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or to assist in recovering it when washed | ical operations, the application of elec- | WYCH-HAZEL, wich'-ha-zl, n. the comout, for the benefit of the owners and tricity, etc.) have not generally produced mon name of plants of the genus Hamunderwriters; a vessel employed in this very satisfactory results, entire cessation amelis, the type of the nat. order Hamoccupation.

from writing for a considerable time seem amelidaceæ. They are small trees, with WREN, ren, n. a well-known small bird. ing to be the only course open to the alternate leaves on short petioles, and

[A.S. wrenna ; cf. the Gael. dreadhan, patient. Called also SCRIVENER'S PALSY. yellow flowers, disposed in clusters in the Ir. drean.)

WRITERSHIP, rīt'er-ship, n. the office of a axils of the leaves, and surrounded by a WRENCH, rensh, v.t. to wring or pull with writer.

three-leaved involucrum. They are naa twist: to force by violence: to sprain. WRITHE, rīth, v.t. to turn to and fro : to tives of North America, Persia, or China. --n. a violent twist: a sprain : an in twist violently: to wrest.-v.i. to twist. WYE, wī, n. the supports of a telescope, strument for turning bolts, etc. (A.S. [A.S. wridhan, to twist; Ice. ridha; L. theodolite, or levelling instrument, so

wrencan; Ger. renken ; from WRING.] vertere, Sans. vrat. See WREATH, WRATH, called from their resembling the letter WREST, rest, v.t. to twist from by force : and WROTH.]

Y. Written also Y. to twist from truth or from its natural WRITING, riting, n. act of forming let WYLIE-COAT, wy’li-kot, n. a boy's flanmeaning.-n, violent pulling and twist ters with a pen : that which is written : nel under-dress, next the shirt: a flannel ing : distortion. -n. WREST'ER. [A.S. a document: a book: an inscription: petticoat. [Scotch.) wræstan; Dan. vriste; perh. from the pl. legal deeds : official papers.

WYND, wynd, n. an alley: a lane. (Scotch.] root of WRITHE.) WRONG, rong, adj. not according to rule

WYNN, win, n, a kind of timber truck or WRESTLE, res'l, v.i. to contend by grap or right: not fit or suitable : incorrect: carriage. Simmonds.

pling and trying to throw the other not right or true.-n. whatever is not WYVERN, wi'vrn, n, an imaginary animal down : to struggle.—n. a bout at wrest right or just : any injury done to an

resembling a flying serpent. [Fr. vivre ling: a struggle between two to throw other. – adv. not rightly. - v.t. to do -L. viperd, a viper. See VIPER.] each other down.-n. WREST'LER. [A.S. wrong to: to deprive of some right : to

wrestlian; from wræstan, E. WREST.] injure.-adv. WRONG'LY. (Lit. "twisted," WRETCH, rech, n, a most miserable per from WRING ; cf. Fr. tort, from L. tortus,

son : one sunk in vice : a worthless per twisted.]
son. Lit. "an outcast,” A.S. wrecca- | WRONGFUL, rong'fool, adi. wrong: un-
wrecan, E. WREAK.)

just: injurious.-adv. WRONG'FULLY.-n.
WRETCHED, rech'ed, adj. very miserable : WRONG FULNESS.
worthless. — adv. WRETCH'EDLY. — n. / WRONG - HEADED, rong'-hed'ed, adj.,

XANTHINE, zan'thin, n. the yellow colorWRETCH'EDNESS. [From WRETCH.]

wrong in head or mind : wrong in prin ing matter in certain plants, as madder. WRIGGLE, rig'l, v.i. to twist to and fro. ciple.-n. WRONG'-HEAD'EDNESS.

(Gr. xanthos, yellow.] 1.7. to move by wriggling: -n. WRIGG'- | WROTE, rot, pa.t. of WRITE.

XÄNTHOCHROI, zan-thok'roy, n.pl. one of LER. [Extension of obs. wrig, conn. with WROTH, rawth, adj. wrathful. [A.S. the five groups of men, according to HuxA.S. wrigian. See WRY.]

wradh, orig. sig. “ twisted;" Ice. reidh-r, ley and other ethnologists, comprising WRIGHT, rīt, n. a maker (chiefly used in 0. Ger. reid; from WRITHE. Cf. WRATH the fair whites. [Gr.) compounds, as ship-wright, etc.). [A.S. and WREATH.]

XEBEC, zē'bek, n. a small three-masted wyrhta - worhte, pa.p. of weorcan, E. WROUGHT, rawt, pa.t. and pa.p. of vessel much used by the former corsairs WORK.) WORK. [A.S. worhte, ge-worht.]

of Algiers. (Sp.-Turkish sumbaki.) WRING, ring, v.t. to twist : to force by WRUNG, rung, pa.t. and pa.p. of WRING.

XENELASIA, zen-e-la'si-a, n. a Spartan intwisting: to force or compress : to pain : WRY, rī, adj., writhed, twisted, or turned stitution which prohibited strangers from to extort: to bend out of its position. to one side : not in the right direction. residing in Sparta without permission, v.i. to writhe: to twist:-pa.t. and pa.p. --n. WRY'NESS. [A.S. wrigian; cf. WRIG and empowered magistrates to expel wrung, (B.) wringed. [A.S. wringan; GLE and WRITHE.

strangers if they saw fit to do so. [Gr., Ger. ringen, to wriggle, twist; allied to WRYNECK, ri'nek, n. a twisted or dis the expulsion of strangers.) WRIGGLE. Cf. WRENCH.]

torted neck : a small bird allied to the

XENIUM, zē'ni-um (pl. XENIA, zē'ni-a), n. WRINKLE, ring'kl, n. a small ridge on a woodpecker, which twists round its head anciently, a present given to a guest or surface from twisting or shrinking: un strangely when surprised.

stranger, or to a foreign ambassador : a evenness.-v.t. to contract into wrinkles WRYNECKED, ri'nekt, adj. having a dis

name given to pictures of still life, fruit, or furrows: to make rough. - v.i. to torted neck. Some commentators in

etc., such as are found in houses at Pomshrink into ridges. [A.S. wrincle-wrinnoticing the Shakespearean phrase, "the

peii. Fairholt. (L., from Gr. xenion, a can, wringan, to wring; Dut. wronckel, a wrynecked fife,” are of opinion that the

gift to a guest, from xenos, a guest.) twisting ; dim. of WRING.)

allusion is to the player; others hold that

XENODOCHEUM, zen-o-do-kē'um, XENWRINKLY, ringk'li, adj. full of wrinkles :

the reference is to the instrument, which

ODOCHIUM, zen-o-do-ki'um, n. a name liable to be wrinkled. they say is the old English flute, or flute

given by the ancients to a building for WRIST, rist, n. the joint by which the

à bec: so called from having a curved

the reception of strangers. The term is hand is united to the arm. "[A.S. wrist ; projecting mouthpiece like a bird's beak.

also applied to a guest house in a monGer. rist.) WUD, wud, adj. mad. [Scotch.)

astery. [Gr. xenodocheion - xenos, a WRISTBAND, ristband, n. the band or WURRUS, wur'rus, n. a brick-red dye

stranger, and dechomai, to receive.] part of a sleeve which covers the wrist.

powder, somewhat resembling dragon's

XENODOCHY, zen-od'o-ki, n. reception of WRIT, rit, n. a writing : (law) a written

blood, collected from the seeds of Rot

strangers : hospitality. Also, same as document by which one is summoned tlera tinctoria.

XENODOCHEUM. [Gr. xenodochia. See or required to do something. – HOLY WUSSE, wus, adv. probably a form of the

above.] WRIT, the Scriptures.

-wis of Y-wis, certainly.

XENOGÉNESIS, zen-o-jen'e-sis, n. the proWRITE, rīt, v.t. to form letters with a pen

duction or formation of an organism of Why, I hope you will not a-hawking now,will you! or pencil : to express in writing : to com

No, wusse; but I'll practice against next year, uncle. one kind by an organism of another, as pose: to engrave: to record : to com

-B. Jonson. was formerly believed of parasitic worms municate by letter.-v.i. to perform the WUTHER, wuth'er, v.i. to make a sullen by their hosts. Huxley. [Gr. xenos, act of writing: to be employed as a clerk: roar. Written also WUDDER. “The strange, and genesis, birth.] to compose books: to send letters:-pr.p. air was now dark with snow; an Iceland XENOGENETIČ, zen-o-je-net'ik, adj. of or wrīt'ing; pa.t. wrote ; pa.p. writt'en. blast was driving it wildly. This pair pertaining to xenogenesis. “I have dwelt [A.S. writan; Ice. rita; the original neither heard the long 'wuthering rush, upon the analogy of pathological modifimeaning being “ to scratch" (cf. the cog. nor saw the white burden it drifted.”_ cation which is in favor of the xenogeGer. reiszen, to tear).] C. Bronte. Yorkshire dialect.]

netic origin of microzymes."-Huxley. WRITER, rīt'er, n. one who writes: a scribe | WYCH. Same as WICH.

XYLOGRAPHY, zi-log'raf-i, n. the art of or clerk : an ordinary legal practitioner WYCH-ELM, wich'-elm, n. a British plant engraving on wood.-n. XYLOG'RAPHER. in Scotch country towns : an author. of the genus Ulmus, the U. montana. -adj. XYLOGRAPH'IC. [Gr. xylon, wood, WRITER'S CRAMP, a spasmodic affection It is a large spreading tree with large and grapho, I write. ) frequently attacking persons (generally broadly elliptical leaves, and grows in XYLOPHILOUS, zī-lof'i-lus, adj. growing middle-aged) who have been accustomed woods in England and Scotland. Some upon or living in wood. to write much. The patient loses com varieties have pendulous branches, and XYLOPHYLLĂ, zī-lof'il-a, n. a genus of plete control over the muscles of the belong to the class of “weeping” trees. Euphorbiaceæ, or, as some regard it, a thumb and the fore and middle finger, [O.E. wiche, wyche, A.S. wice, a name section of Phyllanthus, consisting of so that all attempts to write regularly, applied to various trees. “The sense is shrubs without leaves, but whose and in the severer cases even legibly, are drooping' or bending, and it is derived branches are flattened out and leaf-like, unsuccessful. The various methods of from A.S. wic-en, pp. of wican, to bend.” bearing the flowers in tufts in the treatment for this trouble (such as surg-| -Skeat.]

notches of the margin. They are na

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tives of the West Indies, and are named are doomed to appear before his judg- | YARD-WAND,yärd'-wond, n. a yard-stick. from the singular appearance of their ment-seat. His garments are of the “His cheating yard-wand."-Tennyson. leaf-like branches. (Gr. xylon, wood, color of fire, his skin is of a bluish green. YARE, yār, adj. ready : quick : dexterous : and phyllon, a leaf.]

YAMER, yä'mer, YAMMER, yäm'mer, v.i. eager-said of persons, and especially of XYLOPA, zi-lo'pi-a, n. a genus of plants, to shriek: to yell: to cry aloud : to sailors ; as, to be yare at the helm. “Be

nat. order Anonaceæ. The species are whimper loudly: to whine. "The child yare in thy preparation.”-Shak.: easily trees or shrubs, natives chiefly of South is doing as well as possible,' said Miss wrought: answering quickly to the helm: America. X. aromatica is known by the Grizzy; to be sure it does yammer con swift : lively—said of a ship. “The leg. name of African pepper. The fruit of X. stantly, that can't be denied.'” — Miss ser (ship) will come and go, leave and grandiflora is a valuable remedy for Ferrier. Scotch. O. E. yomer, A. S. take, and is yare, whereas the other is fevers in Brazil. The wood of all is bit geómerian, to lament, to groan, from slow."-Raleigh. [A.S. gearu, prepared, ter ; hence they are called bitter-woods. geomor, sad, mournful, wretched; cf. ready, yare ; akin Ger. gar, prepared, [Said to be contracted for Xylopicria, Ger. jammeren, to lament, to wail.]

ready ; Ice. gör-, gjör, quite : cf. Ice. from Gr. xylon, wood, and pikros, bit- | YANKÉE, yang'kē, n. a cant name for a göra, to do, to make ; prov. E. gar, to ter.)

citizen of New England. During the War cause to do. Akin GARB, GEAR.] XYLOPYROGRAPHY, zi-lo-pi-rog'ra-fi, n. of the Revolution, the name was applied YARE, yār, adv. briskly: dexterously :

the art or process of producing a picture to all the patriots; and during the Civil yarely. Shak. on wood by charring it with a hot iron, War it was the common designation of YÅRELY, yar'li, adv. readily : dexter[Gr. xylon, wood, pyr, pyros, fire, and the Federal soldiers by the Confederates. ously : skillfully. “Those flower-soft grapho, to write.]

In Britain the term is sometimes applied hands that yarely frame the office." XYLORETINE, zī'lo-rê-tin, n. a sub-fossil generally to all natives of the United --Shak.

resinous substance, found in connection States. A word of uncertain origin. YARKE, yär'kē, n. the native name of with the pine-trunks of certain peat The most common explanation seems different South American monkeys of mosses. [Gr. xylon, wood, and rhetinē, also the most plausible, namely, that it the genus Pithecia. resin.)

is a corrupt pronunciation of English or | YARN, yarn, n. spun thread : one of the XYST, zist, XYSTOS, zis'tos, n. in anc. of Fr. Anglais formerly current among threads of a rope: a sailor's story (spun

arch. a sort of covered portico or open the American Indians. In Bartlett's out to some length). (A.S. gearn ; Ice. court, of great length in proportion to Dictionary of Americanisms a statement and Ger. garn.] its width, in which the athletæ performed is quoted to the effect that Yengees or YARROW, yar'ó, n. the plant milfoil. their exercises. (L. xystus, Gr. wystos, Yenkees was a name originally given by (A.S. gearwe; Ger. garbe.] from xyo, to scrape, from its smooth and the Massachusetts Indians to the English YÀTAGHAN, yat'a-gan, n. a long Turkish polished floor.)

colonists, and that it was afterwards dagger, usually curved. XYSTARCH, zis'tärk, n. an Athenian adopted by the Dutch on the Hudson, YAWL, yawl, n. a small ship's boat, with

officer who presided over the gymnastic who applied the term in contempt to all four or six oars. [Dut. jol. Cf. JOLLYexercises of the xystos. [Gr. xystos, the people of New England. Bartlett BOAT. xyst, and archo, to rule.]

also quotes a statement of Heckwelder YAWN, yawn, v.i. to open the jaws inXYSTER, zis'ter, n. a surgeon's instru (an authority on Indian matters), who voluntarily from drowsiness : to gape.ment for scraping bones. [Gr. wystēr, affirmed that the Indians applied the n. the opening of the mouth from drowsfrom xyo, to scrape.]

term Yengees specially to the New En iness. A.S. ganian, ganan; Scot. gan-t,
glanders as contradistinguished from the Ger. gähnen, conn. with Gr. chaino, L.
Virginians or Long Knives, and the En hio, to gape. Cf. HIATUS.]
glish proper or Saggenash. As early as YAWNING, yawn'ing, adj. gaping : open-
1713 it is said to have been a common | ing : wide : drowsy.- n. act of opening
cant word at Cambridge, Mass., in the wide or gaping.
sense of good or excellent, being prob YAWS, yawz, n. a disease occurring in

ably borrowed by the students from the America, Africa and the West Indies, and Y-, a common prefix in Old English words, Indians, to whom a “ Yankee" article almost entirely confined to the African as in y-clept, y-clad, etc., representing would be synonymous with an excellent races. It is characterized by cutaneous A.S. ge-, which assumed this form by | one, from the superiority of the white tumors, numerous and successive, gradthe common weakening of g to y. The man in mechanical arts. 1

ually increasing from specks to the size meaning of words with this prefix is YANKEE-DOODLE, yang-kē-dõõ'ai, n. a of a raspberry, one at length growing

usually the same as if it were absent. famous air, now regarded as American larger than the rest ; core a fungous YACARE, yak'a-rā, n. the native name of and national. In reality the air is an old excrescence; fever slight, and probably

a Brazilian alligator (Jacare sclerops), English one, called Nankey Doodle, and irritative merely. It is contagious, and having a ridge from eye to eye, fleshy had some derisive reference to Crom cannot be communicated except by the eyelids, and small webs to the feet : the well. It is said that the brigade under actual contact of yaw matter to some spectacled cayman. [Written also JAC Lord Percy, after the battle of Lexing abraded surface, or by inoculation, which ARE.)

ton, marched out of Boston playing this is sometimes effected by flies. It is also YACCA-WOOD, yak'a-wood, n. the orna tune in derisive and punning allusion to called FRAMBOESIA, from the French mental wood of Podocarpus coriacea, a the name Yankee, and the New England framboise, a raspberry. [African yaw, a small tree of Jamaica. It is of a pale ers adopted the air in consideration of raspberry.] brown color with streaks of hazel-brown, the fact that they had made the British YCLAD, i-klad', pa.p. clad : clothed. “Her and is much used in the West Indies for dance to it. The really national tune words yclad with wisdom's majesty.”— cabinet work.

of the whole United States, however, is Shak. [Prefix y-, and CLAD.] YACHT, yot, n. a light swift-sailing ves “Hail, Columbia ! "

YCLEPT or YČLEPED, i-klept', pa.p. sel, elegantly fitted up for pleasure-trips YARD, yard, n. an E. measure of 3 feet or called (obs.). [A.S. clypian, to call.] or racing (Dut. jagt (formerly jacht), 36 inches : a long beam on a mast for YE, yē, pron. properly the nominative from jagen, to chase.]

spreading square sails. [A.S. geard, gyrd, plural of the second person, of which YACHTER, yot'er, n. one engaged in sail a rod, measure ; Dut. gard, Ger. gerte; thou is the singular, but in later times ing a yacht.

further conn, with Goth. gazds, a stick, also used as an objective after verbs and YAČHTING, yot'ing, n. sailing in a yacht. and L. hasta, a pole, a spear.]

prepositions. Ye is now used only in the YAK, yak, n. a large kind of ox, domesti YARD, yärd, n. an inclosed place, esp. sacred and solemn style ; in common discated in Central Asia.

near a building. [A.S. geard, hedge, in course and writing you is exclusively YAM, yam, n. a large root like the potato closure ; Goth. gards, Ger. garten ; conn. used. “But ye are washed, but ye are

growing in tropical countries. West with L. hortus, Gr. chortos. See COURT, sanctified.”—1 Cor. vi. 11. “Loving ofIndian ihame.] COHORT, and GARDEN.]

fenders thus I will excuse ye.”-Shak. YAMA, yä'ma, ñ. in Hind. myth. the god | YARD-ARM, yard'-ärm, n. either half or “I thank ye; and be blest for your good

of departed spirits and the appointed arm of a ship's yard (right or left) from comfort."-Shak. judge and punisher of the dead : the em the centre to the end.

A south-west blow on ye bodiment of power without pity, and YARD-LAND, yard'-land, n. a quantity of

And blister you all o'er.-Shak. stern, unbending fate. He is generally land in England, different in different " The confusion between ye and you did represented as crowned and seated on a counties : a virgate. In some counties not exist in Old English. Ye was always buffalo, which he guides by the horns. it was 15 acres ; in others 20 or 24, and used as a nominative, and you as a dative He is four-armed and of austere counte even 40 acres.

or accusative. In the English Bible the nance. In one hand he holds a mace, in YARD-STICK, yard'-stik, n. a stick or rod distinction is very carefully observed, another a noose which is used to draw 3 feet in length, used as a measure of but in the dramatists of the Elizabethan out of the bodies of men the souls which cloth, etc.

period there is a very loose use of the

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two forms.”—Dr. Morris. [A.S. , ye, with a bill 14 inch. It is migratory, I phrates whose religion is said to be a nom. pl. corresponding to thu, thou; leaving the north in summer. It feeds mixture of the worship of the devil, with the genit. was eówer, the dat. and acc. on fish fry, crustaceans, etc., and in some of the doctrines of the Magi, Moeộw, so that ye is properly the nom. pl. autumn it is fat and much prized for hammedans, and Christians. and you the obj. ; Dut. güj, Ice. ier, er, table.

Y-FERE, i-fēr', adv. in company or union : Dan. and Sw. i, Ger, ihr, Goth. jus, all YELLOW - METAL, yel'o-met-al, n. a together. ye or you (pl.).] sheathing alloy of copper and zinc :

O goodly golden chain ! wherewith ufere YEA, yă, adv., yes: verily. [A.S. gea; Ice., Muntz's metal.

The vertues linked are in lovely wise. -Spenser, Ger., and Goth. ja. See YES.]

YELLOW - PINE, yel'o-pin, n. a North [Apparently from 0. E. ifere, A.S. geféra, YEAN, yēn, v.t. to bring forth young. [A.S. American tree of the genus Pinus, P. à companion.] eanian.]

mitis or variabilis. The wood is compact YGDRASIL, YGGDRASILL, ig'dra-sil, n. X YEAR, yér, n. the time the earth takes to and durable, and is universally employed in Scand, myth, the ash-tree which binds go round the sun: 3651 days or 12 months: in the countries where it grows for do

together heaven, earth, and hell. Its -pl. age or old age. (A.S. gear ; Ger. mestic purposes. It is also extensively branches spread over the whole world jahr; Ice. âr; perb. conn. with Slav. jaro, exported to Britain and elsewhere. In

and reach above the heavens. Its roots spring, Gr. hora, season.] Canada and Nova Scotia the name is

run in three directions : one to the Asa YEARLING, yēr'ling, n. an animal a year

given to P. resinosa, and it is also applied gods in heaven, one to the Frost-giants, old. to P. australis. (See PINE.]

and the third to the under-world. Under YEARLY, yēr'li,adj. happening every year:

YELLOW-ROOT, yel'o-root, n. a plant of each root is a fountain of wonderful virlasting a year.-adv. once a year : from

the genus Xanthorrhiza, the X. aprifolia. tues. In the tree, which drops honey, sit year to year.

It is a small North American shrub an eagle, a squirrel, and four stags. At YEARN, yern, v.i. to feel earnest desire :

having creeping roots of a yellow color, the root lies the serpent Nithhöggr gnaw. to feel uneasiness, as from longing or stalked pinnate or bipinnate leaves, and ing it, while the squirrel Ratatöskr runs pity. [A.S. geornian - georn, desirous

small dull purple flowers in axillary up and down to sow strife between the (Ger. gern).]

branched racemes. The bark of the eagle at the top and the serpent at the YEARNING, yern'ing, n., earnest desire, root is intensely bitter, and is used in root. tenderness, or pity.-adj. longing.-adv.

America as a tonic.

YIELD, yēld, v.t. to resign : to grant: to YEARN'INGLY.

YELLOWS, yel'oz, n. an inflammation of give out: to produce: to allow.-0.i. to YEAST, yēst, n. the froth of malt liquors the liver, or a kind of jaundice which submit: to comply with : to give place.

in fermentation : a preparation which affects horses, cattle, and sheep, causing -n. amount yielded : product. (A.S. raises dough for bread. A.S. gist; Ger. yellowness of the eyes. “His horse ... gildan, to pay ; Gotb. gildan, Ger. gelten, gäscht, gischt; from a Teut. root “to raied with the yellows."-Shak. : a dis Ice. gjalda. See GUILD.] seethe," conn. with Gr. zeo, Sans. yas.]

ease of peach-trees, little heard of except | YIELDING, yēld'ing, adj. inclined to give YEASTY, yēst'i, adj. like yeast: frothy:

in America, where it destroys whole way or comply: compliant.--adv. YIELD'foamy. orchards in a few years.

INGLY. YELK. Same as YOLK.

X YELLOW-SNAKE, yel'Ô-snāk, n. a large YOKE, yok, n. that which joins together : YELL, yel, v.i. to howl or cry out with a species of boa, common in Jamaica, the the frame of wood joining oxen for draw

sharp noise : to scream from pain or ter Chilabothrus inornatus. It is from 8 ing: any similar frame, as one for carryror.-n. a sharp outcry. [A.S. gellan ;/ to 10 feet long, the head olive-green, ing pails : a mark of servitude: slavery : Ger. gellen ; conn. with A.S. galan, to the front part of the body covered with (B.) a pair or couple.-v.t. to put a yoke sing (see NIGHTINGALE).]

numerous black lines, while the binder on : to join together : to enslave. (A.S. YELLOW, yel'ő, adj. of a bright gold part is black, spotted with yellowish ioc; Ger. joch; L. jugum, Gr. Zygon. color.-n. a bright golden color. — n. olive.

From the root of L. jungo, Sans. yurij. YELL'OWNESS. CĂ.S. geolu : Ger. gelb ; XYELLOW-THROAT, yel'ō-throt, n. a small to join.] cog. with L. helvus, light bay, gilvus,

North American singing bird of the genus YOKE-FÉLLOW,yok'-fel'ő, YOKE-MATE, % pale yellow.)

Sylvia (S. Marilandica), a species of war yok'-māt, n. an associate: a mate or YELLOW-BIRD, yel'ő-berd, n. a small

fellow. singing bird of the family Fringillidæ,

YELP, yelp, v.i. to utter a sharp bark. | YOLK, yõk, YELK, yelk, n. the yellow • common in the United States, the Frin

[A.S. gealp, a loud sound : Ice. gialpa, part of an egg. [A.Š. geolca—from root gilla or Chrysometris tristis. The sum to make a noise, Ger. gelfern ; prob. in of A.S. geolo, E. YELLOW.] mer dress of the male is of a lemon yel fluenced by YELL.)

YON, yon, YONDER, yon'der, adv. at a low, with the wings, tail, and fore part YEOMAN, yo'man, n. a man of common distance within view.-adj. being at a disof the head black. The female and male, rank next below a gentleman : a man of tance within view. (A.S. geon-d, thither, during winter, are of a brown olive color. small estate : an officer of the royal yonder ; cog. with Ger. jen-er, that ; the When caged the song of this bird greatly household. [Found in 0. Fris. gaman, root being the pronominal stem ya.] resembles that of the canary. The name villager-ga, a village (Goth. gawi, Ger. YORE, yor, n. in old time. (From A.S. is also given to the yellow poll warbler gau), and MAN; cf. also Bavarian gäu

geära, formerly, allied to gear, E. YEAR : (Dendroica cestiva). man, a peasant.]

or compounded of geo, formerly, and ær, YELLOW-BOY, yel'o-boi, n. a cant name

YEOMANRY, yo'man-ri, n. the collective E. ERE. for a guinea or other gold coin. “John body of yeomen or freeholders.

YOU, û, pron. 2d pers. pron. pl., but also did not starve the cause; there wanted YES, yes, adv. ay : a word of affirmation

used as sing. [Orig. only an objective not yellow-boys to fee counsel."-Arbuth or consent. (A.S. gese-gea, yea, and se case; A.S. eow; O. Ger. iu, Ger. euch. not. (for sie, si), let it be.]

See YE.] YELLOW-FEVER, yel'o-fē'ver, n. a ma

YESTER, yes'ter, adj. relating to yester- | YOUNG, yung, adj. not long born : in early lignant febrile disease, indigenous chiefly day: last. [A.S. gistran, yesterday ; life : in the first part of growth: inexto the West Indies, upper coasts of Ger. gestern ; conn. with L. hesternus, perienced.-n. the offspring of animals. South America, the borders of the Gulf | Gr. chthes, Sans. hyas. ]

(A.S. geong ; Ger. jung; also conn, with of Mexico, and the Southern United YESTERDAY, yes'ter-dă, n. the day last L. juvenis, Saps. yuvan.) States. It is attended with yellowness past.

YOUNGISH, yung'gish, adj. somewhat of the skin, of some shade between lemYESTERNIGHT, yes'ter-nīt, n. the night

young. on-yellow and the deepest orange-yellow. last past.

YOUNGLING, yung'ling, n. a young person It resembles typhus fever in the prostraYET, yet, adv. in addition : besides : at

or animal. (A.S. geong-ling; Ger. jüngtion, blood-disorganization, and softenthe same time : up to the present time :

ling.] ing of internal organs which are features hitherto : even : however.--conj. never

YOUNGSTER, yung'ster, n. a young per of both diseases. theless : however. (A.S. git, gita, from

son : a lad. Orig. fem.; see -ster in list YELLOWHAMMER, yel'o-ham-er, n. a

a root seen also in L. ja-m.]

of Affixes.] song-bird, so named from its yellow color: YEW, ū, n. an evergreen tree, allied to the YOUNKER, yung'ker, n. same as YOUNGthe yellow bunting.

pine. (A.S. eow, iw; Ger. eibe, Ir. iubhar.] STER. (From Dut. jonker (from jonkYELLOWISH, yel o-ish, adj. somewhat YEZDEGERDIAN, yez-de-ger'di-an, adj. a heer, “ young master” or “lord”), Ger. yellow.-n. YELL'OWISHNESS.

term applied to an era, dated from the junker. YELLOW-LEGS, yel'o-legz, n. a gralla overthrow of the Persian Empire, when | YOUR, ūr, pron. poss. of You ; belonging

torial bird of the genus Gambetta (G. Yezdegerd was defeated by the Arabians, to you. [A.S. eower. See You.] flavipes), family Scolopacidæ, distributed in the eleventh year of the Hegira, A.D. YOURS, ūrz, pron. poss. of You, not folalong the eastern coast of America from 636.

lowed by a noun. Maine to Florida, so called from the YEZIDEE, yez'i-dē, n. a member of a small | YOURSELF, ür-self', pron., your own self color of its legs. It is 10 inches long, tribe of people bordering on the Eu- or person.

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X YOUTH, yooth, n. state of being young :1 being 60 feet and the diameter of its | ZENITH, zen'ith, n. the point of the heavearly life: a young person : young per- trunk 9 feet.

ens directly overhead : greatest height. sons taken together. [A. S. geogudh, | ZANY, zá'ni, n. a merry-andrew: a buf- || [Fr., through It. zenit, from Ar. semt, from the stem of YOUNG; Ger. jugend, foon. [Fr. zani-It. zani, a corr. of Gio short for semt-ur-râs, lit.“ way of the Goth, junda.)

vanni, Johu. Cf. the use of the names head."] X YOUTHFUL, yootb'fool, adj. pertaining to

JOHN and JACK.]

ZEPHYR, zef'ir, n. the west wind : a soft, youth or early life : young : suitable to

ZAX, zaks, n. an instrument used by | gentle breeze. (Gr. zephyros - zophos, youth: fresh : buoyant, vigorous.--adv.

slaters for cutting and dressing slates : darkness, the dark quarter, the west.) YOUTH'FULLY.-n. YOUTH'FULNESS.

a kind of hatchet with a sharp point on | ZERO, zē'ro, n. cipher : nothing: the X YUCCA, yuk'a, n. a large garden plant of

the poll for perforating the slate to re point from which a thermometer is the lily family, familiarly called 'Adam's

ceive the nail. (A.S. seax, Ice. sax, a graduated. (Fr.-It.-Ar. sifr. [Doubneedle, native to sub-tropical America.

knife or short sword; 0. H. Ger. sahs.] let CIPHER.] [W. Indian name.] YUFTS, yufts, n. a kind of Russia leather,

ZAYAT, zä'yat, n. in Burmah, a public ZEST, zest,n. something that gives a relish: which when well prepared is of good

shed or portico for the accommodation relish. Fr. zeste, skin of an orange or red color, soft and pinguid on the sur

of travellers, loungers, and worshippers, lemon used to give a flavor ; perh. from face, and pleasant to the touch, with an

found in every Burmese village and ato L. schistus-Gr. schistos, cleft, divided agreeable peculiar odor. Simmonds. tached to many pagodas. H. Yule.

schizo, to cleave.] YUG, yug, YUGA, yoog'a, n. one of the

Z-CRANK, zee'-krangk, n. a peculiarly | ZETA, zē'ta, n. a little closet or chamber. ages into which the Hindus divide the shaped crank in the cylinder of some Applied by some writers to the room over duration or existence of the world. [Sans.

marine steam-engines, so named from the porch of a Christian church where yuga, an age, from youj, to join.) its zigzag form. Simmonds.

the sexton or porter resided and kept the YULAN, yõõ'lan, n. a beautiful flowering | ZEAL, zēl, n., boiling or passionate ardor church documents. Britton. [L. zeta,

tree of China, the Magnolia Yulan, a for anything: enthusiasm. [L. zelus for diæta, a chamber, a dwelling, from tree of 30 or 40 feet in its native country, I Gr. zēlos, zēo, to boil. Cf. YEAST.]

Gr. diaita, a way of living, mode of life, but, in European gardens, of not more ZEALOT, zel'ot, n. one full of zeal: an en

dwelling.) than 12 feet.

thusiast: a fanatic. [Gr. zēlotēs-zēlos ZETETIC, zē-tet'ik, adj. proceeding by inYULE, yööl, n. the Old English and still (see ZEAL).

quiry : seeking.-- THE ZETETIC METHOD, to some extent the Scotch and Northern ZEALOUS, zel'us, adj. full of zeal: warmly in math, the method used in endeavoring English name for Christmas, or the feast engaged or ardent in anything.-adv.

to discover the value of unknown quanof the nativity of our Saviour. ZEAL'OUSLY.

tities or to find the solution of a problem. And at each pause they kiss: was never seen ZEBRA, zē'bra, n, an animal of the horse [Gr. zētētikos, from zēteo, to seek.] such rule

kind, beautifully striped. [Of African | ZETETIC, zē-tet'ik, n. a seeker : a name In any place but here, at bonfire or at Yule.

origin.) -Drayton.

adopted by some of the Pyrrhonists. They bring me sorrow touch'd with joy,

ZEBU, zē'boo, n. a kind of ox with long ZETETICS, zē-tet'iks, n. a name given to The merry merry bells of Yule. -Tennyson. ears and a hump on the shoulders, called

that part of algebra which consists in the (A.S. geól, giúl, iil, geóhol, Christmas, also the Indian ox. [E. Indian name.] direct search after unknown quantities. the feast of the nativity, whence gebla, | ZECHARIAH, zek-a-ria, n. the name of ZETICULA, zē-tik'ü-la, n. a small withthe Yule month, December; Ice. jól, one of the books of the Bible, the work of drawing-room. (A dim. of zeta.] originally a great festival lasting thirteen one of the twelve minor prophets. Little

ZEUGLODON, zū'glo-don, n. an extinct days, and having its origin in heathen is known of his history, and the obscurtimes, afterwards applied to Christmas;

genus of marine mammals, regarded by ity of his style has much embarrassed

Huxley as intermediate between the true Dan. juul, Sw. jul. of doubtful origin, I the commentators on this book.

cetaceans and the carnivorous seals. The but most commonly connected with ZECHIN, zek'in, n. a Venetian gold coin,

species had an elongated snout, conical wheel, Ice. hjól, Dan. and Sw. hjul, as worth about $2.25. [It. zecchino, Fr.

incisors, and molar teeth with triangular being a feast originally celebrated at the sequin. See SEQUIN.]

serrated crowns, implanted in the jaws sun's wheeling or turning at midsummer ZEMINDAR, zem-in-dar', n. Indian name by two roots, each molar appearing to and midwinter, but the h of these words for the landlords who pay the govern

be formed of two separate teeth united is strongly against this. Skeat followment revenue, as distinguished from the

at the crown (whence the generic name). ing Fick connects it with E. yowl, yawl, ryots or actual cultivators of the soil.

They belong to the eocene and miocené, as referring to festive noise or outcry. [From an Ar. word, sig. “land."]

the best known species being Z. cetoides Jolly is from this word, coming to us.

ZENANA, ze-nä'na, n. the name given to of the middle eocene of the United States, through the French.)

the portion of a house reserved exclusive which attained a length of 70 feet. The ly for the females belonging to a family first found remains were believed to be of good caste in India. [Per. zenanah, those of a reptile, and the name Basilo

belonging to women, from zen, woman.) saurus was therefore given to them. (Gr. ZEND, zend, n. an ancient Iranian lan zeuglē, the strap or loop of a yoke, and

guage, in which are composed the sacred odous, odontos, a tooth, lit. yoke-tooth: writings of the Zoroastrians. It is a 80 called from the peculiar form of its member of the Aryan family of lan

molar teeth.7 ZACCHEAN, zak'ē-an, n. a follower of guages, and very closely allied to San ZEUGLODONTIDÆ, zů-glo-don'ti-dē, n.pl.

Zaccheus of Palestine, of the fourth cen. skrit, esp, the Sanskrit of the Vedas, by an extinct family of cetaceans, of which tury, who taught that only private prayer means of which, and by the help of com

Zeuglodon is the type. was acceptable to God. His disciples, parative philology, it has been deciph

ZEUGMA, zūg'ma, n. a figure in grammar therefore, retired to a hill near Jerusa ered. Called also AVESTAN. A contracted in which two nouns are joined to a verb lem for their devotions. name for the ZEND - AVESTA or sacred

suitable to only one of them, but sugZAFFRE, zaf'fer, n. impure oxide of co writings of Zoroaster. [From ZEND in

gesting another verb suitable to the other balt : the residuum of cobalt, after the ZEND-AVESTA.1

noun; or in which an adjective is simisulphur, arsenic, and other volatile mat ZEND-AVESTA, zend-a-ves'ta, n. the colo larly used with two nouns. (Gr. zeugma, ters have been expelled by calcination. lective name for the sacred writings of from zeugnymi, to join. See YOKE.] So that it is a gray or dark-gray oxide of the Guebers or Parsees, ascribed to Zor- ZEUGMATIC, zūg-mat'ik, adj. of or per cobalt, mixed with a portion of silica. oaster, and reverenced as a bible or sole taining to the figure of speech zeugma. When fused into a glass it is intensely rule of faith and practice. It consists of ZEUS, zūs, n. in myth, the supreme divinity blue, and is much used by enamellers several divisions, of which the oldest is among the Greeks; the ruler of the other and porcelain manufacturers as a blue written in the primitive Zend language. gods: generally treated as the equivalent color. [Frzafre, safre, saffre. Sp. zafre, It is often called the AVESTA. [This name of the Roman Jupiter. probably of Arabic origin.]

seems to mean “commentary-text," or ZIGZAG, zig'zag, adj. having short, sharp ZAIM, zä'im, n. a Turkish chief or leader. authorized text and commentary. The turns.-v.t. to form with short turns. ZAIMET, zä'i-met, n. a Turkish name for first portion of the pame is now usually [An imitative word; Fr. zig-zag, Ger.

an estate : a district from which a zaim applied to the language in which the zickzack.) draws his revenue.

early portion of the work is written.) ZINC, zingk, n. a bluish - wbite metal, ZAMANG, za-mang', n. a leguminous tree ZENDIK, zen'dik, n. this name is given in somewhat like tin. [Ger. zink, prob.

of Venezuela, the Pithecolobium Saman, the East not only to disbelievers in re allied to zinn, tin.] the hemispherical head of one individual vealed religion, but also to such as are ZINCOGRAPHY, zing-kogʻra-fi, n. art of of which Humboldt describes as being accused of magical heresy. [Ar., an in printing from plates of zinc. [ZINC, and 526 feet in circumference, its diameter Adel, an atheist.]

Gr. grapho, to write.]

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ZIRCONIUM, zir-ko'ni-um, n. one of the

rarer metals. ZODIAC, zo'di-ak, n. an imaginary belt in

the heavens, containing the twelve constellations, called signs of the zodiac.adj. ZODIACAL. (Lit. “ the circle of animals," Gr. zodiakos, of animals (kyklos, a circle)-zodion, dim. of zoon, an animal, zao, to live.] ZOILEAN, zõ-i-lē'an, adj.relating to Zoilus,

a severe critic; hence, a term applied to bitter, severe, or malignant criticism or

critics. See ZOILISM.T ZOILISM, zo'il-izm, n. illiberal or carping

criticism : unjust censure.“ Bring candid eyes unto the perusal of men's works, and let not zoilism or detraction blast any well - intended labors.” — Sir T. Browne. [After Zoilus, a sophist and grammarian of Ampbipolis, who criticised Homer, Plato, and Isocrates with

exceeding severity.] ZOLLVEREIN, tsol'ver-In, n. the German

commercial or customs union, founded about the year 1818, and afterwards greatly extended through the example and efforts of the government of Prussia. Its principal object was the establishment of a uniform rate of customs duties throughout the various states joining the union. The territories of the Zollverein now coincide with those of the new German Empire (with the notable exceptions of Hamburg and Bremen), and include Luxemburg. [Ger. zoll, toll, custom,

duty, and verein, union or association.] ZOMBORUK, zom'bo-ruk, n. same as Zum

BOORUK. “A section of some eighteen or twenty camels . . . with zomboruke, or

swivel guns, mounted on their backs, are now known as Turcos. (Fr., from and an artilleryman or two to each." the name of a tribe inhabiting Algeria.) W. H. Russell.

ZUCHETTO, tsoo-ket'to, n. in the R. Cath. ZONE, zôn, n. a girdle: one of the five Ch. the skull-cap of an ecclesiastic cover

great belts into which the surface of the ing the tonsure. A priest's is black, a earth is divided. (L. zona-Gr. zonē, a bishop's purple, a cardinal's red, and the girdle-zonnymi, to gird ; akin to JOIN, pope's white. [It. zucchetta, a small YOKE.]

gourd, anything in the form of a gourd, ZONED, zond, adj. wearing a zone or girdle: from zucca, a gourd.) having zones or concentric bands.

ZULU, zõo'loo or zoo-loo', n. a member of ZOOLOGIST, zo-ol'o-jist, n. one versed in a warlike branch of the Kafir race inzoology.

habiting a territory in South Africa situZOOLOGY, zo-ol'o-ji, n, that part of nat ated on the coast of the Indian Ocean,

ural history which treats of animals. immediately north of the British colony
adj. ZOOLOG'ICAL.-adv. ZOOLOG'ICALLY. of Natal.
[Gr. zoon, an animal, and logos, a dis | ZUMBOORUK, zoom-boo'ruk, n. in the
course.]

Orient, a small cannon supported by a
ZOOPHYTE, zo'o-fīt, n. a term now applied swivelled rest on the back of a camel,

to true polyps, as corals, etc. [Lit. " ani. whence it is fired.
mal-plant," Gr. zoophyton~zoon, an ani ZYMOTIC, zi-mot’ik, adj. denoting all dis-
mal, phyton, a plant.]

eases, as cholera, typhus, etc., in which ZOROASTRIANISM, zor-ő-as'tri-an-izm, n. a poison works through the body like a

the national faith of ancient Persia, so ferment. [Gr., from zymoo, to ferment named from its founder, Zoroaster.

-zymē, leaven.)
ZOUAVE, zāb-av or zwäv, n. a soldier be. ZYMURGY, zi'mer-ji, n. a name applied to

longing to the light infantry corps in the that department of technological chem-
French army, organized in Algeria, and istry which treats of the scientific prin-
originally intended to be composed ex ciples of wine-making, brewing, distilling,
clusively of a tribe of Kabyles, but which, and the preparation of yeast and vinegar,
having gradually changed its character, in which processes fermentation plays the
is now constituted almost exclusively of principal part. Watts. [Gr. zymē, a fer-
Frenchmen. These corps still, however, ment, and ergon, work.]
wear the picturesque dress, which con ZYTHEPSARY, zī-thep'sa-ri, n. a brewery
sists of a loose, dark-blue jacket and or brew-house. [Gr. zythos, a kind of
waistcoat, baggy Turkish trousers, yellow beer, and hepso, to boil.
leather leggings, wbite gaiters, a sky ZYTHUM, zīthum, n. a kind of ancient
blue sash, and a red fez with yellow malt beverage: a liquor made from malt
tassel. The few corps filled with Alger and wheat. [L. zythum-Gr. Eythos, a
inas still connected with the French army I kind of beer.]

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