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Creatures (a). There are so many Beasts, so many Birds, so many Insects, so many Reptiles, so many Trees, so many Plants upon the Land j so many Fishes, Sea-Plants, and other Creatures in the Waters j so many Minerals, Metals, and Fossiles in the Subterraneous Regions j so many Species of these Gewera, so many Individuals os those Species, that there is nothing wanting to the Use of Man, or any other Creature of this lower World. If every Age doth change its Food, its way of Cloathing, its way of Building j if every Age {b) hath its Variety pf Diseases; nay, if Man, or any other Animal, was minded to change these Things every Day, still the Creation would not be exhausted, still nothing would be wanting for Food, nothing for Phyfick, nothing for Building and Habitation, nothing for Cleanlinels and Refreshment, yea, even for Re

(a) Non dat Dens beneficla? Vnde ergo ista qus pojstdes t —— Vnde hue innumerabilia, oculos, aures e? animum mulcentia? Vnde ilia luxuriant quoque inftruens copia I Neque enim necejsttatibus tantummodb nostris provisum est usque in delicias amatnur. Tot arbusta, non uno modo frugisera, tot herbs salutares, tot variolates ciborum, per totum annum digests, ut inerti quoque fortuita terrs. aliment a prsberent. Jam animalia omnis generis, alia in ficco, Sec. —— ut omnis rerum natnrs pars tributum aliquod nobis conferret. Scnec. de Benef. 1. 4. c. 5. ubi plura vide.

Hie, ubi habitamus non intermittit suo tempore Coelum nitestere, arbores srondescere —— turn multitudinem pecudum partim ad vescendum, partim ad cultus agrorum, partim ad vehendum, partim ad corpora vestienda ; homtnemque ipfum quasi contemplatorem cœli ac deorum, ipsorumque cultorem. ^—^— Hsc igitur, ejr alia innumerabilia cum cernimus, pojfumusne dubitare, quin his prsfit aliquis vel Effector, fi hsc nata sunt, ut Platoni •videtur: vel fi semper fuerint, ut Ariftoteli placet, Moderator tanti operis w muneris t Cicer. T.use. Quæst. ]. 1. c. z8,19.

(b) Sunt & gentium differentia non mediocres —— qus contemplatio aufert rursus nos ad ipsorum animalium naturas, ingetiitasque its vel certiores morborum omnium medicinas. Enim verb rerum omnium Parens, nullum animal ad hoc tantum ut fasceretur, aut alia satiaret nasci voluit; artesqut salutares Hi instrutrit. Plin. N. H. 1.17. c 13.

creation creation and Pleasure. But the Munificence of the Creator is such, that there is abundantly enough to supply the Wants, the Conveniencies, yea, almost the Extravagancies of all the Creatures, in all Places, all Ages, and upon all Occasions.

And this may serve to answer an Objection against the Excellency of, and Wisdom shewed in the Creation; namely, What need of so many Creatures (c)? Particularly of so many Insects, so many Plants, and so many other Things? And especially of some of them, that are so far from being useful, that they are very noxious; some by their Ferity, and others by their poisonous Nature, &c?

To which I might answer, that in greater Variety, the greater Art is'seen} that the fierce, poisonous, and noxious Creatures serve as Rods and Scourges to chastise us (d), as means to excite our

Wisdom

(c) This was no very easy Question to be answered by such as held, that all Things were made for Man, as most of the Ancients did; as Aristotle, Seneca, Cicero and Pliny, (to name only some of the chief). And Cicero cites it as the celebrated Chryfippus's Opinion, Prsclare enim Chryfippus, C&tera nata ejfe Hominum Causa, v Deorum. De fin. ban. er mal. I. 3. And in his De Nat. Deer.. I. t. fin. he seriously proves the World it self to have been made for the Gods and Man, and all Things in the World to have been made and contrived for the Benefit of Man (parata c"inventa adfruttum Hominum, are his Words). So Pliny in his Preface to his 7th Book faith, Nature made all Things for Man; but then he makes a doubt, whether she shewed her self a more indulgent Parent, or cruel Step-Mother, as in Book IV. Chap. 11. Note z. But since the Works of God have been more discovered, and the Limits of the Universe have been found to be of infinitely greater Extent than the Ancients supposed them; this narrow Opinion hath been exploded. And the Answer will be found easy to these Questions, Why so many useless Creatures? In the Heavens, Why so many fixt Stars, and the greatest part of them scarce visible? Why such Systems of Planets, as in Jupiter, Saturn, &c. (See my Astro-Theology.) In the Earth and Waters, Why so many Creatures of no use to Man?

(d) Nee minus clara exitii documenta funt etiam ex contem' pendis animalibus. M. Varro author est, a cuniculis fufioflitm

Wisdom, Care, and Industry, with more to the same purpose. But these Things have been fully urged by others; and it is sufficient to say, that this

great

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in Hifpanid opidum, a talpts in Thejfalia: ab ranis civitatem in Gallia pulsam, ab locnfta in Africa: ex Gyaro, Cycladum insult, incolas a muribus fugatos; In Italia Amyclas a serpentibus delatas. Citra Cynamolgos Æthiipas late deferta regio est, a fcorpionibus w solpugis gente [Mata: er a Jcolopendris abailos Trerienfes, author eft Theophrastus. Plin. Nat. Hist. I. 8. c. 29. _ To these Instances may be added, the Plague they sometimes suffer from a kind of Mice (they call Leming, Lemingtr, Lemmus, &c) in Norway, which eat up every green Thing. They come in such prodigious Numbers, that they fancy them to fall from the Clouds; but Ol. Magnus, rather thinks they come from some of the Islands. Hist. I. 8. c. i. If the Reader hath a mind to fee a large Account of them, with a Dispute about their Generation, a handsome Cut of them, with the Prayers, and an Exorcism against them used in the Church of Rome, I shall refer him, (it being too tedious to recite in these Notes) to Mus&um Wormian. 1. 3. c. 23.

%uare patimur multa mala a creatura quam fecit Deus, nifi quia ojfendimtts Deum ? — Descend tud peccatum tuum accusa, non judicem. Nam propter Superbiam instituit Deus creaturam istam minimam er abjechjfimam, ut ipsa nos torqueret, ut cum fuperbas ftterit homo, er fe jatlaverit adversus Deum, 1- cum seerexerit, Puiicibus subdatur. Quid est, quod' te inflas hum an A fuperbid ! Puiicibus refifte, ut dormias. Cognosce qui sis. Nam propter superbiam nostram domandam —— creata ilia qu& molefia sunt: populum Pharaonis fuperbum pot nit Deus domare de Vrjis, de &c, Muscat er Ranas Mis immifit, ut rebus vilijjimis

superbia domaretur, Omnia ergo per ipsum facia sunt;

er fine ipso sailum est nihil. August. Tract, r. in S. Johan.

But although the infinitely wife Creator hath put it in the Power of such vile Animals to chastise us, yet hath he fliewed no less Wisdom and Kindness in ordering many, if not most of them so, as that it fliall be the in Power of Man, and other Creatures to obviate or escape their Evils. For, besides the noble Antidotes afforded by Minerals, Vegetables, ere many, if not most of our European venemous Animals carry their Cure, as well as Poison, in their own Bodies. The Oil, andj I doubt not, the Body of Scorpions too, is a certain Remedy against its Stroke. A Bee, Wasp, or Hornet crushed and rubbed, and bound upon the Place, I have always found to be a certain Cure for the Sting of those Creatures. And I question, not, but the Flesh, especially the Head of Vipers, would be found a Remedy for their Bites.

9.H

great Variety is a most wise Provision for all the Uses of the World in all Ages and all Places. Some for Food, some for Physick (<?), some for Habitation, some for Utenfils, some for Tools and Instruments of Work, and some for Recreation and Pleasure, either to Man, or to some of the inferior Creatures themselves > even for which inferior Creatures, the liberal Creator hath provided all Things necessary, or any ways conducing to their happy, comfortable living in this World, as well as for A4an.

And it is manifest, that all the Creatures of God, Beasts, Birds, Insects, Plants, and every other Genus

Our Viper-Catchers have a Remedy in zvhich they place fa great Confidence, as to be no more afraid of the Bite [of a Viper], than of a common Puntture, immediately curing themselves by the Application of their Specifick. I his though they keep a great Secret, I have upon sinil Enquiry found to be no other than Axungia Viperina, presently rubbed into the Wound. This Remedy the learned Doctor tried himself with good Success in a young Dog that was bitten in the Nose. Vid. Mead of Poisons, p. 19.

And as to the means to escape the Mischief of such noxious Animals, besides what may be effected by the Care, Industry and Sagacity of Man; some of them are so contrived and made, as to give Warning or Time to Creatures in danger from them. Thus, for Instance, the Rattle-Snake, the nfofl poisonous of any Serpent, who darts its poisonous Vapours to iome distance, and in all Probability was the Basilisk of the Ancients, said to kill with its Eyes, this involuntarily gives warning by the Rattle in its Tail. So the Shark, the most ra pacious Animal of the Waters, is forced to turn himself on his Back, (and thereby gives an Opportunity of Escape) before he can catch his Prey.'

(e) me sola Natur*. placuerat ejse retnedia tara/a vul^o, inyentu facdia, ac fine impendio, ex quibus vivimus. Posiet frauds hommum w mgeniorum capturt officinas invenire istas in qmbus fua cuique hommi voenalis promittitur vita. Statim com fofitiones V misiurs. tnexplicabiles decantantur. Arabia atque

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have, or may have, their several Uses even among Men. For although in one Place many Things may lie neglected, and out of Use, yet in other Places they may be of great Use. So what hath seemed useless in one Age, hath been received in another j as all the new Discoveries in Physick, and all the Alterations in Diet do sufficiently witness. Many Things also there are which in one Form may be pernicious to Man> but in another, of great Use. There are many Plants (/), many Animals, many Minerals, which in one Form destroy, in another heal. The Cajsada

Plant

(f) Among poisonous Vegetables, none more famous of old than Hemlock, accounted at this Day also very dangerous to Man, of which there are some dismal Examples in our Phil. Trans. Wepfer, &c. But yet this Plant is Food for Goats, and its Seeds to Bustards; and as Galen faith, to Starlings also. Neither is this, so pernicious a Plant, only Food, but also Physick to some Animals. An Horse troubled with the Farcy, and could not be cured with the most famed Remedies, cured himself of it in a short Time, by eating Hemlock, of which he eat greedily. Vid. Phil. Trans. N°. 131. And a Woman which was cured of the Plague, but wanted Sleep, did with very good Effect eat Hemlock for some time; till falling ill again os a Fever, and having lest off the Use of this Remedy, he [Nic. Fontanus] endeavoured to procure her Reft by repeated Doses of Opium, which had no Operation, till the Help of Cicuta was again, called in with desired Success. Mead of Pois. p. 144.

And not only Hemlock, but many other, if not most Plants accounted poisonous,may have their great Use in Medicine: Of which take the Opinion of an able Judge, my ingenious and learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robinson, in a Letter 1 have of his to the late great Mr. Rayt of Nov. 7. 1604, viz. According to viy Promise, I here send you a sew Observations concerning some Plants, seldom used in Medicine, being esteemed poisonous, which if truly corretted, or exactly dosed, may perhaps prove the most powerful and effeilual Medicines yet known. Having then given an Account of some of their Correctives, he gives these following Examples, viz.. I. The Hellebores incorporated with a Sa* po, or Alkaly-Salts alone, are successful Remedies in Epilepsies, Vertigo's, Palsies, Lethargies, and Mania's. Dos. a 9j. to */?. 2. The Radio. Affari, Cicute, and the Napellus, in Agues and periodical Pains. Dos E)j. to ?/?. 3. The Hyoscyamus in Hsriiorrhagus, violent Heats and Perturbation of the Blood, and al

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