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;N the last Book, having survey'd the j Earth it self in Particular, I shall next ] take a View of the Inhabitants thereof} or the several Kinds of Creatures (a\ that have their Habitation, Growth, or Subsistence thereon.
These Creatures are either Sensitive, or Insensitive Creatures.
In speaking of those endow'd with Sense, I shall consider:
I. Some Things common to them all.
II. Things peculiar to their Tribes.
I. The Things in common, which I intend to take Notice of, are these Ten:
1. The five Senses, and their Organs.
2. The great Instrument of Vitality, Respiration.
3. The Motion, or Loco-motive Faculty of Animals.
(a) Princif'w cœlum, ac terras, camposque liquentes,
Virgil, Æneid. L.6. Carrn. 714.
4. The Place, in which they live and act.
7. Their Cloathing.
8. Their Houses, Nests or Habitations. p. Their Methods of Self-Preservation.
10. Their Generation, and Conservation of their Species by that Means.
0/ *fo /w Senses in general.
THE first Thing to be considers, in common to all the Sensitive Creatures, is, their Faculty of Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, 'Tasting and Feeling? and the Organs ministring to these five Senses, together with the exact Accommodation of those Senles, and their Organs, to the State and Make of every Tribe of Animals (a). The Consideration of which Particulars alone, were there no other Demonstrations of God, is abundantly sufficient to evince the infinite Wisdom, Power and Goodness, of the great Creator. For, Who can but stand amaz'd at the Glories of these Works! At the admirable Artifice of them! And at their noble Use and Persorman~ ces! For suppose an Animal, as such, had Breath and Life, and could move it self hither and thither j yet how could it know whither to go, what it was about, where to find its Food, how to avoid thou
(a) Ex [enfibus ante c&tcra Hom'tni TaRus, de'tnde Gttstattis t reliquis superatur a multis. AquiU clariks cernunt: Vultures sagaeiits ordorantur , liquiditts audwnt Talpi. cbruti. terra, tam dwso at que sur do naturt element o. Pirn. Nac. Hilt. ]. lo. c. 69.
G } sands sands of Dancers (b), without Sight! How could Man, particularly, view the Glories of the Heavens, survey the Beauties of the Fields, and enjoy the Pleasure of beholding the noble Variety of diverting objects, that do, above us in the Heavens, and here in this lower World, present themselves to our View every where; how enjoy this, I fay, without that admirable Sense of Sight (c)! How could also the Animal, without Smell and Taste, distinguish its Food, and discern between wholsome and unwholsome j besides the Pleasures of delightful Odours, and relishing Gusto's! How, without that other Sense of Hearing, could it discern many Dangers that are at a Distance, understand the Mind of others, perceive the harmonious Sounds of Mustek, and be delighted with the Melodies of the winged Choir, and all the rest of the Harmonies the Creator hath provided for the Delight and Pleasure of his Creatures! And lastly, How could Man, or any other Creature distinguish Pleasure from Pain, Health from Sickness, and consequently be able to keep their Body sound and entire, without the Sense of Feeling! Here, therefore, we have a glorious OEconomy in every Animal, that commandeth Admiration, and deserveth our Contemplation: As will better appear by coming to Particulars, and distinctly considering the Provision which the Creator hath made for each of these Senses.
i i in ii .i
(b) Subjacent Oculi, pars carports pretiosijsima, & quilucisusu vitam disttnguant a. morte. Plin. Nat. Hist. I. II. c. 37.
(c) TSxm'ms, alique Megarenses foils oculis di/cernere valebant intir Ova qut ex Gallind nigrd, & qui ex alba nata sunt, is •what is affirmed (how truly I know got) by Crimald. dt i»»m'm. v Color. Pr. 43. §. 60,
Of the Eye.
FOR our clearer Proceeding in the Consideration of this noble Part (d), and understanding its OEconomy, I shall consider: i. The Form of the Eye.
2. Its Situation in the Body.
3. Its Motions.
4. Its Size.
f. Its Number.
6. Its Parts.
7. The Guard and Security Nature hath provided for this so useful a Part.
As this eminent Part hath not been pretermitted by Authors, that have made it their particular Design and Business to speak of the Works of God j so divers of the aforesaid Particulars have been touched upon by them. And therefore I shall take in as little as possible of what they have said, and as near as I can, mention chiefly what they have omitted-. And,
(a) In Dijfetlionibus anatomicisvix aliquid admirabilius, aut artificiofius JlruilurA Oculi kumani, meo quidem judicio, occurrit: ut merito, per excelkmuwi, Creatoris appelletur MiracHlum. Gul. Fabr. Hildan. Cent. 2. Observ. 1.
So likewise that accurate Surveyor of the Eye, Dr. Briggt, whose Ophthalmography I have met with since my penning this part of my Survey. His Character of this curious piece of God's Work is, Interpr&cipuascorpoiis animati parses, quamagni Condiloris nostrisapientiam ostendunt, nullasatie repiritur, qut, majori pompa elucet quam ipse Oculus, aut qut tlegantiori forma concinnatur. Deum enim alia, partet vei minori fatellitio Jiipaotur, vel in tantam venujiatem band affurgunt; Ocelli peeuliarem honorem & decus a supremo Numine ejjlatum reserunr, &• nunquam non stupendt sun Potentu charatltre: reprtsentant. £[ulla Jane pars tarn divino artificio v or dint, 8c c. Cap. 1. §• 1.
G 4 1. For
I. For the Form of the Eye* which is for the most part Globous, or somewhat of the sphæroidal Form: Which is far the most commodious optical Form, as being fittest to contain the Humours within, and to receive the Images of Objects from without (£). Was it a Cube, or of any multangular Form, some of its Parts would lie too far off sV), and some too nigh those lenticular Humours, which by their Refractions cause Vision. But by Means of the Form before-mentioned, the Humours of the Eye are commodioufly laid together, to perform their Office of Refraction } and the Retina^ and every other Part of that little darkned Cell, is neatly adapted regularly to receive the Images from without, and to convey them accordingly to the common Sensory in the Brain.
ib) It is a good Reason frier Bacon assigns for the Sphæncity of the Eye: Nam fi ejset plane figure, species ret major is
cculo non posset cadere perpendiculariter super eum Cum
ergo Oculus videt magna corpora, ut fere quartam cœli uno aspeclu, manifeftum eft, quod non potest efle plant figure., nee alicujus nisi sphtrict, quoniam super sphtram parvam pojjunt cadere perpendiculares infinite, qui. a magno corpore veniunt, w tendunt in centrum Sphere: Et fie magnum corpus potest ab cculo tarvo iiideri. For the Demonstration of which he hath given US a Figure. Rog. Bacon. Perspec~c. Distinct. 4. Cap. 4.
Dr. Briggs fault, Pars antica, (five Cornea,) convexior est fostica: hac emm ratione radii melius in pupillam detorquentur, v Oculi fundus ex alter» parte in majorem (propter imagines rerum ibidem delineandos) expanditur. Ibid. §.2.
(c) Suppose the Eye had the Retina, or back part flat for the Reception of the Images, as in Fig. 1. ABA: it is manifest, that if the Extremes of the Image AA were at a due focal distance, the middle B would be too nigh the Crystalline, and consequently appear confused and dim; but all Parts of the Retina lying at a due focal distance from the Crystalline, as at ACA, therefore the Image painted thereon isseen distinct and clear. Thus in a dark Room, with a Lens' at a Hole in the Window, (which Sturmius calls his Artificial Eye, in his Exercit. Acad. one of which he had made for his Pupils, to run any where on Wheels). In this Room, I fay, if the Paper that receives the Images be too nigh, or too far off the Lens, the Image will be confused and dim; but in the Focus of the Glass, distinct, clear, and a pleasant Sight.