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Neck* that would otherwise be wearied by being ib long put upon the Stretch.


O/^stomachs P/quadrupeds.

FROM the Neck, let us descend to the Stomach, a Part as of absolute Necessity to the Being and Well-being of Animals, so is in the sevsral Species of Quadrupeds, sized, contrived, and made with the utmost Variety and Art. (a) What , Artist, what Being, but the infinite Conservator of the World, could so well adapt every Food to all the several Kinds of those grand Devourers of it! Who could so well sute their Stomachs to the Reception and Digestion thereof; one kind of Stomach to the Carnivorous, another to the Herbaceous Animals; one fitted to digest by bare Mastication j and a whole set of Stomachs in others, to digest with the Help of Rumination! Which last Act, together with the apparatus for that Service, is so peculiar, and withal so curious an Artifice of Nature, that it might justly deserve a more

(*) The peculiar Contrivance and Make of the Dromedary's or Camel's Stomach, is very remarkable, which I will give from the Parisian Anatomifts: At the top of the Second [of the 4 Ventricles] there were several square Holes, which •were the Orifices of about 30 Cavities, made like Sacks placed between the two Membranes, which dt compose the Substance of this Ventricle. The View of these Sacks made ut to think that they might well be the Refervatories, where Pliny faith, that Camels do a long Time keep the Water, which they drink ingreat Abundance -to supply the Wants thereof in the

dry Desarts, &c. Vid. Memoirs, ere Anat. of Dromedary, p. 39. See also Peyer, Mtrycol. L. I. C. 3.

particular particular Enquiry; but having formerly mentiond it (£), and least I should be too tedious, I shall pass it by. . • -i ■: i .-, . . ',;•. i si;iv r '■

(b) Book IV. ch. 11.


Of the Heart of Quadrupeds.


IN this Part there is a notable Difference sound between the Heart of Man and that of Beasts, concerning the latter, of which I might take notice of the remarkable Confirmation of the Hearts of Amphibious Quadrupeds^ and their Difference from those of Land-Animals, some having but one Ventricle («), some three (£), and some but two (like Land-Animals) but then the Foramen Ovate therewith (c). All which may be justly esteemed



(4) Frogs are generally thought to have but one Ventricle in their Hearts.

(b) The Tortoise hath three Ventricles, as the Parisian Academisis in their Memoirs affirm. Besides these two Ventricles [before spoken of] which were in the hinder Part of the Heart, which faceth the Spine; there was, say they, a third, in the Fore-part, inclining a little towards the Right-side, 8cc Memoirs, e?«. p. 159. But Mr. Buffiere charges this as a Mistake in those ingenious Gentlemen, and asserts there is but one Ventricle in the Tortoise's Heart. See his Description of the Heart of the Land-Tortoise, in Philos Transacl. H». 318.

(c) The Sea-Calf it said by the French Academists, to have this Provision, and their Account of it is this: Its Heart was round and flat. Its Ventricles appeared very large, and its Auricles small. —— Underneath the great Aperture, through which the Trunk os the Vena Cava conveyed the Blood into the right Vtntriclt os the Heart, then was another, which pt

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as wonderful, as they are excellent Provisions for the Manner of thole Animals living. Bpt'I stiaft content my self with bare Hints of these Things,and speak only of two Peculiars more, and that but briefly.

One is the Situation of the Heart, which in Beasts Is near the middle of the whole Body \ in Man, nearer the Head (d). The Reasons of which 1 (hall give from one of the most curious Anatomists of that Part (<?)• "Seeing, faith he, theTrajec"tion and Distribution of the Blood depends whol"ly on the Systole of the Heart, and rjiat its Li"quor is not driven of its own Nature so readily "into the upper Parts as into Vessels even with it, "or downwards into those under it: If the Situa"tion ofthe Heart had been further from the Head, M it must needs either have been made stronger to "cast out its Liquor with greater Force} or else "the Head would want its due Proportion of "Blood. But in Animals that have a longer Neck, "and which is extended towards their Food as it "were, the Heart is seated as far from the.other *' Parts > and they find no Inconvenience from it, "because they feed with their Head for the most "part hanging down; and so the Blood, as, it hath ** farther to go to their Head than in others, so it *' goes a plainer and often a steep Way (/).'


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Of the Difference between Man and Qu A* Drupeds in the Nervous Kind.

THere is only one Difference more between Man and {Quadrupeds that I {hall take notice of, and that is the Nervous Kind: And because it would be tedious to insist upon many Particulars (<*), 1 shall, for a Sample, insist chiefly upon one, and that is, of Nature's prodigious Care for a due Com' munication and Correspondence between the Head and Heart of Man, more than what is in the fourfooted Tribe. For this Purpose, besides the Correspondence those Parts have by Means of the Nerves of the Par Vagum (common both to Man and Beast) there is a farther and more special Communication and Correspondence occasioned by the Branches) {b) of the intercostal Pair sent from the Cervical Plexus to the Heart, and Prœcordia. By which Means the Heart and Brain of Man have a

(<t) Amongst these, I might name the Site of the Nerves proceeding from the Medulla Spinatu, which Dr. Lower takes notice of. In Beasts, whose Spine is above the rest of the Body, the Nerves tend directly downwards; but in Man, it being erect, the Nerves spring out of the Spine, not at Right, but in Oblique Angles downwards, and pass also in the Body the same Way. Ibid. p. 16.

(b) lnplerifa; hrutis tantittn bac -via (i. e. by the Par vagum) cr vix omnino per ullos Paris lnfertostalii nervos, adit as ad cor out Appendicem ejtu patescif. Vcrum in Homtne, Nervus Interco/lalis, prtter officia ejus in imo ventre huic cum caT tern animalibm comtnunia, etiam ante peflorit claufira jnttrnuneii specialis loco est, qui Cerebri c Cordit fen fa muttia ultra ettraqui refers. Willis Nervor. defer. & usus, Cap. 16.

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