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"Mountains, serve for the Maintenance of Cat"tie, for the Service of the Inhabitants of the "Valleys.

f. Another Thing he observes is, " That those "long Ridges and Chains of lofty and topping "Mountains, which run through whole Continents "East and West (/), serve to stop the Evagation of *' the Vapours to the North and South in hot Coun"tries, condensing them like Alembick Heads into ** Water, and ib (according to his Opinion) by a "kind of external Distillation giving original to "Springs and Rivers; and likewise by amassing, "cooling and constipating of them, turn them into "Rain, by those Means rendring the fervid Regi"ons,nf the torrid Zone habitable.

To tFfcie might be added some other Uses and Conveniences (£); as that the Hills serve to the

(f) Many have taken Notice, that sortie of the greatest Eminences of the World run generally East and West, of which take the late ingenious and learned Dr. Nichols's Account, [Confer, with a Tbeijl, Part l. pag. lot.] To go no farther than our own Country, all our great Ridges of Hills in England run East and West; so do the Alps in Italy, and in some Measure the Pyrenees; so do the Mountains of the Moon in Africk, and so do Mount Taurus and Caucasus. This he faith is a wife Contrivance to prevent the Vapours, which would all run Northwards, and leave no Rains in the Mediterranean Countries.

(g) That the Generation of many of the Clouds is owing to the Hills, appears from the Observations of the ingenious and learned Dr. Job. Jam. Scheuchzer of Zurich, and Mr. $oach. Frid. Creitlovius cited by him. They obseived at Sunrising, divers Clouds detached by the Heat of the Sun, from some of the Tops of the Alps, 8cc. upon all which their Observations, the Conclusion is, Mirati summam Creatoris sapitntiam, qui c? id quod paulo ante nulli nebis usui ejse videbatur, rnaximis rebus deftmaverat, adeoque ex ilia tempore dubitare coefi, num Nubes effent futurt, ft istiusmodi Monies & Petr& no/% darentur. Hypothefi bac (lante, elucesceret permagna utilitas, imo necessitas, quam Helviticx Alpes non nobis tantum aceolis fed e? vicinis aliis regionibus prtjlant, dispensando, quas gignunt tfitbes, Ventos, Aquas. Schcuch. Iter. Alpin. z. p.-zo.

Generation

Generation of Minerals and Metals (£), and that in them principally are the most useful Foffiles found; or if not found and generated only in them, yet ac least all these subterraneous Treasures are most easily come at in them: Also their Use to several Nations of the Earth, in being Boundaries and Bullwarks to them. But there is only one Use more that I shall insist on, and that is,

6. And lastly, That it is to the Hills that the Fountains owe their Rife, and the Rivers their Conveyance. As it is not proper, so neither shall I here enter into any Dispute about the Origine of Springs, commonly affigned by curious and learned Philosophers. But whether their Origine be from condensed Vapours, as some think (/) •, or from Rains falling, as others-, or whether they are derived from the Sea by way of Attraction, Percolation, or Distillation j or whether all these Causes concur, or only some, still the Hills are the grand Agent in this prodigious Benefit to all the Earth: Those vast Masses and Ridges of Earth serving as so many huge Alembicks or Cola in this noble Work of Nature.

But be the Modus, or the Method Nature takes in. this great Work as it will, it is sufficient to my Purpose, that the Hills area grand Agent in this so noble and necessary a Work: And consequently, that those vast Masses and lofty Piles are not as they are charged, such rude and useless Excrescences of our ill-formed Globe; but the admirable Tools of Na-r

(h) Let us take here Ol. Mag. Observation of his Northern Mountains, Mantes excelfi sum, fed pro majori pane steriles, w aridi; in quibus fere nil aliud fro incolarum commoditate v conservation gignhur, qukm inexhausta pretiosorum Metallorum uhertas, qua satis opulenti, fertilesque sunt in omnibus vita necejfariis, forsitan cr superfiuis aliunde fe libet conquirendis, unafiimique robore, ac viribus, ubt vis contra bac naturs dona infentata fuerit, defendendis. Acre inim genus hominum est, &c. Ol. Mag. Hist. L. 6. Præf. See also Sir Robert Sibbald'% Prodr. Nat. Hist. Scot. p. 47.

(j) See Book I, Chap. 3. Note {b).

ture ture, contrived and ordered by the infinite Creator, to do one of its most useful Works, and to dispense this great Blessing to all Parts of the Earth j without which neither Animals could live, nor Vegetables scarcely grow, nor perhaps Minerals, Metals, or Fossiles receive any Increase. For was the Surface of the Earth even and level, and the middle Parts of its Islands and Continents, not mountainous and high, (as now it is) it is most certain there could be no Descent for the Rivers, no Conveyance for the Waters j but instead of gliding along those gentle Declivities which the higher Lands now afford them quite down to the Sea, they would stagnate, and perhaps stink, and also drown large Tracts of Land.

But indeed, without Hills, as there could be no Rivers, so neither could there be any Fountains, or Springs about the Earth j because, if we could suppose a Land could be well watered (which I think not possible) without the higher Lands, the Waters could find no Descent, no Passage through any commodious Out-lets, by Virtue of their own Gravity j and therefore could not break out into those commodious Passages and Currents, which we every where almost find in, or near the Hills, and seldom, or never in large and spacious Planes j and when we do find them in them^ it is generally at great and inconvenient Depths of the Earth-, nay, those very subterraneous Waters, that are any where met with by digging in these Planes, are in all Probability owing to the Hills, either near or far distant: As among other Instances may be made out, from the forcible Eruption of the subterraneous Waters in digging Wells, in the lower Austria, and the Territories of Modena, and Bologna in Italy, mentioned by my fore-named learned Friend Mr. Ray (k). Or if there be any such Place

found

(k) Monsieur Blundel, related to the Parisian Academy, what Pevict the Inhabitants of the lower Austria, {which is income

faflti found throughout the Earth, that is devoid of Mountains, and yet well watered, as perhaps some small Islands may -, yet in this very Cafe, that whole Mass of Land is no other than as one Mountain descending, (though unperceivedly) gently down from the Mid-land Parts to the Sea, as most other Lands do; as is manifest from the Descent of their Rivers, the Principal of which in most Countries have generally their Rife in the more lofty Midland Parts.

And now considering what hath been said concerning this last Use of the Hills, there are two or three Acts of the divine Providence observable therein. One is, that all Countries throughout the whole World, should enjoy this great Benefit of Mountains, placed here and there, at due and proper Distances, to afford these several Nations this excellent and most necessary Element the Waters.

faffed with the Mountains o/Stiria) are wont to use to fill their Wells with Water. They dig in the Earth to the Depth of 15 and 10 Feet, till they come to an Argilla. [clammy Earth] ■which they bore through so deep, till the Waters break forcibly out; which Water it is probable comes from the neighbouring Mountains in subterraneous Chanels. And Caflinus observed, that in many Places of the Territory of Modena and Bologna in Italy, they make themselves Wells by the like Artifice, &c. £y this Means the fame Seig. Caffini made a Fountain at the Castle of Urbin, that cast up the Water five Foot high above the level of the Ground. Ray's Disc. 1. pag. 40. ubi plura.

Upon Enquiry of some sldlful Workmen, whose Business it is to dig Wells, we whether they had ever met with the like Cafe, as these in this Note, they told me they had met with it in Essex, where after they had dug to 50 Foot Depth, the Man in the Well observed the clayie Bottom to swell and begin to send out Water, and stamping with his Foot to stop the Water, he made way for so suddain and forcible a Flux of Water, that before he could get into his Bucket, he was above his Waste in Water; which soon ascended to 17 Feet height, and there stayed: And although they often with great Labour endeavoured to empty the Well, in order to finish their Work, yet they could never do it, but were forced to leave it as it was.

sot

For according to Nature's Tendency, when the Earth and Waters were separated, and order'd to their several Places, the Earth must have been of an even Surface, or nearly so. The several component Parts of the Earth, must have subsided according to their several specifick Gravities, and at last have ended in a large, even, spherical Surface, every where equidistant from the Center of the Globe. But that instead of this Form, so incommodious for the Conveyance of the Waters, it should be jetted out every where into Hills and Dales, so necessary for that purpose, is a manifest Sign of an especial Providence of the wise Creator.

So another plain Sign of the same especial Providence of God, in this Matter, is, that generally throughout the whole World, the Earth is so disposed, so order'd, so well laid; I may fay, that the Mid-land Parts, or Parts farthest from the Sea, are commonly the highest: Which is manifest, I have said, from the Descent of the Rivers. Now this is an admirable Provision the wife Creator hath made for the commodious Passages of the Rivers, and for draining the several Countries, and carrying off the superfluous Waters from the whole Earth, which would be as great an Annoyance, as now they are a Convenience.

Another providential Benefit of the Hills supplying the Earth with Water, is, that they are not only instrumental thereby, to the Fertility of the Valleys, but to their own also (/) j to the Verdure of the Vegetables without, and to the Increment and Vigour of the Treasures within them.

Thus

(/) As the Hills being higher, are naturally disposed to be drier than the Valleys; so kind Nature hath provided the greater Supplies-of Moisture for them, such at least of them as do not ascend above the Clouds and Vapours. For, besides the Fountains continually watering them, they have

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