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Smell, and salutary Nature, inviting themselves to be swallow'd, and carry'd about by the Birds, and thereby also fertiliz'd by passing through their Bodies
Quin fi quantitas modica seminum (Filicis Phylliridis quoque) a foliis in subjee'lam chart* <munda ■ febedam deetttiatur, detergaturve, c delude m actrvum converratur, veficularum feminalium plurimis una dijstlientibus, c febi invicem alhjis, acervulus vane movtri per partis videbttur, non fecus AC fi Syron'tbut aut istiusmodi beftiolis rtpletus tjfet 'quirt fi locus tranquillus fit, aure proxime admetd, ertpitantium in
ttr rumpendum vasculorum sonitus percipietur; cr fi mi
croscopio chartam oculis obtrres, semina per earn undique sparsa, v ad notabilcm ab acervo distantiam projecla comperies. Ray ibid. p. 131.
The admirable Contrivance of Nature, in this Plant is most plain. Tor the Seed-Vtjftls being the best Preserver os the Seed, 'tis there kept from the Injuries es Mr and Earth, 'till it be rainy, when it is a proper Time for it so grow, and then it it thrown round the Earth, as Grain by a skilful Sower. When any Wet touches the End of the Seed Vessels, with * smart Noise and sudden Leap it opens it Jelf, aud with a Spring scatters its Seed to a pretty Distance round it, where ifgrows. Dr. Sloane Voy. to Jamaica, p. 150. of the Gentianclla store cœruleo, &C. ox Spirit-Leaf.
The Plants of the Cardamine-family, and many others, may be added here, whole Cods fly open, and dart out their Seed, upon a small Touch of the Hand. But the most remarkable Instance is in the Cardamine impatient, cujus Siliqus, (faith Mr. Kay) vel leviter ta(U, atlutum ejaculantur [Semina] imo, quod longi mirabilius videtur, etfi filiquas non tetigeris, fi tamen manum velut taclurus proxime admoveas, semina in approprinquantem evibrabunt; quod turn Mo~ risonus fe stpius expertum feribit, turn Johnstonus apud Gerardum verum ejse affirmat. Hist. Plant. L. 16. c. zo.
Neither is this Provision made only for Land Vegetables, but for such also as grow in the Sea. Of which I shall give an Instance from my before commended Friend Dr. Shane.
As to the Fuci, their Seed hath been discover'd, (and Jhew'd
me first,) by the Industry of the ingenious Herbarifi, Mr. Sam. Doody, who found on many of this Kind, solid Tubercules, or Risings in some Seasons, wherein were lodg'd several round Seeds, as big as Mustard-Seed, which, when ripe, the cut■ ward Membrane of the Tubercule breaking, leaveth the Seed t» float up and down with the Waves. The Seed coming near 6 Stones,
dies (?) t and others not thus taken Care of, do many of them by their Usefulness in human Life, invite the Husbandman and Gardiner carefully to sow and nurse them up.
Stones, or any solid Foundation, by Means of a Mucilage it carries with it, sticks to them, and jlioots forth Ligulæ with Branches, and in Time comes to its Perfection and Magnitude. Sloan Voy. Jamaica, p. 50.
But although Mr. Voody had hinted, and conjectur'd at the Thing; yet the first that discovered the Seeds in Fuci, was the before commended Or: Tancred Robinson; as may be seen by comparing what Mr. Ray faith in his Synops. Stirs. Brit. p. 6. with his As fend. Hist. p. 1849. Besides which Fuci, the Dr. tells me, he observ'd Vessels and Seed in Coralloid Shrubs, as also in several Fungi, not only in the Species of Crepitus Lupi, but also between the LamelU of other Species, and in that subterraneous Kind call'd Truffles, whose Seed and Vessels open in- the Cdttex, at some Seasons he faith, like that of Mallows ta .Shape.
As to the Crepitus Lnpi; I h*ve more than-'once examin'd their Powder, with those excellent Microscopes of Mr. Wil~ son's Make: But the most satisfactory View Mr. Wilson himself gave me; by which I found the Seeds to be so many exceeding small Puff-Ealls, with round Heads, and longer than ordinary sharp-pointed Stalks, as if made on purpose to prick easily into the Ground. These Seeds are intermix'd with much dusty Matter, and become hurtful to the Eyes, probably by their sharp Stalks pricking and wounding that tender Organ.
(q) The ancient Naturalists do generally agree, that Misseltoe is propagated by its Seeds carried about by, and passing through the Body of Birds. Thus Theophrafius de Caus. Plant. L. 2. C. 14. To 5 ^TM 0-'< Gjh'sot, Ccc Initium verh a pastu avium :——§luippe Visco- detradlo confec~t6qne in alveis, quod frigidiffimum est, semen cum excremento purum di~ mittitur, cr saild mutatione aliqud in- arbore Stercoris aus* pultuial, erumpitque, &C. So also Pliny faith, Vre. Omnino autem sarum [ViscumJ nullo modo mtsatur, nee nisi per alvum- Avium redditum, maxim'e Palumbis ac Turdi. Hue est natMtra, ut nifi maturatum trt ventre Avium, non proveniat. PHn.-JN.:-'H. L. 16. c. 44. Whether vihztTbeophr.is.Hs and PUuy. .affirm, be conducive to the better fertilizing the SeeJs of iMiJfirUoc, I know not; but that it is not of absolute N;.-ceffityv l"«n-affirm upo»«nirtc own Experience, having seen . -.(. * .«'- '.... ..* .*»*'*■• - • the
'.1 .<■/.'■ * ■'
To this so singular a Care about the Propagation and Conservation of the Species of Vegetables, I might add the nice "Provision that is made for their Support and Aid, in standing and growing, that they may keep their Heads above Ground, and not be rotted andspoil'd in the Earth themselves, nor thereby annoy us j but on the contrary,
the Seeds germinate, even in the Bark of Oak. But although they stiot above an Inch, and seera'd ,to root in the Tree* yet they came to nothing, whether destroy'd by Ants, ere. which 1 suspected, or whether disagreeing with the Oak, I know not. But I since find the Matter put out of doubt by Mr. Doody, which see in Mr. Ray's Hist. Plant. App. p. 1918. Hutmegs are said to be fertilii'd aster the 'same Manner^ as Tavernier faith was confirm'd to him by Persons that lived many Years in those Parts; whose Relation was, The Nutmeg being ripe, several Birds come from the Island's toward the South, and devour it whole, but are forced to throw it up again, before it be digested: And that the Nutmeg, then besmear'd with a viscous Matter, falling to the Ground, takes Root, and produces a Tree, which would never thrive, was it planted. Tavern, of the Commod of the G. Mogul. And Monsieur Thevtnot, in his Travels to the Indies, gives this Account; The Tree is produe'd after this Manner; there is a kind of Birds in the Island, that having* pick'd off the green Husk, swallow the Nuts, which having been some Time in their Stomach, they void by the ordinary Way; and they fail not to take rooting in the Place where ttiey fall, and in Time to grow up to a Tree: This Bird is stiap'd like a Cuckow, and the Dutch prohibit their Subjects under Pain of Death, to kill any of them. Vid. Sir T. Pope Blunt's Rat. Hist.
But Mr. Ray gives a somewhat different Account: Hunt /'■«ct«w,[Nucem Moscbataml varU quidem aves depafeuntur, fed maxims Columba genut album v parvum, qua. dehtfeente nucamento, iileiU fuavitatt Mads, hunc cum Nwce eripiunt V devorant, nee nifi repletA ingluvie capacijjima faginam de~ ferunt. Nostrates ibi mercatores Columbis istis Nut-eaters five Nucivoris nomen ifnposuerunt. Quas autem vorant Nuces, post integras per alvum rtddunt. Redditt citius deinde gerfninant.utpote pr<etnaceratd servore Ventriculi. Arbores inde nat& ecu prtcociores, facifo funt corruption's obnoxit frutlumque ferunt c&teris multo viliorem, V hac causa rteglectum incolis comemptumque, pnter Macin, quern ad adulttrandum meliertm adhibent. Ray H. P. L. 17. c. 4.
minister to all their Ends, and our Uses; to~<afford . us Houses, Utensils, Food (r), Physick, Cloathing, yea, Diversion too, by the Beauty of their Looks, by the Fragancy of their Smell, by creating us pleasant Shades against the scorching Beams of Summer, and skreening Us against the piercing Winds, and Cold of Winter (s). . .
And it is very observable what admirable Pro
• visions are made for this Purpose of their Support
and Standing, both in such as stand by their own
Strength, and such as need the Help of others.
In such as stand by their own Strength, it is, by
(r) Arlores blandioribus fruge suctis hominem mitigavere. Ex Us ucreans membra Olei liquor, viresque potus Vini: tot denique sapores annul sponte vementes: v rnenss. depugnetur licit ear am causa-cum feris, cr pafti naufragerum corporibus pisces expetantur, etiamnum tamen secundi. Mille prtterea sum usus rarum, fine quibus vita dtgi non poffit. Arbore sulcamus maria, terrafque admovemus, arbore extdificamus tecla. Plin. tf. H. L. 12. ex.
(s) Plantaram Usus latisjime patet, c in omni vita parte eccurrit. Si/te illis laute, fine illis- commodet non vivitur, at nee vivitur omnino: 3jus.cunque ad viUum necejsaria sunt, quicunque ad deliciat faciunt, e locupletijstmo suo penu abunde subminislrant. Quanto ex Us mensa innocentior, mundior, salubrior quam ex Animalium cn.de c/ lanienai Homo eerie natura. Animal carnivorum non eft; nullis ad pr&dam cr rapinam armis inftruclum, non dentibus exertis cr serratis, non non umguibus aduncis. Manus ad fruclus colligendos, denies ad mandendos comparati. Non legimus ei ante Diluvium carnes ad tsum concessas. At non viclum tantum nobis suppeditant, fed <y Vestitum, zr Medicinam v Domicilia altaque &dificia, c Navigia, Ct" Supelledilem, v Focum, e?" Obleclamenta Senfuum Animique: Ex bis naribus odoramenta v suffumigia parantur. Horum flores irienarrabiltjcolorum Ct" Schematum varietate, v elegantid, oculos" exhilarant, suaviffima odorum 'quos expirant fragantia spiritus recreant. Horum fruclus guU illecebr*. menfas jeeundas inftruunt, c* languentem appetitum excitant. Taceo virorem amxnisstmum oculis amicum, quern per prata pascua agros, sylvas spatiantibus objiciunt, c umbras quws contra tftum er felts ardores prtbtnt. Ray. ib. L. I. C. 14. />. 46. 1
£ e Means
Means of the stronger and more ligneous* Parts, (equivalent to the Bones in Animals,) being made not inflexible, as Bones} because they would then be apt to break; but of a yielding ela'stick Nature, to escape and dodge the Violence of the Winds; and by Means also of the Branches spreading handsomely and commodioufly about, at an Angle of about 4s gr. by which Means they equally fill up, and at the fame Time make an Æquilibration of the Top (/). i /
And as for such Vegetables as are weak, and not able to support themselves, 'tis a wonderful Faculty they have, so readily and naturally to make Use of the Help of their Neighbours, embracing and climbing up upon them (»), and using them
(r) All Vegetables of a tall and spreading Growth, seem to have a natural Tendency to a hemispherical Dilation, but generally confine their Spreading within an Angle of 90 gr. as being the most becoming and useful Disposition of its Parts and Branches. Now the shortest Way to give a most graceful and useful filling to that Space of dilating and spreading out, is to proceed in strait Lines, and to dispose of those Lines, in a Variety of Parallels, arc. And to do that in a quadrantal Space, vc. there appears but one way possible, and that is, to form all the Intersections which the Shoots and Branches make, with Angles of 45 gr. only. And I dare appeal to all if it be not in this Manner, almost to a Nicety observ'd by Nature, vc. A visible Argument that the plastic Capacities of Matter are govern'd and disposed by an all-wile ■and infinite Agent, the native Strictnesses and Regularities of them plainly (hewing from whose Hand they come. Account of the Origine and Format, of toff, shells, &c. Print. Lond. 170$. pag. 38. 41.
(ti) In Hederii, [utcull ejr rarni h'mc inde claviculot, quasi radiculas emittunt, qut parietibus, vel occurrtntibus arboribus ■iicluti digitis firmantur," &• In altum sufpenduntur. Hujufmodi radical* subrotund* funt, v pilis cooperiuntur; c quod mi turn est, gllttinojum fundunt humor cm, feu. Tcrebinthinam, qua artTe lapidibus necluntur v agglutinantur.~—Non minors inAustria Natura utitur in Vite Canadensi, &c. The admirable i and