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tioncd Parts in the Body. In all somewhat out of the Center of the Body's Gravity (»), but in such a« swim, more than in others, for the better rowing their Bodies through the Waters, or to help

them in that Diving (o) too.

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strongly. All which is useful to them in building their Nefis, and other .such Occasions as necessitate them to hang frequently by their Heels. But there is far greater use of this Structure of their Legs and Feet, if the Reports be true of their hanging by the Heels in great Clusters (after the manner of Bees) in Mines and Grotto's, and on the Rocks by the Sea, all the Winter. Of which latter, I remember the late learned Dr. Fry told this Story at the University, and confirmed it to me since, viz. That an ancient Fisherman, accounted an honest Man, being near some Rocks on the Coast of Cornwal, saw at a very low Ebb, a black List of something adhering to the Rock, which when he came to examine, he found it was a great Number of Swallows, and, if lmisremember not, of Swift shVo, hanging by the Feetto one another, as Bees do; which were covered commonly by the Sea-Waters, but revived in his warm Hand, and by the Fire. All this the Fisherman himself assured the Doctor of. Of this, fee more, Chap. 3. Note (d) of this Book.

(») In Birds that frequent not the Waters, the Wings are in the Center of Gravity, when the Bird lies along, as in Flying; but when it stands or walks, the Erection of the Body throws the Center of Gravity upon the Thighs and Feet. ., (») See Chap, 4. Note ((•). . *- *'

CHAP. II.

Of the Head, Stomach, and other
Tarts of Birds.

THus having dispatched the Parts principally concerned in the Motion of the Feathered Trite, let us proceed to some other Parts not yet

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(a) Cerebra Hominum cr Sjuadrupedum in plerisque similia existunt. —— Capitibut Volucrum <y Pisciiim contenta, ab

tit risque prioribm longe diversa, tatnen inter se, quoad pr&cipucu iyx.ipx*x parses, Symbola reperiuntur. The Particulars wherein the Brains of Birds and Fishes agree with one another, and wherein they differ from the Brain of Man and Beasts, fee in the fame justly famous Author, Willis Cereb. Anat. c. j.

(b) Circa bisurcationem Aspen ArterU, elegant Artifich libere agentis indicium detegitur ex Avium comparatione cum Quadrupedibus: cum Vocis gratia in diverfis Avibus diver/am tnufculorum fabricam bifurcationi Aspen Arteria dederit, quorum nullum vestigium extat in Homine er Quadrupedibut mibi visit, ubi omnes vocis museulos capiti Arterii junxit. In Aquild, &c. supra bisurcationem, &c. Steno in Bias. Anat. Animal. P. r. c. 4.

The Aspera Arteria is very remarkable in the Swan, which is thus described by T. Bartholin, viz. Aspera Arteria admirandi sat 11 struflur*. Nam pro Calli longitudine deorsum Oesophagi comet protenditur donee ad sternum perveniat, in cujus capfuiam fe incurvo fiexu infinuat or recondit, velut in tutt loco v tinea, moxque adfundum ejusdem cavitatit delata sursum rejleclitur, egrediturque aaguftias Sterni, cr Claviculis mediis conxensis, quibus ut fulcro nititur, ad Tboracem'se fleclit ll 11'', Miranda hercle modis omnibut conflitutio er Respirationi

L 3 infer vix

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Tongue s/)> the inner Ear (</), and rriany Matters

sis ^ A .aanWiH owtSrl,T 3tH ucnucs,

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snfervit ty Voci. Sam cum in stagnorum fund) edxlia :pt& titttu quirat, longiffimo indiguit cello, ne longa mora juffocationis incurrtret periculum. Et certe dum, dimidiam ftrt horam ton Capite c Cello fronts vado immergitur, ftdibitt in altum tlatis taeloqut tbverfls, ex ti Arterit qua peiioris dkU vagina reclufa est portione, tanquam ex condt promo spiritum beurtt. Bias. ib. c.io. ... in ina <it%

(c) The Structure of the Tongue of the Wood-Pecker i$ very singular and remarkable, whether we look at its great Length, its Bones and Muscles, its encompassing part of the Neck and Head, the better to exert it self in Length; and again, to retract it into its Cell; and lastly, whether we Jock- at its (harp, horny, bearded Point, and the glewy Matter at the end of if, the better to stab, to stick unto, andodraw cVut little Maggots out of Wood. Utilis enim Picis .{faith Cotter) ad Vermhulos, Formicas, aliaaue Infect* venanda to.Us Lingua font. Siquidem Picus, innata fua fagacitate citm deprehendtt alibi in arboribus, vel curie, vel alia dt causa cavatis, Vtrmes infedaque delitefcere, ad iilat volitat, fej'equc dijit is, ungulisque pofterioribut robastifstmis, e_? Caudt peunis rU gidijfmis sttftentat, donee valido ac peracuto Rostro arboreal per-, tundat; arbore pertuta, foramini rostrum immw.it, ac quo animacula ftridtre excites percellatque, magnam in arhoris cava ttnit tit vocem, in fed a vociferatione bac concitata hut illucque tefunt; Picas v. linguam juatn exerit, atque acultis, bamif-, ue animalia infigit, infixa attrahit v devorat. Vid. Blafii u51 supra. P.a. c. 14. \-.?.\> 1;

(d) I have before, in Book IV. Chap. 3. Note («>, taken notice of what others have observed concerning the innes Ear of Birds, reserving my own Observations for this Place: Which I hope may be acceptable, not only for being some of them new, but also strewing the Mechanism of Hearing in general. ■; • 1 .z.oqiul yen

In this Organ of Birds, I shall take notice only, oiiihjrc* Parts, the Membranes and Cartilages; the Columdla; and Jhe Conclave: The Drum, as some call it, or Manbranm Tytnpani, as others, consists of two Membranes, the Outer, which covers the whole Meat us. Bason or Drum, (ai'sojnc call it) and the inner Membrane. To support, distend and relax the outermost, there is one single Cartilage, reaching from the Side of the Mtatus, to near the middla of tie Membrane. On the top of the Columella is another. Cartilage, coDsistingof three Branches, a. b. c. in Fig. jj.; The : S ■• "longest

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longest middle Branch a. is joined to the top of the singlt upper Cartilage before spoken of, and assists it to bear up the upper outer Membrane: The two Branches* b. e. arc joined to the Os Petrofum, at some distance from the outer Membrane: Upon this inner Cartilage, is the inner Membrane fixed, the two outer Sides of which, a. b. and *. «. , are joined to the outer Membrane, and make a kind of three-square Bag. The Design of the two Branches or Legs of the Cartilage, b. c. are I conceive to keep the Cartilage and Columella from wavering fide-ways, and to hinder them from flying too much back: There is a very fine ilender Ligament extended from the opposite side, quite cross the .Me- atus or Bason, to the Bottom of the Cartilag*, near irs joining to the Columella. Thus much for the Membrana Tym- . pant, and their Cartilages.

The next Part is the Columella (as Schelhammer calls it.) This is a very fine, thin, light, bony Tube; the Bottom of which spreads about, and gives it the Resemblance of a wooden Pot-lid, such as I have seen in Country-Houses. It exactly shuts into, and covers a foramen of the Conclave, to which it is braced all round, with a fine subtile Membrane, composed of the tender Auditory Nerve. This Bottom or Base of the Columella, I call the Operculum.

The last Part, which some call the Labyrinth and Cochlea, consisting of Branches more like the Canaks Semicircular** in Man, than the Cochlea, I call the Conclave Auditus, It is (as in most other Animals) made of hard context Bone. In most of the Birds I have opened, there are circular Canals, some larger, some lesser, crossing one another at right Angles, which open into the Conclave. But in the Goose it is otherwise, there being cochleous Canals, but not like those of other Birds. In the Conclave, at the Side opposite to the Cperculum, the tender Part of the Auditory Nerve enters, and lineth all those inner retired Parts, viz.. the Conclave and Ca-, nals.

As to the Passages, Column*, and other Parts observable in the Ear of Birds, I (hall pass them by, it being sufficient to my Purpose, to have described the Parts principally concerned in the Act of Hearing. And as the Ear is in Birds the most simple and incomplex of any Animals Ear; so we raajr from it make an easy and rational Judgment, how Hearing is performed, viz.. Sound being a Tremor, or Undulation in the Air, caused by the Collision of Bodies, doth as it moves along, strike upon the T>rumy or Membrana Tytnfani of the Ear: Which Motion, whether strong or languid, stirill or soft, tuneful or not, is at the fame Instant impressed upon the Cartilages, Columella, and Operculum, and so communj» fated to the Auditory Nerve in the Conclave^ ..,• ..y\

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