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ent Incubation, and that the Yotrftg, whfcrt t>ro>' duced, may have the Benefit of proper and sufficient Food for their Nurture and Education, till they are able to shift for themselves. It is admirable to fee with what Diligence and Care the several Species of Insects lay up their Eggs or Sperm in their several proper Places; not all in the Waters, in Wood, or on Vegetables j but those whose Subsistence is in the Waters (£), in the Water j thole to whom Flesh is a proper Food j in Flesh (r) j


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(b) It would be endless to specify the various Species of Infects, that have their Generation in the Waters. And therefore I shall only observe of them, i. That their Eggt are always laid up with great Care, and in %good Orcter. And also, 2. Where proper and sufficient Food is. 3. That in their Nympha-Snxe in the Waters, they have Parts proper for Food and Motion; and in many, or most of them, very different from what they have in their Mature-Slite, a manifest Argument of the Creator's Wisdom and Providence. For an Instance, see Note (r).

(c) As Seigneur Redi was one of rhe first that made it his Busihefi to discard Anomalous Generation, so he tried more Experiments relating to the Vermination of Serpents, Flesh, Fish, putrified Vegetables; and in short, whatever was commonly known to be the Nursery of Maggots, more I fay probably, than any one hath done since. And in all his Observations, he constantly found the Maggots to tarn to Attretit, and tlveTe into flies. But then, faith he, Dubstare cœpi, utrum omne hoc vermium in carne genus-, ex sola Muscarum semine, an ex iffis putrefaflis carnibus oriretur, tantoque tna£is confirmalar in hoc meo dubio, quanto in omnibus generation/bus ftpiUs videram, in carnibus, antequa'm verminare inciperent, refedijfe ejufdem fpeciei Muscat, cujus propago postea nafeebatur. Upon this he tells us, he put Fish, Flesh, d-c. into Pots, which he covered close from the Flies with Paper, and afterwards (for the free Air fake) with Lawn, whilst other Pots were left open , with such like Flesh, ere. in them; that the-Flies were very eager to get into the covered Pots; and that they produced not orrt! Maggot, when the open ones had many. Fr. Redi de Gener.

Infeti. ;, ...;.• ,V>


those to whom the Fruits (d) or Leaves of Vege., , ,"• ■. tables

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Among the Insects that come from the Maggots he mentions, he names Quints. Now from the molt criticat Observations I have made, I never observed any sort of Gnat to come from putrified Flesh, Vegetables, or any other Thing he taxeth with them. So that either he means by CuUx, some Fly that we call not by the Name of Gnat; or e!s« their Goats in Italy, vary in their Generation from ours in England. For among above 30, near 40 distinct Species of Gnats that I have observed about the Place where I live, I never found any to lay their Eggs in Flesti, Fist*, cc, but the hrgest Sort, called by Aldrovand, Culkes ma-xitni, bySwammerdam, TipuU terreflres, lay their Eggs in Meadows, ere. under the Grafs; one of the larger middle Sort, in dead Beer, Yeast, ere. lying on the Tops, or in the Leaks of Beer-Barrels, crc. and all the rest (as far as ever I have observed) lay and hatch in the Waters, as in Now (r).

The Generation of the Second of these being akin to some of the foregoing Instances, and a little out of the way, may deserve a Place here. This Gnat lays its Eggs commonly in dead Beer, vc as I said, and probably in Vinegar, and other such Liquors. Some Time after which, the Maggots are so numerous, that the whole Liquor stirreth as if it was alive; being full of Maggots, some larger, some smaller; the larger are the eff-spring os our Gnat, the smaller, of a small darii coloured Fly, tending to reddish; frequent in Cellars, and loch obscure Places. All these Maggots turn to Aurtlia, the larger of which, of a Tan-Colour, turn to our Gnat. This Gnat is of the unarmed Kind, having no Spear in its Mouth. Its Head is larger than of the common Gnats, a loDger Neck, (hortjointed^»r«»»<e, spotted Wings, reaching beyond its slender Alvus; it is throughout of a brown Colour, tending to red, especially in the Female: The chief Difference between the Male and Female, is (.as in other Gnats, yea, most Insects) the Male is less than the Female, and hath a slenderer Belly, and its Podtx not so sharp as the Female's is.'

(d) The Insects that infest Fruits, are either of the Ichneu* mtn-Fly Kind, or PhaUnt. Plums, Pease, Nuts, &c. produce some or other Ichneumon-Fly. That generated in the Plum is black, of a middle Sixe, its Body near Tt Incn 'or)gi its Tail not much less, consisting of three Bnltles, whetcwith it conveys its Eggs into Fruits: Its Anttnm, or Horns, long, slender, recurved; its Belly longifh, tapering, soull

Bb 4 towards


tables are Food, arc accordingly reposited, tbraeiri this Fruit, some on tbil Itee (<0, some on that Plane (/), lome on another, and another j but con

- ■.• •!: stantly

towards the Thorax; Legs reddish; Wings membranaceous, thin and transparent, in Number 4, which is one Characteriftick of the Ichneumon Fly. - ■——-*■

The Pease Ichneumon-Fly , is very small, Wings large , reaching beyond the Pedex; Antennt long; Alvui stjort, shaped like an Heart, with the Point towards the Anus; it walketh and flieth (lowly. No Tail appears as in the Jbrrncr; but they have one lieth hidden under the Belly, which they can at Pleasure bend back to pierce Pease when they are young and tender, aud other Things also, as I ha ve Reason to suspect, having met with this (as indeed the former two) in divers Vegetables. ■. ,-. ■ , nwciti:'.; .

Pears and Apples I could never discover any Thing <to breed in, but only the lesser PhaUna, about Tv Inch long, whitish underneath; greyifli brown above (dappled with brown Spots, inclining to a dirty Red) all but about a third Part at the End of the Wings, which is not grey, hut brown, elegantly striped with wavey Lines, of a Gold Colour, as if gilt; its Head is small, with a Tuft of whitish brown in the Forehead; Antennt. smooth, moderately long. The Aunlia. of this Moth is small, of a yellowish brown. J know not what Time they require for their Generation put of Boxes; but those I laid up in August, did not become Moths before June following. ;.■• vu'J .tuM ...

(e) There are many of the Phaltnt, and Ichneumon-Fly Tribes, that have their Generation on the Leaves or other Parts of Trees and Shrubs, too many to be here reckoned up. The Oak hath many very beautiful phaUna, bred in its convolved Leaves, white, green, yellow, brown spotted prettily, and neatly dappled, and many more besides; and its Buds afford a Place for Cafes, and Balls of various Sorts, as shall be shewn hereafter; its Leaves expanded, minister to the Germination of globular, and other spheroidal Balls, and flat Thecu, some-like Hats, some like Buttons excavated in the Middle, and divers others such like Repositories, all belonging to the Ichneumeon- Fly Kind. And not orjiy the Oak, but the Maple also, the White-Thorn, the Haar, Privet, and indeed almost every Tree and Shrub.

j[/), And as Trees and Shrubs, so Plants have their peculiar Insects. The White-Butterfly lays its voracious OfF: « ' spring

stantly the same Family on the same Tree or Plant, the most agreeable to that Family. And as for o-. thers that require a constant and greater Degree of Warmth, they are accordingly provided by the Parent-Animal with some Place in or about the Body of other Animals j some in the Feathers of Birds (g)i some in the Hair of Beasts (h); some

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spring on Cabbage-Leaves; a very beautiful reddisli ocellateil one, its no less voracious black Off-spring of an horrid Aspect, on the Leaves of Nettles; as also doth a very beautiful, small, greenish Ichneumen-Vly, in Cases on the Leaves of the fame Plant: And to name no more (because it would be endless) the beautiful Ragwort-Moth, whose upper Wingi are brown, elegantly spotted with red and underwings edged with brown; these, Isay, provide for their golden ring'd£r»c* upon the Ragwort* Plant.

(g) Many, if not most Sort of Birds, are infested with a distinct Kind of Lice, very different from one another in Shape, Size, &c. For Figures and Descriptions of them, I shall refer to Signieur Redi of Infects. See also Mouses, L. 2. *. 13. These Lice lay their Nits among the Feathers of the respective Birds, where they are hatched and nourished; and as Aristotle faith, would destroy the Birds, particularly Phea* fantt, if they did not dust their Feathers. Loco infr. chat.

(h) And as Birds, so the several Sorts of Beasts have their peculiar Sorts of Lice; all distinct from the two Sorts infesting Man: Only the Ass, they fay, is free, because our Saviour rode upon one, as some think; but I presume it is rather from the Passage in Pliny, L it. c. 33. or ratherAri/I. Hist. Animal. L. 3. c. 31. who faith, Quibus plus est, nor. carent eodem [Pediculo] excepto Afino, qui non Pediculo tanturn, verunt etiam Redivio vnmunis est. And a little before, speaking of those in Men, he shews what Constitutions are most subject to them, and instanceth in Alcman the Poet, Zn&Pberecydes Syrius that died of the Pthiriafis, or Lowsy Disease. For which soul Distemper, if Medicines are desired, Mouses de Infest, p. 261. may be consulted. Who in. theifameiPage hath this Observation, Animadverterunt nostra/fl ■ ubi A fores infulas a tergo reliquerint, Pediculo.

conftstim omnes tabefeere: atque ubi eas rtviferint, iterum innumeros alios fubito oriri. Which Observation is confirmed by Dr. Stubs. Vid. Lowth. Abridg, V. 3. p. 558. And many Seamen have told me the fame.

in the very Scales of Fishes (1) j some in the Nose (k) i some in the Flesh (/; j yea, some in


(I) FistieS, one would think, should be free from Lice, by Reason they live in the Waters, and are perpetually moving in, and brushing through them; but yet they have their Sorts too.

. Beside* whichi-lhave frequently fotwd great Numbers of long slender Worms in the Stomachs, and other Parts of Fjfli, particularly Cadfijb, especially such as are poor; wrMfcWorms have work'd themselves deeply into the Coats and Flesh, so that they could not easily be gotten out s .So Jlr'tfittle, faith of some Fishes, Ballero & Tilloni Lumbrkus innafeitur, qui debilnat, &c. Chalets -vitio inftjlatar duo, ut PtdicuU sub Braatbiis innati quam mult't mtcrimant. Hilt. An. L. 8. c zo.

(*) Of Insects bred in the Nose of Animals, those id-the Nostrils of Sheep are remarkable. I have my self taken out not fewer at a Time than twenty or thirty rough Maggots, lying among the Lamint of the Nostrils. But 1 could never hatch any of them, and so know not what Animal they proceed from: But I have no great doubt, they are of the ichneumon-Ply.Kind; and not improbably of that with a long Tail, call'd Trifeta, whose three Bristles seem very commodious for conveying its Eggs into deep Places. • :•/. <

1 have also seen a rough whitish Maggot, above two Inches within the Intestinum reSlum of Horses, firmly adhering thereto, that the hard Dung did not rub off. I never coul4 bring them to Perfection, but suspect the Side-Fly proceed* from it.

{/) In the Backs of Cows, in the Summer-Months, there ■re Maggots generated, which in Essex we call Wormls; which are first only a small Knot in the Skin; and I suppose ho other than an Egg laid there by some Insect. By Degrees these Knots grow bigger, and contain in them a Maggot lying in a purulent Matter: They grow to be as large as the End of one's Finger, and may be squeei'd out at a Hole they have always open: They are round and rough, and of a dirty White. With my utmost Endeavour arid Vigilance, 1 could never discover the Animal they turn into; but as they are somewhat like, so may be the fame as.thofe'ine.hft Note before. V-, -t'io'jts^ a

In Persia there are very long slender Worms, bred in the Legs, and other Parts of Men's Bodies, 6 or 7 Yards long.-.

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