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Body, to perform their several Offices? How could we secure and guard them so well, as in the verv Places, and in the self same Manner in which they are already plac'd in the Body? And lastly, to name no more, What Covering, what Fence could we find out for the whole Body, better than that of Nature's own providing, the Skin (g)? How could we shape it to, or brace it about every Part better, either for Convenience or Ornament? What better Texture could we give it, which although less obdurate and firm, than that of some other Animals; yet is so much the more sensible of every touch, and more compliant with every Motion? And being easily defensible by the Power of Man's Reason and Art, is therefore much the properest Tegument for a reasonable Creature.

(j) Compare here Galen's Observations dt Us. Part. L. it, c. 15. Also L. %. c. 6. See also Cowper. Anat. wherein Tab. 4. are very elegant Cuts of the Skin in divers Parts of the Body, drawn from microscopical Views; as also of the papilU Pyramidales, the sudoriferous Glands and Vessels, the Hairs, &c.

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CHAP. VII.

Os the Provision in Man's Body against Evils.

HAving taking a transient View of the Structure, and Lodgment of the Parts of human Bodies} let us next consider the admirable Provision that is made throughout Man's Body, to stave off Evils, and to discharge (a) them when befallen. For the Prevention of Evils, we may take the Instances already given, of the Situation of those faithful Sentinels, the Eye, the Ear, and Tongue, in the fuperiour Part of the Body, the better to descry Dangers at a Distance, and to call out presently for Help. And how well situated is the Hand to be a sure and ready Guard to the Body, as well as the faithful Performer of most of its Services? The Brain, the Nerves, the Arteries, the Heart (£), the Lungs i and in a

(a) One of Nature's most constant Methods here, is by the Glands, and the Secretions made by them; the Particulars of which being too long for these Notes, I shall refer to the modern Anatomists, who have written on these Subjects; and indeed, who are the only Men that have done it tolerably: Particularly, our learned Drs. Cockhmn, Keil, Morland, and others at Home and Abroad: An Abridgment of whose Opinions and Observations, for the Reader's Ease, may be met with in Dr. Harris's Lex. Tech. Vol. z. under the Words Glands, and Animal Secretion.

(b) In Man, and most other Animals, the Heart hath the Guard of Bones; but in the Lamprey, which hath no Bones, (no not so much as a Back-bone,) the Heart is very strangely fecur'd? and lies immur d, or capfulated in a Cartilage, or grisly Substance, which includes the Heart, and its Auricle, us the

Skull doth the Brain in other Animals. Powers Micros.

(Qbser. iz.

* Word

Word, all the principal Parts, how well are they barricaded, either with strong Bones, or deep Lodgments in the Flesh, or some such the wisest, and fittest Method, most agreeable to the Office and Action os the Part? Besides which, for greater Precaution, and a farther Security, whac an incomparable Provision hath the infinite Contriver of Man's Body made for the Loss of, or any Defect in some of the Parts we can least spare, bydoubling them? By giving us two Eyes, two Ears, two Hands, two Kidneys, cwo Lobes of the Lungs, Pairs of the Nerves, and many Ramifications of the Arteries and Veins in the fleihy Parts, that there may not be a Defect of Nourishment of the Parts, in Cafes of Amputation, or Wounds, or Ruptures of any of the Vessels.

And as Man's Body is admirably contriv'd, and made to prevent Evils; so no less Art and Caution hath been us'd to get rid of them, when they do happen. When by any Misfortune, Wounds or Hurts do befal ■, or when by our own wicked Fooleries and Vices, we pull down Diseases and Mischiefs upon our selves, what Emunctories {c)y what admirable Passages (/), are dispers'd throughout

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out the Body* what incomparable Methods doth Nature take (e); what vigorous Efforts is slie enabled

bisick Matter from the Brain, and Parts of the Head. Of

which he gives two Examples: One, a Person/ who from a Blow on his Head, had dismal Pains therein, grew Speechless, and lay under an absolute Suppteflion and Decay of his Strength; but found certain Relief, whenever he had a Flu* of Blood, or purulent Matter out of his Ear; which after his Death Valfalva discover'd, was through those Passages.

The other was an apopletlkal Cafe, wherein he found a large Quantity of extravasated Blood, making Way from the Ventricles of the Brain, through those fame Passages. Vassal, dt Ame hum. c. 2. §. 14. and c. j. §. 8.

(«) Hippocrates Lib. de Alimentis, takes notice of the Sagacity of Nature, in finding out Methods and Passages for the discharging Things offensive to the Body, of which the late learned and ingenious Bishpp of Cloghir, in Ireland, (Boyle,) gave this remarkable Instance, to my very curious and ingenious Neighbour and Friend, T>' Acre Barret, Esq; viz.. That in the Plague Year, a Gentleman at the University, had a large Plague Sore gather'd under his Arm, which, when they expected it would have broken, disch.irg'd it self by a more than ordinary large and fœtid Stool; the Sore having no other Vent for it, and immediately becoming sound and well thereon.

Like to which, is the Story of Jos. Zaz.oniw, of a Soldier of thirty five Years of Age, who had a Swelling in his right Hip, accornpany'd with great Pain, ere. By the Use of emollient Medicines, having ripen'd the Sore, the Surgeon intended the next Day to have open'd it; but about Midnight, the Patient having great Provocations to stool, disburthen'd himself three Times; immediately upon which, both the Tumor and Pain ceas'd, and thereby disappointed the Surgeon's Intentions. Ephem. Germ. Anno 1690. Obs. 49. More such Instances we find of Mr. Tonges in Philos. Transail. N°. 313. But indeed there are so many Examples of this Nature in our Phil. Trans. in the Ephem. German. Tho. Bartholine, Rhodiia, SennertMj Hildanus, &c. that it Would be endless to recount them. Some have swallow'd Knives, Bodkins, Needles and Pins, Bullets, Pebbles, and twenty other such Things as could not find a Passage the ordinary Way, but have met with an Exit through the Bladder; or some other Way of Nature's own providing. But pasting over many Particulars, I shall only give one Instance more, 6 because bled to make, to discharge the peccant Humours, to correct the morbifick Matter; and in a Word, to set all Things right again? But here we had best take the Advice of a learned Physician in the Cafe: " The Body, (faith he,) is so contriv'd, as "to be well enough secur'd against the Mutati"ons in the Air, and the lesser Errors we daily "run upon -, did we not in the Excesses of Eat"ing, Drinking, Thinking, Loving, Hating, or "some other Folly, let in the Enemy, or lay vio*c lent Hands upon our selves. Nor is the Body "fitted only to prevent; but also to cure, or miM tigate Diseases, when by these Follies brought "upon us. In most Wounds, if kept clean, and

"from the Air, the Flesh will glew together,

"with its own native Balm. Broken Bones are "cemented with the Callus, which themselves "help to make". And so he goes on with ample Instances in this Matter, too many to be here fpecify'd (/). Among which he instanceth in the Distempers of our Bodies, shewing that even many of them are highly serviceable to the Discharge of malignant Humours, and preventing greater Evils.

And no less kind than admirable is this Contrivance of Man's Body, that even its Distempers

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because it may be a good Caution to some Persons, that these Papers may probably fall into the Hands of; and that is, the Danger of swallowing Plum-stones, Prune-stones, &c. Sir Francis Butler's Lady had many Prune stones that made Way through an Abscess near her Navel. Philos. Trans. N»< 165. where are other such like Examples. More also may1 be found in N°. 181, 304, vc And at this Day, a young Man, living not far off me, laboureth under very troublesome and dangerous Symptoms, from the Stones of Sloet and Bullace, which he lwallow'd eight or ten Years ago. (/) Grew-! Cosmol. j. 18. 19.

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