomparable Use in the great Work of Digestion, greatly assisting the Ferment, or whatever causes the Digestion of the Stomach. Of which take this Example from the noble Mr. Boyle. *: He extracted a Menstruum from Bread alone, "that would work on Bodies more Compact than many "hard Minerals, nay even on Glass it self, and do many »* Things that Aqua-form could not do——— Yet by no "means was this so corrosive a Liquor as Aq. sort, or as the «• other acid Menstruum'. Vid. the ingenious and learned Dr. Harris's Lex. Tech. iierbo Menstruum, where the way of preparing it may be met with.
Now one would think, that the Waters were a very unlikely Element to produce Food for so great a Number of Creatures, as have their Subsistence from thence. But yet how rich a Promptuary is it, not only to large multitudes of Fishes, but also to many amphibious Quadrupeds, Insects, Reptiles, and Birds! From the largest Leviathan^ which the Psalmi/l faith (m) playeth in the Seas, to the smallest Mite in the Lakes and Ponds, all are plentifully provided forj as is manifest from the Fatness of their Bodies, and the Gaiety of their Aspect and Actions.
And the Provision which the Creator hath made for this Service in the Waters is very observable; not only by the Germination of divers aquatick Plants there, but particularly by appointing the Waters to be the Matrix of many Animals, particularly of many of the Insect-Kind, not only of such as are peculiar to the Waters, but also of many appertaining to the Air and the Land, who, by their near Alliance to the Waters, delight to be about them, and by that means become a Prey, and plentiful Food to the Inhabitants of the Waters. And besides these, what prodigious Shoals do we find of minute Animals, even sometimes discolouring the Waters (»)! Of these (not only in the Water, but in the Air and on Land) I have always thought there was some more than ordinary
(m) Pfal. civ. 26.
(») The Insects that for the most part discolour the Waters, are the small Insects of the Shrimp kind, called by Swam* merdam, Pulex aquaticus arborescens. These I have often seen so numerous in stagnating Waters in the SummerMonths, that they have changed the Colour of the Waters to a pale or deep Red, sometimes a Yellow, according to the Colour they were of. Of this Swammerdam hath a pretty Story told him by Dr. Florence Schuyl, viz. Se aliquando, is!titiiis inttntum, magno quodum & korrisico rumore fuiffe tur
1 X ~~ Na«» nary Use intended by the All-wise Creator. And having bent many of my Observations that way, I have evidently found it accordingly to be. For be they never so numberless or minute, those Animals serve for Food to some Creatures or other. Even those Animalcules in the Waters, discoverable only with good Microscopes, are a Repast to others there, as I have often with no less Admiration than Pleasure seen (<?).
batum, C71 fimul ad caufam ejus inquirendam excitatum; inrum fe vix earn in finem ftirrexiffe, cum Ancilla ejus pxne exanimis adcurreret, cr m;dto cumpngultu referret, omnem Lugditnl [Batavorum] aquam ejfe mutatam in [anguinem. The Cause of which, upon Examination he found to be only from the numerous Swarms of those Pulices. V. Swarnm. Hist. Insect, p. 70.
The Cause of this great Concourse, and Appearance of those little Insects, I have frequently observed to be to perform their Coi't; which is commonly about the latter end of May, and in June. At that Time they are very venereous, frisking and catching at one another; aud many of them conjoined Tail to Tail, with their Bellies inclined one towards another.
At this Time also they change their Skin or Slough; which I conceive their rubbing against one another mightily promoteth. And what if at this Time they change their Quarters? Vid. Book VIII. Chap. 4. Note (/),
These small Insects, as they are very numerous, so are Food to many Water-Animals. I have seen not only Ducks shovel them up as they swim along the Waters, but divers Insects also devour them, particularly some of the middie-Iized SquilU aquaticx, which are very voracious Insects.
(0) Besides the Pulices last mentioned, there are in the Waters other Animalcules very numerous, which are scarce visible without a Microscope. In May, and the Summer Months, the green Scum on the top of stagnating Waters, is nothing else but prodigious Numbers of these Animalcules: So is likewise the green Colour in them, when all the Water seems green. Which Animalcules, in all Probability, serve for Food to the Pulices Aquatici, and other the minuter Animals of the Waters. Of which I gave a pregnant Instance in one of the Nymph& of Gnats, to my Friend the late admirable Mr. Kay, which he was pleased to publish in the last Edition of his Wisdom of God in the Creation, p. 430.
But now the usual Objection is, that Necessity maketh Use (p). Animals must be fed, and they make use of what they find: In the desolate Regions, and in the Waters, for Instance, they feed upon what they can come at> but, when in greater Plenty, they pick and chuse.
But this Objection hath been already in some measure answered by what hath been said} which
(j>) Nil adeo quoniam natum'st in Corpore, ut uti Poffemus. fed quod natumft, id procreat it sum.
And afterwards, Propterea capitur Cibus, ut fuffulciat artus. Et recreet vtreis interdatus, at que patentem Per membra ac venas ut amorem obturet edendi. And after the fame manner he difcourscth of Thirst, and divers other Things. Vid. Lucres. I.4. if. 831, eye.
Against this Opinion of the Epicureans, Galen ingeniously argues in his Discourse about the Hand. Hon enim Manus jpfk (faith he) hominem artes docuerunt, fed Ratio. Manus autern ip[& funt artium organa; ficut Lyra mufici —— Lyrtt muficam non docuit, fed est ipfius artifex per earn, qua pnditus est, Rationem : agere autem non potest ex arte abfque organis, ita osr una qudibet anima facultates qua/dam a. fua ipfius substantial obtintt, —— Quod autem corporis particuU anitnam non impellunt, —— mamfeste videre licet, fi animalia retens nata confideres, qu& quidem prius agere conantur, qukm ftrfeclas habeant particulas. Ego namque Bovis vitulum cornibus petere conantem fipenumero nidi, antequam ei nata essent cornua; Et pullum Equi calcitrantem, &C. Omne enim animal sut ipfius Anim& facultates, ac in quos ufus panes fit A folleant maxime, nullo dotiore, pr&fentit. —— Slua igitur rations did potest, animalia partium ufus a. partibus doceri, cum cr antequam illas habeant, hoc cognofeere videantur t Si igitur Ova tria acceperis, unum Aquilt, alterum Anatis, reliquum Serpentis, v calore modico foveris, animaliaque excluferis; itla quidem alts volare conantia, antequam volare poffint; hoc autem revolvi videbis, ©• ferpere affeclans, quamvis moll* ailhuc & invalidum fuerit. Et fi, dum perfecla erunt, in una eademque domo nutriveris, deinde ad locum fubdialem duila emiferis, Aquila quidem ad sublime; Anas autem in paludem ; — Serpens verb sub terra irrepet — Animalia quidem mihi videntur Natura mag'ts quam Ratione ar tern aliquam [ysx~ »i**artificiosa] exercere: Apes finprt alveoles, $cc. Galen d? usuPart 1. c, 3.