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the Perpetuity and Safety of the 'Species depends upon the Safety of the Seed.and Fruit in a great measure, I might therefore take notice of the peculiar Care the great God of Nature hath taken for the Conservation and Safety hereof: As parti-: cularly in such as dare to shew their Heads all the
Malpig. ib. p. 81. vid. plura in tract, de Sem'mum veget. p. 14. & passim.
In Malpight's Life, a Debate may be seen between him and Seign. Triumphetti, the Provost of the Garden at Rome, whether the whole Plant be actually in the Seed. The Affirmative is maintained by Malpighi, with cogent Arguments; among which, this is one; Non prtoccupata menu, oculismicroscopio armatis, luftret qu&so Pbaseolorum, feminalcm plantulam nondum satam, in qua folia ftabilia, h&cque ampla evidenser obfer-vabit; in cadem paritfr gemmam, nodos,feu implantationes vtria/foliorum caulis deprebendet. Caulem infignetn fibris ligneis, er utriculorum feriebus confiantem confphtte attinget. And whereas S. Triumphetti had objected, that vegetatione, metamorphoft, media plantas in alias degenerate, ut exemplo plurium [constatj prtcipue triticiin lolium, er lolii in triticum ver ft. In answer to this, (which is one of the strongest: Arguments against Malpight's Assertion) Malpighi replies, Kondum certmnest de integritate, vr fucceffu experiments, nam facienti mihi, tsr amicis, tritici metamorphosis non cejftt. Adtniffa tamen metamorphofi, quoniam htc negleSla cultura, aut
vifio soli, aut dirts contingit ~ idea ex morbofo w monstru
ofo affeiiu non licet inferre permanentem fiatum a Naturd intentum. Objervo plantas fylve/lres cultura varias reddi, &c. I have more largely taken notice of Malpight's Answer, because he therein shews his Opinion about the Transmutation of Vegetables. Vid. Malpig. Vit. p. 67.
So Mr. Lewenhoeck, after his nice Observations osan OrangeKernel, which he made to germinate in his Pocket, err. concludes-, Thus we fee, ho-v small a Particle, no bigger than a} course Sand (as the Plant is represented) is increased, 8cc. A plain Demonstration, that the Plant, and all belonging to it, •was actually in the Seed, in the young Plant, its Body, Root, &c. Philos. Trans. N». 187. See also Raii Cat. Cant, in Atermaj. from Dr. Highmore. But in all the Seeds which I have viewed, except the Maple, the Plant appears the plainest to" tht naked Eye, and also very elegant, in the Nux Vomica.
■ . Nat itra
Year, how securely their Flower, Seed or Fruic is locked up all the Winter, together with their Leaves and Branches, in their Gems (*), and well
Natura non obftrvat magnitudinis proportionem inter semina V plantas ab iisdem ortat, ita ut majus semen majorem semper producat plantain, minus minarem. Sum enim i» gejterc herbarum non pauca, quarurn semina arborum nonnullarum seminibus non dico & jualia (tint, fed multo majora. Sic \. g. Semina Faba, &C. semina Ulmi, 8cc. multis vial/us magnitudine superant. Raii ubi supra, L.I. c. 13.
Fiitcem rtliquasque Capillares herbal Semine carer* Veteres tlerique ——prodidere; quos etiam fecuti funt e Recentiori%us nonnulli, Dodontus, &c. ■ Alii i contra, Bauhi
ftus, &C. Filices er congeneres spermatophoras ejfe contendunt .
Partim ama Historia Creationis , Genes, ii. 11. &c.
Sane sententiam i/eriffimam ejse ——— autopsia convincit. Tredericut Casius, he faith, was the fust that discovered these Seeds with the Help of a Microscope. And since him, Mr. W. C. hath more critically observed them. Among other Things observed by that ingenious Gent, are these, Pixidtth feu eapsuU semina continentes in plerisque hoc genus plant is ferquam exili granulo arena, vulgaris cinerea pint duplo minores funt; imo in nonnullis speciebus vix tertiam quartamve annul t partem magnitudine aquant, vejicularum quarundam annul ts aut fasciol'tt vermiform'tbus obvolutarum Jpeciem txhtbentes. Nonnulli ex his vest cults 100 circiter semina continere de
frehendebantur. —adeo eximid parvitate ut nudo oculo pror
stu efsent invifibilia, nee nisi microscopii interventu detegi possent. ;Osmunda Regain, qua aliis omnibus Filtcts. speciebus mole —— antecel'.it vasculaseminalia obtinet &que cum
reliqu'ts congeneribus magnitudinis ——— quorum immenfa o* •visum fugiens parvitas cum magnitudine plant*, collata —— adeo nullam gerere proportionem invenietur, ut tantam plantain c tantillo semine product attentum observatorem merit 0 in admirationem rapiat. R.ay, ibid. L. 3 pag. 131. This W. C. ■was Mr. Wil. Cole, as he owneth in a Letter I have now in jny Hands of his to Mr. Ray, of Ofiob. 18.1684.
(k) Vegetantium genus,, ut debit am magnitudinem sortiatur, & sua mortalitatis jacluram succejftvd prolis educlione reparet, Jlat'is temporibtU novas promit paries, ut tandem tmergentet Vteri, recentes edant Soboles. Emanantes igitur a cattle, caudtce, ramts, & radicibus novella, hujusmodi parses, non illicit laxau extenduntur, fed compendio quodam coagmentata intra
fenced and covered there with neat and close Tunicks. And for such as dare not so to expose themselves, with what Safety are they preserved under the Coverture of the Earth, in their Root (/)» Seed (m), or Fruit, till invited out by the kindly
folii axilUm cubantes, non parum siubsiftunt, Gemmn apfellantur, &c. And then that great Man goes on to (hew the admirable various Methods of Nature, in repositing in that little Compass, so large a Part of a Tree or Plant, the curious Structure of the Gems, the admirable Guard afforded them, and the Leaves, Flowers and Seed contained in them, tr'c. Of which having taken Notice before, 1 pass over it now, and only refer to our Author Malpighi, and Dr. Grtw, in the Places cited in Note (f) and (g).
(/) Of Bulbous, and a great many more, probably of tkc far greater Number of Perennial Roots of Herbs, as Arum, Rape-Crowfoot, &c. it is very observable, that their Root is annually renewed, or repaired out of the Trunk or Stalk it self That is to fay, the Basis of the Stalk continually, and by insensible Degrees descending below the Surface of the Earth, and hiding it self therein, is thus both in Nature, Place and Office, changed into a true Root, So in Brown
wort, the Basis of the Stalk finking down by Degrees, till it lies under Ground , becomes the upper Part of the Root; and continuing still to sink, the next Year becomes the lower Part: And the next after that, rots away; a new Addition being still yearly made out of the Stalk, as the elder Parts yearly rot away. Grew. ibid. L. 1. pag. 59. ubi plura vid.
(m) How safe and agreeable a Conservatory the Earth is to Vegetables, more than any other, is manifest from their rotting, drying, or being rendred infecund in the Waters, or * the Air; but in the Earth their Vigour is long preserved. Thus Seeds particularly, Mr. Ray thinks some, may probably retain their Fecundity for ten Years, and others lose it in five; bur, faith he, In tern gremio latitantia, quamvis tot caloris, frigoris, humorii ey ficcitatis varietatibtts ibidem obnoxia, diutiits tamen (utputo)sertilitatemsiuamtuenturquam ab hominibut diligentijjime custodita; ham v ego w alii ante me multi obfervdrunt Sinapeos vim magnam enatam in aggeribns fojfarum recent faclis inque are'is gramine'ts effojftt, ubi post hominum memoriam nulla unquam Sinapeos sieges siuccreverat. Quam tamen non siponte ortam siuspicor, fed e sitminibus in terra per tot annos rtsidttis etiam prolificit. Ray. Hist. PI. L. 1. C. 13.
Warmth of the Spring! And when the whole Vegetable Race is thus called out, it is very pretty to observe the Methods of Nature in guarding those insensitive Creatures against Harms and Inconveniences, by making some (for Instance) to lie down prostrate, and others, to close themselves up (») upon the Touch of Animals, and the most to shut up their Flowers, their Down (e), or other their like Guard, upon the Close and Cool of the Evening, by Means of Rain, or other Matters that maybe prejudicial, to the tender Seed.
And now to these Considerations relating to the Seed, I might add the various Ways of Nature in dissipating and sowing it, some being for this end, winged with light Down, or Wings, to be conveyed about by the Winds j others being laid in
(») Plant* nonnull* Æfchynoment Veteribut difU, Recentitr'ibut Vivt, c Sensitive, ty Mimosa, hand obfeura senfin indict* produnt; fiquidem folia earum manu ant baculo tacla, Vpaulul-.tm comprejja, pleno etiammeridie, fplendente Sole, illico fe contrahunt; in nonnullis etiaui fpeeiebus cauliculi teneriores toncidunt V velut marcefeunt; quod idem ab aere frigidior* admiffa patiuntur. Ray. Hist. PI. T, I. L. 18. App. S. i. \.l. p. 978.
(0) I have observed that many, if not most Vegetables, do expand their Flowers, Down, we in warm, Sun-fliiuy Weather, and again close them towards Evening, or in Rain, we. especially at the Beginning of Flowering, when, the Seed is young and tender; as is manifest in the Down of Dandelion, and other Downs; and eminently in the Flowers of Pimpernel; the opening and shutting of which, are the Country-Man's Weather-wiser; whereby Gerard faith, he foretelleth what Weather shall follow the next Day; for faith he, // the Flowers be close flint up, it hetokenetb Raip tind foul Weather; contrariwise, if they be spread abroad, fair Weather. Ger. Herb. B. z. c. 183.
Est v alia [arbor in Tylis] fimilis, foliofior tamen, rofeique fioris; quern noflu comprimens, Qferire incipit Solis exortu, meridit expandtt. lucolt dormirt earn dicunt. Pljn» ^at, Hist.
&.'«. C. II. :<. --1 <*,'•
clastickj elastick, springy Cases, that when they burst and crack, dart their Seed at convenient" Distances, performing thereby the Part of a good Husbandman (j>), others by their agreeable Taste and
(p) So soon as the Seed is ripe, Nature taketh several Mt'. tkods for its being duly Sown; not only in the opening of th* Uterus, but also in the make of the Seed it self. For, First, The Seeds of many Plants, which aflcSl a peculiar Soil or Seat, as of A mm, Poppy, &c. are heavy and small enough, without further Care, to fall direclly down into the Ground But is they are so large and light, as to be expos'd to the Wind, they are often furnish'd with one or more Hooks, to stay them, from straying too far from their proper Place So the Seeds
of Avens have one single Hook; those of Agrimony and Goosegrass, many; both the former loving a warm Bank; the latter, an Hedge for its Support. On the contrary, many Seeds, are furnish'd with Wings or Feathers; partly with the Help of the Wind to carry them, when ripe, from off the Plant, as of Ash,
&c. and partly to enable them to make their Flight more or
less abroad, that so they may not, by falling together, come up too thick; and that if one should miss a good Soil or Bed, another
may hit. So the Kernels of Pine have Wings yet stiort——
whereby they fly not into the Air, but only flutter upon the Ground. But those os Typha, Dandelion, and most of the pappous Kind—-have long numerous Feathers, by which they are wafted every Way.' ■ -Again, there are Seeds which are scatter d not by flying abroad, but by being either spirted or flung away. The first of those are Wood sorrel, which having a running Root, Nature sees fit to sow the1 Seeds at some Distance. The doing of which is effecled by a white sturdy Cover, of a tendinous or springy Nature. This Cover, so,soon as it begins to dry, bursts open on one Side, in an. Instapt, and. is violently turn'd Inside outward -and so smartly throws off the Seed. The Seeds of Hart's-tongue, is stung or jliot away ■■■'"'' by the curious Contrivance of the Seed-cafe, as in Codded-Asmart, only there the spring moves and curls inward, but here outward, viz. Every Seed-cafe—■ ■ is of a spherick Figure, and girded about with a sturdy Spring. ■ 'she $ttrface of the Spring resembles a fine Screw. So sopnas- ■■ ■ this Spring is become stark enough, it suddenly breaks the Cafe into twa Halfs, like two little Cups, and so flings thp Seed. vGrew. ib. p.-199. and in Tab. 71. all these admirable Artifices are handsomely represented. \ „ir? v . J , * Q*%