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make their Bodies lighter than the Air (/): These, and a Multitude of other such like Things as these,
of which, sec Mr. Lowth. Abridg. Vol. i. p. 794. from Dr. Lister and Dr. liaise, who both claim'd the Discovery theieof. And do both seem to have hit thereupon, without any Foreknowledge of what each other hath discover'd, as is said in the last cited Place, and as I more particularly find by Mr. Ray's Philos. Letters, Printed Ann. 1718. p- 9$. vc By which also I find the two ingenious Doctors were very modest in their Claims, and very amicable in the Matter. In one of Dr. Lister's to Mr. Ray, he thirsts there is a fair Hint of the Darting of Spiders in Aristot. Hist. An. L. 9. c. 39. And in Pliny, L. 11. c. 14. But for their Sailing, that the Ancients are silent of, and he thinks it was seen first by him. And in another Letter, Jan. 20, 1670, speaking of the Height Spiders are able to fly, he faith, The last October, vc. I took Notice, that the Air wat very full *f Webs, I forthwith mounted to the Top of the highest Steeple on the Minster, [in York,] and could thence discern them yet exceeding high above me. Some that fell, and were intangled upon the Pinacles, 1 tpok and found them to be Lupi; which Kind seldom or never enter Houses, and cannot be suppoid to have taken their Flight from the Steeple. \ 1. -,
(/) There are, (I imagine,) divers Animals, as well as Spiders, that have some Way of Conveyance, as little known to us, as that of Spiders formerly was. Thus the SauilluU, f nines Arborefcentes, and microscopical Animalcules of the stagnating Waters, so numerous in them, as to discolour sometimes the Water, and make them look as if they were tinged Red, Yellow or Green, or cover'd with a- thick green Scum; all which is nothing but Animalcules of that Colour. That these Creatures have some Way of Conveyance, I conclude; because most stagnating Waters are stbck'd.with them; new Pits and Ponds, yea, Holes and Gutters on the Tops of Houses and Steeples. That they are not bred there by æquivocal Generation, every ingenious, considering Philosopher will grant; that they have not Legs for travelling so far, is manifest from Inspection: And therefore t am apt to think, that they have some Faculty of inflating their Bodies, or darting out Webs, and making their Bodies buoyant, and lighter than Air; or their Bodies, when dry, may be lighter than Air, and so they can swim from Place to Place; or the Eggs of such as are oviparous, may be light enough to float in the Air. But then the Viviparous, (as my late inge
And then for the Poising of the Body, and keeping it upright, and steady in Flight, it is an admirable Artifice and Provision for this Purpose; in some, by four Wing»(/}; and in such as have but' twoj by Pointels, and Poises plac'd under the Wings, on each Side the Body.
And' upon the sity of the
the Nerves, necessary so perform all the Motions of the Legs, the Wings, and every other Part. I have already mention'd this in'the larger Animals j but to consider, that all these Things concur in minute Animals, even in the smallest Mite j yea,
their Elytra or Cafes." r"or which Se'rVice the Bones are well plac'd, and the Joynts ministring thereunto are accurately contriv'd^for the .moll compendious, and commodi-. ous folding up the Wings.
(i) For the keeping the Body steady and upright in Flight, it generally holds true, (if 1 mistake not,) that all bipennated Insects have Poises joyn'd to the Body, under the hinder' Part of their Wings; but such as have four Wings, or Wings with Elytra, none. If one of the Poises, or one of the: lesser auxiliary Wings be cut off, the Infect will fly as if one Side overbalanc'd the other, until it falleth on the Ground; so if both be cut of, they will fly aukwardly, and unsteadily, manifesting the Defect of some very necessary Part. These Poises, or Pointells are, for the most Part, little Balls, set at the Top of a slender Stalk, which they can move every Way at Pleasure. In some they stand alone, in others, (as in the whole Flesh-Fly Tribe,) they have little Covers or Shields, under which they lie and move. The Use, no doubt, of these Poises, and secondary lesser Wings, is to poise the Body, and to obviate all the Vacillations thereof in Flight; serving to the Insect, as the long Pole, laden at the Ends with Lead, doth the Ropedancer.
(*) As all the Parts of Animals are mov'd by the Help of these; so there is, no doubt, but the minutest Animals have such like Parts: But the Muscles and Tendons of some of the larger Insects, and some of the lesser too, may be seen with a Microscope.
the Animalcules,, that, (without good Microscopes,) escape our Sight} to consider, I fay, that those minutest Animals have all the Joynts, Bones, Muscles, Tendons and Nerves, necessary to that brisk and swift Motion that many of them have, is so stupendous a Piece of curious Art (/), as plainly manifesteth the Power and Wisdom of the infinite Contriver of those inimitable Fineries. But having narri'd those minute Animals, Why should I mention only any one Part of their Bodiesj when we have, in that little Compass, a whole and compleat Body, as exquisitely form'd, and, (as far as outScrutiny can possibly reach,) as neatly adorn'd as the largest Animal? Let us consider, that there we have Eyes, a Brain, a Mouth, a Stomach, En
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(I) The minute Curiosities, and inimitable Fineries, ob-' servable in those lesser Animals, in which our best Micro-'scopes discover no Botch, no rude ill-made Work, (contrary to what is in all artificial Works of Man,) Do they not far' more deserve our Admiration, than those celebrated Pie-, ces of humane 'Art;' Such as the Cup made of a PepperCorn, by Oswald Nerlinger, that held T200 ivory Cups, all gilt on the Edges, and having each of them a Foot, and yet affording Room for 400 more, in the Ephem. Germ. T. 1. Addend, ad Obs. 13. Such also was Phaeton in a Ring, which Galen thus reflects upon, when he speaks of the Art and Wisdom of the Maker of Animals, particularly such as are small, Quanta, sairh he, if sum minus fuerit, tanto majorem admirationem tibi excitabit; quod declarant Opifices cum in corporibus parvis aliquid infculpant: cujus generis eft quod nuper quidam in Annulo Phaitonta quatuor equis in•veSlum sculpfit. Omnes'enim equi fr&nnm, os, c Aentes anteriores habebant, &c. And then having taken Notice, that the Legs were no bigger than those of a Gnat, he shews that their Make did not come up to those of the Gnat; as also, faith he, Major adhuc alia quidam effe videtur artis ejm, qui Pulicem condidit, Vis atque Sapiemia, quod, &c. Cum igitur Ars tanta in tarn abjectis animalibus appareat, quantam ejus Vim ac Sapientiam in pmjiamioribus inejj'e putabimuii Galen, de Us. Part, L. 17. c. 1. fin.
x y 1 trails trails, and every other Part of an animal Body, as well as Legs and Feetj and that all those Parts have each of them their necessary Apparatus of Nerves, of various Muscles, and every other Part that other Insects have j and that all is cover'd and
§uarded with a well-made Tegument, beset with ristles, adorn'd with neat Imbrications, and many other Fineries. And lastly, Let us consider in how little Compass all Art and Curiosity may lie, even in a Bedy many Times less than a small Grain of Sand (m); so that the least Drop of Water can contain many of them, and afford them also sufficient-Room to dance and frisk about in (*).
Having survey'd as many of the Parts of Infects as I care to take Notice of j I shall in the next Place fay somewhat of their State, and Circumstances of Life. And here I shall take Notice only of two Things, which have been only hinted at before i but will deserve more particular Consideration here, as being Acts of a wonderful Instinct} namely, Their Security of themselves against Winter > and their special Care of preserving their Species.
'(m) It will in some Measure appear, how wonderfully minute some microscopical Animalcules are, by what, follows in the next Note. But because more particular Examples would be endless. I Avail refer to the Observations of Mr. Leuwenhoeck, and others, in the philos. Trans. and elsewhere.
(»; It is almost impossible, by Reason of their perpetual Motion, and changing Places, to count the Number of the Animalcules, in only a Drop of the green Scum upon Water; but I guess I have sometimes seen not fewer than ioo frisking about in a Drop no bigger than a Pin's Head. But in such a Drop of Pepper-water, a far greater slumber; these being much less than those.'"':
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