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(a) Thus Swine, for Instance, who dig in the Earth for Roots and other Food, have their Neck, and all Parts of their Head very well adapted to that Service. Their Neck fliort, brawny, and strong; their Eyes set pretty high out of the Way; their Snout long; their Nose callous and strong; and their Sense of Smelling very accurate, to hunt out and distinguish their Food in Mud, under Ground, and other the like Places where it lies concealed.

ib) What hath been said of Swine is no less, rather more remarkable in the Mole, whose Neck, Nose, Eyes and Ears, are all fitted in the nicest Manner to its subterraneous Way of Life.


Part (c): " Since, faith he, God hath given «* to Man a lossy Countenance, to behold the "Heavens, and rta*th also seated an immortal Soul_ "in the Brain, capable of the Contemplation of « heavenly Things -, therefore, ashis Face iserect, "so the Brain is set an an higher Place, namely, "above the Cerebellum and all the Sensorics But "in Brutes, whoso Pace' is pfotie towards the «* Earth, and whoso Brain is capable of Specula"tiofi, the Cerebellum, (whose Business it is to "minister to the Actions' and Functions of the "Prœcordia, the principal Office in those Crea** tures) in them is situated in the higher Place, "and the Cerebrum sower. Also some of the Or■« gans of Sense, as the Ears and Eyes, are placed, « if not above the Cerebrum, yet at least equal *c thereto.

Another Convenience in this Position of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum, the last ingenious Anatomist (d) tells us is this, l< In the Head of Man, "faith he, the Base of the Brain zr\d Cerebell, yea, « of the whole Skull, is set parallel to the Hon« Zon> by Which Means there is the lets Danger of « the two Brains joggling, or flipping out or their "Place. But in Quadrupeds, whose Head hangs « down, the Base of the Skull makes a right An« gle with the Horizon, by which Means the Brain "is undermost, and the Cerebell uppermost •> so "that one would be apt to imagine the Cerebell "mould not be steady, but joggle out of its "Place. To remedy which Inconvenience he « tells us, And lest the frequent Concussions o. "the Cerebell sliould cause a Fainting, or disorder

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(*) See Book IV. Ch. z. Note (kit).

(/) Arteria Carotis Aliquanto pofltrius in homing quam in alto quovis animals, Calvartam ingreditur, [til. juxta iilud foramen, per quod sinus lateralis in Venam jugularem deftturus eranio elabitur; nam in extern hue arteria sub extremitate, sen proceffu acuto ojfis petrofi, inter cranium emergit: -verum in capite humano, eadem, ambage longiori circumduila (ut sanguinis totrens, priusquam ad cerebri oram appellit, fraSto impetu, leniits c placidihs fluat) propespecum ab ingrejfu sinus lateralis faiium, CalvarU basin attingit; . z? in majorem cautclam, tunica insuper ascititid crajstore investitur. And so he goes on to shew the Conveniency of this Guard the Artery hath, and its Passage to the Brain, and then faith, Si hujusmodt conformationis ratio inquiritur, facile occurrit, in cxpitt humano, ubi generofi affeHut ar magni animorum impetus ac ardores excitantur, sanguinis in Cerebri oras appulsum debere ejje liber um C expeditum, &C. Atque hoc quidern respeclu differs Homo a plerisque Brutis, quibus, Arteria in mi lie fureulos divifa, ne fanguinem pleniore alveo, aut citatiore, quam par est, ctirsu, ad cerebrum e-vehat, Plexus Ruiformes constituit, quibus nempe efftcitur, ut fanguis tardo admodum, Unique ey equabili fere stilitcidio, in cerebrum itlalatur. And then he goes on to give a farther Account of this Artery, and the Rett mirabile in divers Creatures. Willis, ibid, cap. 8.

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Skull, their Branching into the Rete MirabiIer{gJi the different Magnitude of the Nates, and/Tome other Parts of the Brain in Beasts, quite different from what it is in Man: But the Touches already given, may be Instances sufficient to prevent my being tedious in inlarging upon these admirable

Works of God.

...flvJ -L'.- .; • ■ . , ■ • < „iij nv .

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(g) Galen thinks the Rete mirabile is for concocting and elaborating the Animal Spirits, as the Epididyniides, [the Convolutions K/jo-o«ws i'AulsV] are for elaborating Lti\e, Seed. De Us. Part. L. 9. c. 4. This Rete is" much more conspicuous in Beasts than Man; and as Dr. Willis well judges, serves, 1. To bridle the too rapid Incursion of the Blood-.into the Brain of those Creatures, whose Heads hang down much. .2. To separate some of the superfluous serous Parts of the Blood, and fend them to the Salival Glands, before the Blood enters the Brain of those Animals, whose Blood is naturally of a watery Constitution., 3. To obviate any Obstructions that may happen in the Arteries, by giving a free Passage through other Vessels, when some are stopped.

In Quadrupeds, as the Carotid Arteries are branched into the Rete Mirabile, for the bridling the too rapid Current of Blood into the Brain; so the Vertebral Arteries, ate, 'near their Entrance into the Skull, bent into an a<Hiter: Angle than in Man, Which is a wife Provision for the fame Purpose. iM.-'«ll. l,

*• \* **.: s. *■, Ki*

• ., Chap. in. ::t':£4

Of the Necks <?/Quadrupeds.*^ mao

FROM the Head pass we to the Neck, no principal Part of the Body, but yet a good Instance of the Creator's Wisdom and Designs in^ asmuch as in Man it is short, the Erection of his Body> but in the Four-footed Tribe it is long, answerable to the Length of the '''-'' Legs


(a) It is very remarkable, that in all the Species of Quadrupeds, this Equality holds, except only the Elephant; and that there should be a sufficient special Provision made for that Creature, by its Proboscis or Trunk. A Member so admirably contrived, so curiously wrought, and with so great Agility and Readiness, applied by that unweildy Creature to all its several Occasions, that 1 take it to be a manifest Instance of the Creator's Workmanship. See its Anatomy in Dr. A. Mottle»'s Anat. of the Elephant, p. 33. As also in Mr. Blair's Account in Phil. Trans. N°. 3x6.

Aliorum ea est humilitas ut cibum terrcstrem rostns facile eontingant. Qua. autem altiora funt, ut Anferes, ut Cygni, ut Grues, ut Cameli, adjuvantur proceritate collorum. Manut etiam data Elephants, qui propter magnitudinem carports difficiles aditus habebant adpastum. Cic. de N. D. L. %. c. 47.

Quod Us animalibus qut pedes habent sips tn dtgttos, Collum Irevius fit faclum, quam ut per ipfum Cibum on aimovere dueant: us verb qua. ungulas habtnt folidas, aut bifidas, longius ut prona at que inclmantia pafci queant. Qui id etiam epJsnon fit Artificis utilitatu memoris I Ad hue quod Grues ac Ciconii, cum crura haberent longiora, ob earn caufam Rostrum etiam magnum , W Collum longius habuermt. Pifctt autem nequt Collum penitus habuere, utpote qui nequt Crura habent. Qjfo paclo non id etiam est adtniranditm? Galen. a> Us. part. L. it. c. 8. i

(b) As in Moles and Stvine, in Ch. %■ Note {a).

(c) Called the Whitehather, Packwax, Taxwa*, and F»*

Y z Neck,


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