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Gr. teknon, child ; from the root of A.S. | THEIRS, thārz, poss. of THEY. (THEIR, 1 to form opinions solely by theories : to thihan, Ger. (ge-)deihen, to thrive.] with the sing. poss. suffix -8.]

speculate. -n. THE'ORIZER. THANK, thangk, v.t. to express gratitude THEISM, thê'izm, n. belief in the existence THEORY, thē'o-ri, n, an explanation, or for a favor.-n. (usually in pl.) expression

of God with or without a belief in a system of anything : an exposition of of gratitude for favor received. [A.S. special revelation. [Coined from Gr. the abstract principles of a science or thane, will, thanks; cog. with Ger. dank; theos, God.)

art : speculation as opposed to practice. from the root of THINK, the root idea be THEIST, thē'ist, n. one who believes in [L.-Gr. theoria. See THEOREM.] ing "a movement of mind or feeling."]


THEOSOPHY, the-os'o-fi, n., divine uisTHANKFUL, thangk'fool, adj., full of

THEISTIC, the-ist'ik, THEISTICAL, the dom, or knowledge obtained by direct thanks : grateful.-adv. THANK'FULLY.

ist'ik-al, adj. pertaining to theism, or to intercourse with God and superior spirits:

a theist : according to the doctrines of immediate divine illumination or inspiran. THANK'FULNESS. THANKLESS, thangk'les, adj.unthankful :


tion. (Gr. theosophia-theos, God, and not expressing thanks for favors : not

THEM, them, pron. objective of THEY. sophos, wisdom.] gaining thanks.

[A.S. thām, dative pl. of the definite THERAPEUTIC, ther-a-pū'tik, adj. perTHANK-OFFERING, thangk'-of'er-ing, n.

article (this replaced the older him or taining to the healing art: curative. (Gr.

heom).] an offering made to express thanks for

therapeuo, to take care of, to heal, to THEME, thēm, n. a subject set or pro nurse.] mercies received. THANKSGIVER, thangks giv-er, n. one

posed for discussion, or on which a per THERAPEUTICS, ther-a-pū'tiks, n.sing. who gives thanks, or acknowledges a

son speaks or writes. (Fr. thème - L. that part of medicine concerned with

thema - Gr. tithēmi, to place, set. See the treatment and cure of diseases. favor. THANKSGIVING, thangks'giv-ing, n. act


THERE, thār, adv. in that place (opposed THEMSELVES, them-selvz', pron., pl. of to HERE): it is used to begin sentences of giving thanks : a public acknowledg

HIMSELF, HERSELF, and ITSELF..[See when the subject comes after the verb. ment of divine goodness and mercy : a day set apart for this. THEM and SELF.]

-THEREABOUT' or -ABOUTS', adv, about THANKWORTHY, thangk'wur-thi, adj.,

THEN, then, adv. at that time : afterward: or near that place : near that number, worthy of or deserving thanks.

immediately : at another time : in that quantity, or degree.-THEREAFT'ER, adv.

case : therefore. [A.S. thanne, thonne, after or according to that.-THEREAT, THAT, that, pron, demons. and rel.-as a

thenne, accus. sing. from the stem of adv. at that place or occurrence : on demons. (pl. THOSE) it points out a person THE. Doublet THAN.)

that account. -THEREBY', adv. by that or thing: the former or more distant

THENCE, thens, adv. from that time or means: in consequence of that.-THEREthing: not this but the other : as a rel.,

place : for that reason. [M.E. thenne-s FORE (ther'fur), adv. for that or this reawho or which.--conj. used to introduce a

--thenne (see THEN), with the gen, end son : consequently. - THEREFROM', adv. clause : because : for : in order that. ing -s. Cf. HENCE and WHENCE.]

from that or this.—THEREIN', adv. in [A.S. thæt, neut. of the article se or the; THENCEFORTH, thens'forth, adv. from

that or this place, time, or thing. cog. with Ger. das, dasz; further conn. that time forth or forward. [THENCE

THEREOF (thār-off), adv. of that or this. with Gr. to, Sans. tat. See THE.] and FORTH.]

-THEREON', adv. on that or this. — THATCH, thach, v.t. to cover, as a roof,

THENCEFORWARD, thens-for' ward, adv. THERETO', THEREUNTO', adv. to that or with straw, reeds, etc.-n. straw, etc.; from that time forward or onward.

this.—THEREUPON', adv. upon or in conused to cover the roofs of buildings and THEOCRACY,the-ok'ra-si, n. a government

sequence of that or this : immediately. stacks.-n. THATCH'ER. [A.S. theccan, in which the chiefs of the state are con

-THEREWITH', adv. with that or this. to cover ; cog. with Ger, decken, L. tego, Gr. stego, to cover. See DECK and TILE.)

[A.S. tha-r or thæ-r; conn. with the sidered as the immediate ministers of God or of the gods, or belong to a sacer

stem of THE. The -re is prob. short for THATCHING, thach'ing, n. the act or art dotal race: the state thus governed.

der (cf. Sans. ta-tra, there).] of covering with thatch : the materials


THERMAL, ther'mal, adj. pertaining to used for thatching. theokratia - theos, God, and krateo, to

heat : warm. (Gr. thermos, hot-thermē, THAUMATURGY, thaw'ma-tur-ji, n, the


heat-ther), to heat.] art of working wonders or miracles.THEODICY, thé-od'i-si, n. a justification of

THERMO-DYNAMICS, ther'mo-di-nam'adjs. THAUMATUR'GIC,-AL. [Gr.-thauma, God's dealings with man. [Gr. theos,

iks, n. the branch of physics which treats a wonder, and ergon, work.] God, and dikē, justice.)

of heat as a mechanical agent. [Gr. THAW, thaw, v.i. to melt or grow liquid, | THEODOLITE, thē-od'o-līt, n. an instru

thermos--thermē, beat, and dynamikosas ice: to become so warm as to melt ment used in land-surveying for measur

dymamis, force.) ice.-v.t. to cause to melt.-n. the melt

ing angles. [Ety. unknown.]

THERMO-ELECTRICITY, ther'mo-e-leking of ice or snow by heat: the change of | THEOGONIST, thē-og'o-nist, n. a writer on

tris'i-ti, n., electricity developed by the weather which causes it. [A.S. thawan;

unequal heating of bodies. cog. with Ger. thauen, to thaw, to fall in


THERMOMETER, ther-mom'et-er, n. an THEOGONY, the-og'o-ni, n. the part of dew.

instrument by which the temperatures THE, the or (when emphatic) the, demons.

heathen mythology which taught the

of bodies are ascertained; founded on pron, usually called the definite article, birth and genealogy of the gods. [Gr.

the property which heat possesses of used to decote a particular person or theogoniu-theos, God, and gonē, genos,

expanding all bodies, the rate or quanthing: also to denote a species. [A.S. race-geno, to beget. See GENESIS and

tity of expansion being supposed proporGENUS. se, the, nom. masc. sing. See THAT.) THEOLOGIAN, the-o-lo'ji-an, n. one well

tional to the degree of heat applied, and THE. the, adv. used before comparatives,

hence indicating that degree. The theras, “the more the better.” (A.S. thi, versed in theology: a professor of divin

mometer consists of a slender glass tube, by that, by that much, the instrumental

ity : a divine.

with a small bore, containing in general case of THE, demons. pron]

mercury or alcohol, which expanding or THEATRE, thē'a-ter, n. a place where pub

AL, the-o-loj'ik-al, adj. pertaining to the

contracting by variations in the temperlic representations, chiefly dramatic or ology or divinity.-adv. THEOLOG'ICALLY,

ature of the atmosphere, or on the inmusical, are seen : any place rising by [Gr. theologikos.]

strument being brought into contact steps like the seats of a theatre: a buildTHEOLOGIST, the-ol'o-jist, n. a student in

with any other body, or immersed in a ing adapted for scholastic exercises,

the science of theology: a theologian. liquid or gas which is to be examined, anatomical demonstrations, etc. : scene THEOLOGIZE, thé-ol'o-jiz, v.t. to render

the state of the atmosphere, the body, of action. [Gr. theatron--theuomai, to

theological.--v.i. to make a system of liquid, or gas, with regard to heat, is insee.] theology.

dicated by a scale either applied to the THEATRIC, the-at'rik, THEATRICAL, the THEOLOGY, the-ol'o-ji, n. the science

tube or engraved on its exterior surface. at'rik-al, adj. relating or suitable to a

which treats of God, and of man's duty The ordinary thermometer consists of a theatre, or to actors: pompous. to him. [Gr. theologia-theos, God, and

small tube, terminating in a ball contain I HEATRICALS, the-at'rik-alz, dra

logos, a treatise.)

ing mercury, the air having been ex matic performances.

THEOREM, thē'o-rem, n. a proposition to pelled and the tube hermetically sealed. THEE, thē, pron. objective of Thou. [A.S. be proved. [Gr. theorēma, lit. " a thing

There are two points on the scale, correthe, dative and accus. of thu (See THOU).] vieued-theoreo, to view. See THEORY.

sponding to fixed and determinate temTHEFT, theft, n. act of thieving. (A.S.

| THEORETIC,the-o-ret'ik, THEORETICAL, peratures, one, namely, to the tempertheofth, thyfth.]

thē-o-ret'ik-al, adj. pertaining to theory: ature of freezing water, and the other THEINE, thē'in, n, the active principle of pot practical: speculative.-adv. THEO to that of boiling water. In the thertea. (Fr.-thé, tea.] RETICALLY

mometer commonly used in this country, THEIR, thār, poss. adj. pron, of or belong- THEORIST, thē'o-rist, n. a theorizer : one that of Fahrenheit, the former point is ing to them. (A.S. thara, gen. pl. of the given to theory and speculation.

marked 32o and the latter 2120; hence definite article (replaced the older hira).] | THEORIZE, thē'o-rīz, v.i. to form a theory: the zero of the scale, or that part

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marked 0°, is 320 below the freezing. 1 reckoned as almost indestructible under 1 or shrubs thickly or closely set: close point, and the intei val or space between water, and it is therefore much used for I wood or copse. the freezing and boiling points consists boat-building as well as for carpentry THICK-HEADED, thik'-hed'ed, adj. hav. of 1800. The zero point is supposed to purposes and house-building. [From Gr. ing a thick head or skuil : stupid. have been fixed by Fahrenheit at the thesnesios, divine, in allusion to T. pop THICKISH, thik'ish, adı, somewhat thick point of greatest cold that he had ob ulnea being planted in tropical countries THIEF.thef, *. (pl. THIEVES, thêrx), a per served, probably by means of a freezing near churches.]

son who steals or is guilty of theft ; one mixture such as snow and salt. On the THESPIAN, thes'pi-an, adj. of or relating who takes the goods or personal propContinent, particularly in France, and to Thespis, or to dramatic acting in gen erty of another without the owner's nowadays in all scientific investigations, eral: hence, the Thespian art is equivalent knowledge or consent ; esp. one who dethe Centigrade thermometer is used. to the drama. “ The highest stretch at prives another of property secretly or The space between the freezing and tained by the Thespian art."-Carlyle. without open force--as opposed to a rol boiling points of water is divided into [From Thespis, who played an important ber, who openly uses violence: a term of 100 equal parts or degrees, the zero being part in the early history of the drama in reproach; applied esp. to a person guilty at freezing and the boiling-point at 1000 Greece about B.C. 535.1

of cunning, deceitful, or secret actions ; Réaumur's thermometer, which is in use THETA, thē'ta, n. a letter of the Greek an evil-doer ; "Angelo is an adulterous in Germany, has the space between the alphabet corresponding to th in such thief."-Shak.: an excrescence or waster freezing and boiling points divided into English words as thin : sometimes called in the snuff of a candle: "Where you see 80 equal parts, the zero being at freeze the unlucky letter from being used by a thief in the candie, call presently for ing. For extreme degrees of cold, ther the judges in passing condemnation on an extinguisher."-Bp. Hall.- THIEVES' mometers filled with spirit of wine must a prisoner, it being the first letter of the LATIN, a jargon used by thieves; the be employed, as no degree of cold known Greek thanatos, death. [Gr. thēta.]

cant or slang language peculiar to is capable of freezing that liquid, where THEURGIC, thé-ur'jik, THEURGICAL, thieves." -- Sirl. Scott. A.S. theôf. as mercury freezes at about 39° below the-er'jik-al, adj. pertaining to theurgy thiöf, thif, Ice, thjofr, Sw. tjut, Dut. zero on the Fabrenheit scale. On the or the power of performing supernatu dief, Ger dieb, O. H. Ger. diup, Goth. other hand, spirit of wine is not adapted ral things.—THEURGIC HYMNS, songs of thjubs, thief; root meaning doubtful.) to high temperatures, as it is soon con incantation.

THIEVE, ther, t.i. to practice theft : to verted into vapor, whereas mercury does THEURGIST, thē'ur-jist, n. one who pre steal. [A.s. theofian.) not boil till its temperature is raised tends to or is addicted to theurgy. | THIEVERY, thēv'er-i, n. the practice of to 660° F. Mercury is most commonly “More refined necromancers or magi thieving. used for thermometers employed for cians call themselves theurgists... THIEVISH, thêv'ish, adj., given to, or like indicating all ordinary temperatures. thinking to have to do only with good theft or stealing : acting by stealth : seFor recording extremely high tempera spirits."-Hallyuell.

cret: sly.--adı. THIEV'ISHLY.--. THEY'tures the pyrometer is used; and for in THEURGY, thē'ur-ji, n. the working of ISHNESS. dicating very slight variations the ther some divine or supernatural agency in THIEVES'-VINEGAR, thēvz'-vin-e-ger, n. mo-electric battery is employed. [Gr. human affairs : a working or producing a kind of vinegar made by digesting rosethermos, warm, froti thermē, heat, and effects by spiritual means: effects or phe mary tops, sage leaves, etc., in vinegar, metron, measure

nomena brought about among men by anciently believed to be an antidote THERMOMETRIC,ther-mo-met'rik, THER spiritual agency : specifically, (a) divine against the plague. It derived its name

MOMETRICAL, ther-mo-met'rik-al, adj. agency or direct interference of the gods and popularity from a story that four pertaining to or made with a thermom in human affairs or the government of thieves who plundered the dead during eter.-adv. THERMOMET'RICALLY,

the world ; (b) a system of supernatural the plague ascribed their impunity to THERMO-PILE, ther'mo-pīl, n. a thermo knowledge or powers believed by the this infusion. It has been long disused

electric battery used as a thermometer. Egyptian Platonists and others to have as worthless. [Gr. thermē, heat, and PILE, a roundish been communicated to mankind by the THIG, thig, v.t. to ask ; to beg; to supplimass.

beneficent deities or good spirits, and to cate; “They were fain to thig and cry THESAURUS, the-saw'rus, n. a treasury have been handed down from generation for peace and good-will."-Pitscottie : to

or repository, esp. of knowledge: a lexi to generation traditionally by the priests; go about receiving supply from neighcon or cyclopædia. [L.-Gr. thēsauros (c) the art of invoking deities or spirits, bors, etc. [A.S. thicgan, thigan, to take, tithēmi, to place.]

or by their intervention conjuring up receive, partake of ; Ice. thig, thiggja, to THESE, thēz, demon. pron., pl. of THIS. visions, interpreting dreams, prophesy get, receive, accept, receive hospitality

[A.S. thas, old pl. of thes, this. Doublet ing, receiving and explaining oracles, for a night; Dan. tigge, to beg asa nenTHOSE.]

etc.; the power of obtaining from the dicant, tigger, a beggar. The Scotch has THESIS, thē'sis, n. a position or that which gods, by means of certain observances, probably got the word from the Scandi

is set down or advanced for argument: a words, symbols, etc., a knowledge of the navian. subject for a scholastic exercise: an essay secrets which surpass the powers of rea THIGGER, thig'er, n. one who thigs : a on a theme :-pl. THESES, thē'sēz. [L. son, to lay open the future, etc.-a power beggar : esp. one who solicits a gift or Gr. ti-the-mi, to set. See THEME.]

claimed by the priesthood of most pagan assistance in goods or money, not on the THESMOPHORIA, thes-mo-fõ'ri-a, n. a fa religions; (c) that species of magic, footing of an absolute mendicant or paumous ancient Greek festival celebrated which more modern professors of the per, but as one in a temporary strait havby married women in honor of Demeter art allege to produce its effects by su ing some claim on the liberality of others. as the “mother of beautiful offspring." pernatural agency, as contra - distin Scotch.l Though not confined to Attica, it was guished from natural magic. [Gr. the THIGII, thi, n. the thick fleshy part of the especially observed in that district. (Gr., ourgia, from theos, a god, and ergon, leg from the knee to the trunk. A.S. from thesmophoros, law-giving,an epithet work.]

theoh ; Ice. thio, 0). Ger. diech, seen in of Demeterthesmos, a law, and phero, THEW, thū, n. (used chiefly in pl.), muscle Ger, dickbein, thigh.] to bear.)

or strength: sinews. [Perhaps a form of THILL, thil, n. the shaft of a cart, gig, THESMOTHETE, thez'mo-thēt, n. a law THIGH.

or other carriage. The thills are the giver : a legislator: one of the six in THEY, thā, pers. pron., pl. of HE, SHE, or two pieces of timber extending from the ferior archons at Athens. (Gr. thesmo IT. [From A.S. tha, nom. pl. of the body of the carriage, between which the thetēs, a law-giver-thesmos, law, and I definite article, which replaced the older horse is put, and by which the carringe tithēmi, to place.) hi, heo. See THE.)

is supported in a horizontal position. THESPESIA, thes-pē'zhi-a, n. a genus of THICK, thik, adj. dense : imperfectly Written also FILL. [A.S. thil, thill, a

plants, nat, order Malvaceæ. The species mobile: compact: not transparent or stake, pole, plank, also thel, a board or are trees with large entire leaves and clear: misty : dull : crowded : closely set: plank ; Ice. thili, thil, a deal, a plank ; large handsome flowers. The rim of the abundant : frequent, in quick succession : Sw. tilja, a pole, a stake, a beam ; allied calyx is entire, and the outer calyx is having great depth or circumference. to deal, a plank of pine. According to formed of three leaves, which soon fall adv. closely: frequently : fast: to a great some from same root as Sans. tala, suroff. T. populnea, or the umbrella-tree, is a depth.--adv. THICK'LY. -- n. THICK'NESS. face, L. tellus, the earth, the earth's surnative of the East Indies, Guinea, and the A.S. thicce : cog. with Ger. dick; from face.] Society Islands. It grows to the height root of A.S. thihan, to thrive. See THIMBLE, thim'bl, n. a metal cover for of about 40 feet, and has large yellow THANE.1

the finger, used in sewing. (Lit. "a flowers, with a dark red centre. In trop- THICKEN, thik'n, v.t. to make thick or thumb-piece ;” an extension of THUMB.] ical countries it is planted, for the sake close: to strengthen.-v.i. to become THIMBLE-RIG, thim'bl-rig, n. a sleightof its shade, about inonasteries and con thick or obscure : to crowd or press. of-hand trick in which the performer vents, and hence it is looked upon with (A.S. thiccian. .

conceals, or pretends to conceal, a pea or a sort of religious regard. Its wood is THICKET, thik'et, n, a collection of trees small ball under one of three thimble

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like cups.-v.i. to cheat by such means. kind of rowlock : the pin or handle of a -n. THIM'BLE-RIG'GER. [From colloquial scythe - snath. [A.S. thol, a thole or use of Rig, in the sense of a trick, a thole-pin ; Ice. thollr, a thole-pin, a wanton trick.]

wooden peg ; Low Ger. dolle, Dut. dol. THIN, thin, adj. having little thickness :/ Prob. conn, with thill rather than with

slim : lean : freely mobile : small : fine: the verb thole.
not close or crowded : not full or well | THOLE, thõl, n. in arch. (a) same as Tho-
grown.-adv, not thickly or closely: in lus; (b) the scutcheon or knot at the
a scattered state.-v.t. to make thin : to centre of a timber-vault ; (c) a place in
make less close or crowded : to make temples where votive offerings were sus-
rare or less thick or dense :pr.p. thinn'. pended. E. H. Knight. [Gr. tholos, a
ing; pa.t. and pa.p. thinned. — adv. dome.)
THIN'LY.-n. THIN'NESS. (Lit. “extended” | THOLE, thõl, v.t. to bear : to endure : to
or “ stretched out," A.S. thym; cog. with undergo. Burns.-pr.p. tholing ; pa.t.
Ice. thunn-r, Ger. dünn ; L. tenuis, Celt. and pa.p. tholed. Cold English and
tanas, Sans. tanus, from the root tan, Scotch. A.S. tholian, to bear, endure,
stretch. See TEND and THUNDER.]

suffer ; Goth. thulan, O. Fris. tholia, THINE, thin, pron. (possessive form of Ice. thola, O. High Ger. doljan, dolên,

THOU), belonging to thee : thy. [A.S. dultan, Ger. dulden, and dial. Ger. dolen, thin ; Ger. dein.)

to bear, to endure, to tolerate. From an THING, thing, n. an inanimate object : an Indo-European root tal, Sans. tul, to event: a part. [A.S. ; Ice. thing, Ger. bear, seen also in L. tollo, to raise (whence ding; the root idea being "a lawsuit," extol), tolerare, to tolerate ; Gr. talað, to hence “a cause," "an affair;" cf. the bear, tolma, bravery, talanton, a balance, connection of Ger. sache and E. SAKE; 'L. talentum, E. TALENT.) and of Fr. chose and L. causa.]

THOLE, thõl, v.i. to wait. [Old English THINK, thingk, v.i. to exercise the mind : and Scotch.1

to revolve ideas in the mind : to judge : THOLOBATE. thol'o-bãt. n. in arch. the to form or hold as an opinion: to con substructure on which a dome rests. [Gr. sider : to purpose or design.-v.t. to im. . tholos, a coved roof, and basis, basis.) agine: to judge: to believe or consider: THOLUS, thõlus, n. in anc. arch. a name -pa.t. and pa.p. thought.-n. THINK'ER. given to any round building which terA.S. thencan, thyncan ; cog. with Ger. minated at the top in a point: a dome or denken, from root of THANK.)

cupola: specifically, at Athens, the round THINNISH, thin'ish, adj. somewhat thin. chamber, or Rotunda, in which the PryTHIRD, therd, adj. the last of three.-n. tanes dined. “The Thirty Tyrants on

one of three equal parts. [A.S. thridda. one occasion summoned him, together See THREE.

with four others, to the Tholus, the place THIRDLY, therd'li, adv. in the third place. in which the Prytanes took their meals." THIRST, therst, n. the uneasiness caused -G. H. Lewes.

by want of drink ; vehement desire for THOMÆAN, THOMEAN, to-mē'an, n. one
drink: eager desire for anything.-v.i. belonging to a church of early Christians,
to feel thirst: to desire vehemently. said to have been founded, on the Mala-
[A.S. thurst, thyrst; cog, with Ger, durst, bar coast of India, by St. Thomas.
from a Teut. root sig. - dry ;" conn, also THOMAISM, tom'a-izm, THOMISM, tom'-
with Gr. ters-omai, L. torr-eo, to dry, izm, n. the doctrines of St. Thomas
Sans, trish, to thirst.]

Aquinas with respect to predestination
THIRSTY, therst'i, adj. suffering from and grace, and especially the immaculate

thirst: dry : parched: vehemently de conception of the Virgin
siring.-adv. THIRST'ILY.-n. THIRST'I THOMSONIAN, tom-sõ'ni-an, adj. applied
INESS. [A.S. thurstig.]

to a system of botanical medicine, one of THIRTEEN, ther'tēn, adj. and n., three and whose doctrines is, that as all minerals

ten. -THE ORIGINAL THIRTEEN, the thir are from the earth their tendency is to
teen States of the Union which adopted carry men into their graves, whereas the
the Constitution: New Hampshire, Massa tendency of herbs, from their growing
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New upward, is to keep men from their graves,
York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Dela [After its founder, Dr. Samuel Thomson,
ware, Virginia, Maryland, North Caro of Massachusetts.]
lina, South Carolina and Georgia.

THONG, thong, n. a piece or strap of leath-
THIRTEENTH, ther'tēnth, adj. and n. the er to fasten anything. [A.S. thwang,

last of thirteen. [A.S. threoteotha-threo, thuong, from the same root as Ger. three, and teotha, tenth.)

zwang, constraining power-zwingen, to THIRTIETH, ther'ti-eth, adj. the last of constrain; cf. the connection of band,

thirty. n. a thirtieth part. [A. S. bind, and bond.) thritigotha.

THORACIC, tho-ras'ik, adj. pertaining to THIRTY, ther'ti, adj. and n., three times the thorax or breast.

ten. [A.S. thritig-threo, three, and THORAX, thõ'raks, n. the part of the body tig, ten.]

between the neck and belly: the chest. THIS, this, demons. pron, or adj. denoting (Lit. “ a breastplate," L.-Gr.]

a person or thing near, just mentioned, THORN, thorn, n. a sharp, woody spine on or about to be mentioned : (B.) the last the stem of a plant: a spine: a plant past :-pl. THESE. [A.S. this, the neut. having spines or thorns : anything prickof the adj. pron, thes (m.), theos (f.), this ly or troublesome. [A.S., Ice. thorn, (n.); Ice.thessi, Ger. dieser.]

Ger, dorn ; Slav. tarn.] THISTLE, this'l, n. a genus of prickly THORN-BACK, thorn'-bak, n. a species of plants. [A.S. thistel; Ger. distel.)

ray or skate (Raia clavata) common on THISTLY, this'li, adj. overgrown with the British and Irish coasts, distinguished thistles.

by the short and strong recurved spines THITHER, thith'er, adv. to that place : to which are scattered over the back and

that end or result. [A.S. thider; from tail, whence its name; it grows to about the stem of THE.]

2 feet long, is very voracious, feeding on THITHERWARD, thith'er-ward, adv. to small flounders, herrings, sand - eels,

ward that place. [A.S. thider-weard.] crabs, lobsters, etc.; great quantities are THOLE, thõl, n. a pin inserted into the taken every year, and the flesh is consid

gunwale of a boat to serve as a fulcrum ered to be excellent food; the female is for the car in rowing ; they are arranged in Scotland called the maiden-skate : a in pairs, the space between forming one large species of spider-crab, the Maia

squinado, found in British seas and in the Mediterranean, and so named from the spines with which its carapace is roughened; this species is sometimes figured on ancient coins. THORNTAIL, thorn'tāl, n. a beautiful little

bird of Peru and Colombia, belonging to

the family Trochilidæ (humming-birds). THORNY, thorn'i, adj. full of thorns :

prickly : troublesome : harassing. (A.S.

thorniht.) THOROUGH, thur'o, adj. passing through

or to the end : complete : entire.-(obs.) prep. through.-adi. THOR'OUGHLY.-n. THOR'OUGHNESS. [A.S. thurh, from a root tar, “to go beyond," seen in L. tra-ns.

The longer form of THROUGH.] THOROUGH-BASS, thur'o-bās, n. (music)

a bass part all through a piece, with figures placed over the notes to indicate

the harmony to be played to each. THOROUGHBRED, thur'o-bred, adj.,thor

oughly or completely bred: bred from a dam and sire of the best blood, as a horse, and having the qualities supposed to de

pend thereon. THOROUGHFARE, thur'o-fār, n. a fare or passage for going through : a public way or street : right of passing through.

[See FARE.] THOROUGH-GOING, thur'd-gõ'ing, adj.,

going through or to the end : going all lengths : complete. THOROUGH-PACED, thur'o - păst, adj., thoroughly or perfectly paced or trained :

complete. THOROUGH-PIN, thur'o-pin, n. a disease

in horses which consists of enlarged mucous capsules growing on each side of the hocks, giving somewhat the appearance as if a pin were thrust through THOROUGH-SPED, thur'ā-sped, adj. fully accomplished: thorough-paced. “Our thorough - sped republic of Whigs." —

THOROUGH-STITCH, thur'o-stich, adv.

fully: completely: going the whole length
of any business. “Perseverance alone can
carry us thorough-stitch."--Sir R. L'Es-
trange. “Many believe the bold Chief
Justice Jeffreys, ... who went thorough-
stitch in that tribunal, stands fair for
that office."--Evelyn.
THOROUGH-WORŤ, thur'ā-wurt, n. the
popular pame of a composite plant, the
Eupatorium perfoliatum, a native of
North America, valued for its medicinal
uses. It is also known by the pame of

THORP, THORPE, thorp, n. an English
termination denoting a group of houses
standing together in the country: a
hamlet: a village -- used chiefly in
place-names, and names of persons de-
rived from places; as, Althorp, Copmans-
thorpe. Thorpe as a termination of
place-names is very common in Lincoln-
Within a little thorp I staid at last.--Fairfax.

But he, by farmstead, thorpe, and spire,
Came crowing over Thames.-Tennyson.
By thirty hills I hurry down,

Or slip between the ridges,
By twenty thorps, a little town,

And half a hundred bridges.-Tennyson
(A. S. thorp, O.S. thorp, tharp, Ice.
thorp, Swed. and Dan. torp, Dut.
dorp, Ger, dorf, a village, a hamlet, a
group of houses. Vigfusson regards
this word as having been originally ap-
plied in England to the cottages of the
poorer peasantry crowded together in a
hamlet, instead of each house standing
in its own inclosure, the etymological
sense being a crowd or throng, as seen
in L. turba, a crowd, of which word this
is the Teutonic equivalent.]

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CHOS, thos, THOUS, tho'us, n. a name | THRASH, thrash, v.t. to beat out grain to present the appearance of coming evil,

given to a genus of dogs intermediate from the straw: to beat soundly.-n. or of something unpleasant. (A.S. threabetween the wolf, the fox, and the jackal, THRASH'ER. [A.S. therscan; cog. with tian, to threaten; cog. with Ger. ver. of all of whose natures it somewhat Ger. dreschen.

drieszen, Goth. thriutan, to vex.] partakes. These dogs are larger than a THRASHER, thrash'er, THRESHER, THREATENING, thret'n-ing, adj. indicat. jackal ; they do not burrow, and are thresh'er, n. one who thrashes grain : ing a threat or menace: indicating marked on the back by black and white a species of shark, the Alopias or Alo something approaching or impending. colors, the rest of the fur being in general pecias vulpes, or sea - fox, called the -adv. THREATENINGLY. ochrey buff. Among the different species thrasher from its using its tail-fin, which THREE, thrē, adj. and n. two and one. are the wild dog of Egypt, Nubian thous, is nearly equal in length to the whole (A.S. and Ice. thri, Celt. tri, Goth. threis, Cape jackal: Senegal thous or jackal, etc. body, as a weapon of attack.-BROWN

Ger. drei, L. tres, Gr. treis, Sans. tri.] [Gr. thos, a jackal.]

THRASHER, an American singing bird of THREEFOLD, thrē'föld, adj., folded thrice: THOSE, thoz, pron., pl. of THAT. (From the thrush family.

thrice repeated : consisting of three. A.S. thas, the old pl. of thes, this. See THRASHING, thrash'ing, THRESHING,

THREEPLY, thrē'plī, adj. having three THIS. Doublet THESE.) thresh'ing, n. the operation by which

plies or folds. THOU, thow, pron. of the second person grain is separated from the straw.

THREESCORE, thre'skör, adj., three times sing., the person addressed, now gen. This operation is performed in various

a score, sixty. used only in solemn address. Thou, ways, as by the feet of animals, by a

THREE-SUITED, thrē'-süt-ed, adj. a word as in Shakespeare's time, was (1) the pro flail, or by a thrashing-machine. The

of doubtful meaning used by Shakenoun of affection towards friends, (2) of first mode was that employed in the ages

speare ; perhaps having only three suits good-humored superiority to servants, of antiquity, and it is still practiced in

of clothes ; or wearing three suits of and (3) of contempt or anger to strang the south of Europe, and in Persia and

• clothes, probably referring to a custom ers. It had, however, already fallen India. Oxen were generally employed

once prevalent among the peasantry of somewhat into disuse, and being regard for this purpose, either alone or with ed as archaic, was naturally adopted (4)

Germany to put on their whole wardthe addition of a kind of roller studded

robe on festival occasions, one suit over in the higher poetic style and in the lan with iron knots, which the oxen dragged

another: hence, low boro: peasant-like. guage of solemn prayer."-E. A. Abbott. over the grain-sheaves, which latter were

“A knave; a rascal ; an eater of broken (A.S. thu; cog. with Goth. thu, Gr. tu, spread on a circular floor in the form of

meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarL. tu, Sans. tva-m.] a circle, the ends containing the grain

ly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy, THOUGH, tho, conj. admitting: allowing: being placed towards the centre. Thrash

worsted-stocking knave."-Shak. even if : notwithstanding. (Lit. "on ing by the flail is still practiced in varithat” (condition), A.S. theah ; cog. with ous parts of Europe, but thrashing

THRENE, thrên, n. a complaint: lamenGoth. thau-h, Ice. thô, Ger. đoc ; from machines, which effect a great saving in

tation : a threnody. “The threnes and the stem of THE.] time and labor to the farmer in this

sad accents of the prophet Jeremy.”THOUGHT, thawt, pa.t. and pa.p. of country, have been very extensively

Jer. Taylor. [L. threnus, Gr. thrēnos, THINK. A.S. theahte, theaht.] introduced.

lamentation, from threomai, to cry THOUGHT, thawt, n, the act of thinking: THRASHING, thrash'ing, n. the act of

aloud.) reasoning: deliberation : that which one beating out grain from the straw : a

THRENÉTIC, thré-net'ik,THRENETICAL, thinks: idea: fancy: consideration: opin sound beating or drubbing.

thrē-net'ik-al, adj. sorrowful : mournful. ion : meditation : design: care. [A.S. THRASHING-FLOOR, thrash'ing-flor, n.

" Among all threnetical discourses on ge-thoht; Ice. thott-r, O. Ger. ge-dacht. a floor on which grain is thrashed.

record, this last, between men overSee THINK.1 THREAD, thred, n. a very thin line of any

whelmed and almost annihilated by the THOUGHTFUL, thawt'fool, adj., full of substance twisted and drawn out: a fila

excess of their sorrow, has probably an thought : employed in meditation : at ment of any fibrous substance : a fine

unexampled character.”—Carlyle. tentive: considerate : promoting serious line of yarn : anything resembling a

THRENODE, tbren'od, n. a threne or thought: favorable to meditation.-adv. thread : the prominent spiral part of threnody : a dirge. THOUGHT'FULLY. -n. THOUGHT'FULNESS. a screw : something continued in long

THRENODIAL, thren-o'di-al, adj.of or perTHOUGHTLESS, thawt'les, adj., without course: the uniform tenor of a discourse. taining to a threnody: elegiac. "A thren

thought or care : careless : inattentive : -v.t. to pass a thread through the eye odial flight."-Southey. stupid : dull. --adv. THOUGHT'LESSLY.-n. of (as a needle): to pass or pierce through,

THRENODIST, thren'o-dist, n. a writer of THOUGHT'LESSNESS.

as a narrow way. [Lit. “something threnodies : a composer of dirges. THOUSAND, thow'zand, adj. denoting ten twisted,” A.S. thrædo (cog. with Ice. THRENODY, thren'o-di, n. a song of

hundred : proverbially, denoting any thrad-r, Ger. draht), from thrauan, to lamentation : a dirge: especially a kind great number.-n. the number ten hun wind (É. THROW, to twist), Ger. drehen.] of occasional poem composed for the dred : any large number. [A.S. thusend ; THREADBARE, thred'bār, adj. worn to occasion of the funeral of some disGer. tausend, Goth. thusundi ; found also the bare or naked thread : having the tinguished personage. “To-day her petin Slav. and Lithuanian, and prob. thence pap worn off : hackneyed : used till its ulance wore another aspect. It was like derived.) novelty or interest is gone.

the intrusion of the petty miseries and THOUSANDFOLD, thow'zand-föld, adj., THREADY, thred'i, adj. like thread : mean annoyances of daily life into the

folded a thousand times : multiplied by slender : containing or consisting of solemn story of a tragedy or the tender a thousand. thread.

strains of a threnody."-Cornhill Mag. THOUSANDTH, thow'zandth, adj. the last THREAP, thrēp, v.t, to assert with perti [Gr. thrēnödia - thrēnos, lamentation, of a thousand or of any great number. nacity: to continue to assert in reply to and õdē, ode.] -n. one of a thousand or of any great denial: as, will ye threap that down my THREPE, v.i. same as THREAP. number.

throat ? (Scotch and provincial English.) THREPSOLOGY, threp-sol'o-ji, n. the THOWEL, THOWL. See THOLE.

Spelled also THREEP. [A.S. threâpian, tó doctrine of or a discourse on the nutrition THRALDOM, TARALLDOM, thrawl'dum, threap, reprove, afflict; allied to Ice. of organized bodies. [Gr. threpsis, nutri.

n. the condition of a thrall or slave: threfa, to wrangle or dispute ; probably tion, and logos, discourse.] slavery : bondage.

of same stem as threat.]

THRESH, thresh. Same as THRASH, THRALL, thrawl, n. a slave, serf : slavery: THREAP, thrēp, v.i. to aver or assert with THRESHOLD, thresh'öld, n. a piece of

servitude. [A.S. thrall ; Ice. thræll, a pertinacity; to maintain by dint of asser wood or stone under the door of a house: slave; prob. a dim. from A.S. threagan, tion. Burns: to contend; to quarrel; “It door: entrance : the place or point of to chide, to vex; acc. to Trench, from is not for a man with a woman to threap." entering. (Lit. “the piece of wood beaten THRILL, from the practice of boring the - Percy Relig.: to threaten; “He threapit by the feet," M. E. threshwold - A.S.

ear of a slave in token of servitude.] to see the auld hardened blood-shedder." therscwald - therscan, to thresh, wald, PHRASAETUS, thra-sā'e-tus, n. the name -Sir W. Scott.

wood.] of the genus to which the harpy-eagle THREAP, thrēp, n. a vehement or pertina THREW, thröð, pa.t. of THROW. or crested-eagle (T. harpyia) of South cious affirmation : an obstinate decision THRICE, thris, adv., three times. [M. E. America belongs. The characteristic or determination. “He has taken a thries-THREE, with a genitive terminafeatures are the crest (which lies flat un threap that he would have it finished be tion.) less when the bird is roused), the strength fore the year was done."-Carlyle.

THRIFT, thrift, n, state of thriving : fruof the feet and length of the claws, and THREAT, thret, n. declaration of an inten gality: prosperity : increase of wealth : the thickness of the bones, the whole tion to inflict punishment or other evil gain: a plant so called, of several species. framework of the bird being exceedingly upon another: menace. (See THREATEN.) See THRIVE.] powerful. The barpy-eagle lives in thick THREATEN, thret'n, v.t. to declare the in- | THRIFTLESS, 'thrift'les, adj., not thrifty: forests and preys on sloths, deer, etc. tention of inflicting punishment or other extravagant: not thriving.--adv. THRIFT'. [Gr. thrasys, bold, and aetos, an eagle.] evil upon another: to terrify by menaces: LESSLY.-n. THRIFT'LESSNESS.

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THRIFTY, thrift'i, adj. (comp. THRIFT’IER, THRONELESS, thrõn'les, adj. without a

superl. THRIFT'IEST) showing thrift or throne : deposed.
economy: thriving by frugality.-adv. Must she too bend, must she too share

Thy late repentance, long despair,
THRILL, thril, v.t. to pierce : to affect

Thou throneless homicide.-Byron. strongly.-v.i. to pierce, as something

THRONG, throng, n. a large number of sharp: to cause a tingling, shivering people pressed or crouded together : a feeling to run through the body : to feel crowd : a great multitude.—v.t. to press a sharp, shivering sensation.-ñ. a thrill

or crowd: to annoy with numbers. -v.i. ing sensation. A.S. thyrlian, to bore to crowd together : to come in multia hole ; Ger. drillen, to drill a hole. See

tudes. [A.S. thrang--thringan, to press.] DRILL, to pierce.]

THROSTLE, thros'l, n. the song-thrush or THRILLING, thril'ing, adj. causing to

mavis, a bird of the genus Turdus, the thrill.

T. musicus ; THRIVE, thriv, v.i. to prosper : to increase

The throstle with his note so true, in goods : to be successful : to grow : to

The wren with little quill. --Shak. : flourish:-pa.t. thrõve and thrived; pa.p. a machine for spinning wool, cotton, etc., thriv'en. [Ice. thrifa, to care, thrif,

from the rove, consisting of a set of drawcare, good success. ]

ing rollers with bobbins and flyers, and THRIVINGLY, thriving-li, adv. in a thriv. differing from the mule in having the ing or prosperous manner.

twisting apparatus stationary-so named THROAT, throt, n. the forepart of the

from the noise it makes, which resemneck, in which are the gullet and wind

bles the singing of a thrush: called also pipe : an entrance : a narrow part of any

water-frame because at first driven by thing. (A.S. throte; Ger. drossel, the

water. (A dim. form of thrush. A. Š. throat, gullet.)

throstle, Ger. and Dan. drossel, Ice. THROB, throb, v.i. to beat or palpitate, as

thröstr, throstle; cog. Rus. drozd, L. the heart or pulse, with more than usual

turdus, a thrush; perhaps also stork, force :-pr.p. throbb'ing; pa.t. and pa.p.

starling.) throbbed.-n. a beat or strong pulsation.

THROSTLE-COCK, thros'l-kok,n. the male [Sw. drabba, to knock; akin to L. trepido,

thrush. to tremble.]

The ousel and the throstle-cocke, THROE, thro, n., suffering, pain : agony :)

Chief musick of our Maye.-Drayton. the pains of childbirth. A.S. threa,

THROSTLING, thros'l-ing, n. a disease of suffering-threowan, to suffer.]

cattle of the ox kind, occasioned by a THROMBOSIS, throm'bā-sis, n. in pathol.

swelling under their throats, which, unthe condition of being affected with

less checked, will choke them. [Supthrombus : the obstruction of a blood

posed to be from the whistling sound vessel by the formation of a fibrinous

emitted in breathing resembling the clot.

singing of the throstle.] THROMBUS, throm'bus, n. in pathol. (a) a

THROTTLE, throtl, v.i. to choke: to suffosmall tumor which sometimes arises after

cate: to have the throat obstructed so bleeding, owing to the blood escaping

as to endanger suffocation : to breathe from the vein into the cellular structure

hard, as when nearly suffocated. .. surrounding it, and coagulating there;

THROTTLE, throt'l, v.t. to choke: to suffo(b) a fibrinous coagulum or clot which cate: to stop the breath of by compressforms in and obstructs a blood-vessel. ing the throat: to strangle. “Grant [L., from Gr. thromboo, to clot.)

him this, and the Parliament hath no THRONE, thron, n. an elevated and orna more freedom than if it sat in his noose, mental chair of state used by a king, em which, when he pleases to draw together peror, or pope; the term is also applied

with one twitch of his negative, shall to the seat of a bishop in his cathedral throttle a whole nation, to the wish of church, to the official chair of the pre Caligula, in one neck.”—Milton: to prosiding official of certain societies, or to nounce with a choking voice; to utter any similar seat; as, the throne of the with breaks and interruptions, like a masonic grand-master, etc.: sovereign person half suffocated; Throttle their power and dignity; also, the wielder of practiced accents in their fears."-Shak. that power-usually with the; “Thy THROTTLE-LEVER, throt'l-le-ver, n. in throne, o God, is for ever."-Ps. xlv. 6; steam-engines, the hand-lever by which The throne is fixed upon a pinnacle the throttle-valve is worked: used chiefly which perpetual beams of truth and jus in locomotive engines. tice irradiate."-Hallam;

THROTTLER, throt'ler, n. one who or that O joy to the people and joy to the throne.

which throttles or chokes.

-Tennyson: THROTTLE -VALVE, throt'l-valv, n. in one of an order of angels who are usually

steam-engines, a valve which regulates represented with double wings, support

the supply of steam to the cylinder. In ing the throne of the Almighty in ethe

many engines it consists of a disc turnreal space ;

ing on an axis and occupying in its transHear, all ye angels, progeny of light,

verse position the bore of the main steamThrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers.

- Milton ;

pipe. In land engines its action is usually “The thrones, seraphim, and cherubim

controlled by the governor.

THROTTLE, throt'l, n. the throat or windapproximated most closely, with nothing intermediate, and were more immediately

pipe. [Dim. of THROAT.] and eternally conformed to the godhead."

THROUGH, thrõõ, prep. from end to end, -Milman ; [O. Fr. throne, L. thronus,

or from side to side of : between the from Gr. thronus, a seat, chair.]

sides of : over the whole extent of: THRONE, thron, v.t. to place on a royal

among: from beginning to end : by seat; to enthrone;

means of: in consequence of. — adv. As on the finger of a throned queen

from one end or side to the other : from The basest jewel will be well esteem'd.

beginning to end : to the end or purpose.

--Shak.: [A.S. thurh ; cog. with Ger. durch, w. to place as on a throne; to set in an ex trw, Sans. taras-root tar, to cross (L. alted position ; to exalt. Milton

trans, across). THRONE, thrõn, v.i. to sit on a throne : THROUGHLY, 'thrõo'li, adv. (obs.) same to sit in state as a king. “He wants as THOROUGHLY, nothing of a god but eternity, and a THROUGHOUT,throo-owt', prep., through heaven to throne in."-Shak.

to the outside : in every part of: from

one end to the other.-adv. in every

part : everywhere. TÚROVE, thrõv, pa.t. of THRIVE. THROW, thro, v.t. to hurl : to fling : to wind or twist together, as yarn: to form on a wheel, as pottery : to venture at dice: to put off: to put on or spread (arelessly: to cast down in wrestling.-v.i. to cast or hurl : to cast dice :-pa.t. threw (throo); pa.p. thrown.-n. the act of throwing: a cast, esp. of dice : the distance to which anything may be throwo: a violent effort.-n. THROW'ER. [A.S. thrawan, to turn, to twist ; cog. with Ger, drehen, to twist, L. terere, torquere.) THRUM, tbrum, n. the end of a weaver's

thread: coarse yarn.-v.t. to furnish with
thrums: to fringe : to insert short pieces
of rope-yarn in a mat or piece of canvas:
to play rudely or monotonously on an
instrument with the fingers : - pr.p.
thrunm'ing; part, and pa.p. thrummed.
[Ice. thröm ; Ger. trumm, a piece, end,

THRUMMY, thrum'i, adj. made of or like

THRUSH, thrush, n. a little bird re-
markable for its power of song. [See

THRUSH, thrush, n. an inflammatory and

suppurating affection in the feet of horses:
a disease of the mouth and throat occur-

ring chiefly in early infancy. THRUST, thrust, v.t: to push or drive with

force.-v.i. to make a push, esp. with a pointed weapon: to squeeze in : to intrude :-pa.t. and pa.p. tbrust.-n. a stab: an assault. (Ice. thrysta, to press.] THUD, thud, n. the sound produced by a blow upon a comparatively soft substance: a noise, as that of a heavy stone striking the ground: hence, a stroke or blow causing a dull, blunt, or hollow sound. “The shot went whistling through the air above our heads and plunged with a heavy thud into the ground ... behind us.-W. H. Russell.

Imitative. Cf. A.S. thoden, a noise, a din.) THUG, thug, n. a member of a peculiar

confraternity or association of robbers and assassins formerly prevalent in India, principally in the central and northern provinces. The Thugs roamed about in bands, decoyed travellers and others into retired spots and there plundered and murdered them, preferably by strangulation, and only by the shedding of blood when forced by circumstances. Their motive was not so much lust of plunder as certain religious ideas, and of their spoil one-third was devoted to the goddess Kåli, whom they worshipped. In 1830 the British government took vigor. ous measures for their suppression, and Thuggery, as an organized system, may be said to be completely extinct. The name thug is now applied to habitual swindlers, pickpockets and worthless characters generally. [Hind. thugna,

to deceive. THUGGEE, thug-gē', THUGGERY, thug'.

er-i, n. the system of plunder and assassipation carried on by the Thugs : the profession and practices of the Thugs. THUGGISM, thug'izm, THUGGEEISM,

thug'ě-izm, n, same as THUGGEE. "That thuggeeism again came to the knowledge of the Calcutta Council in 1810."-Cyc.

of India. THUJA, thū'ja, THUYA, thūva, n. a genus

of plants, nat, order Coniferæ. The species are known by the name of arbor. vitæ, or tree of life; they are evergreens, trees or shrubs, and are inhabitants of Asia, Africa, and North America. T. 00

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