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GRAPH'IC. [Gr. cheir, the hand, graphē, | martre, near Paris. [Gr. choiros, a hog, | CHOSE, choz, pa.t. and obs. pa.p. of writing.) and potamos, a river.]

CHOOSE. CHIROLOGIST, ki-rol'o-jist, n. one who CHOICE, chois, n. act or power of choos CHOSEN, choz'n, past participle of CHOOSE. converses by signs with the hands.

ing : the thing chosen : preference: the CHOUGH, chuf, n. a kind of jackdaw CHIROLOGY, ki-rol'o-ji, n. the art of dis- | preferable or best part.-adj. worthy of which frequents rocky places and the

coursing with the hands or by signs as being chosen : select. [Fr. choix-choisir; sea-coast. [A.S. ceo : from the cry of the deaf and dumb do. [Gr. cheir, the from root of CHOOSE.T

the bird--Caw.] hand, logos, a discourse.]

CHOIR, kwīr, n. a chorus or band of sing CHOUSE, chows, v.t. to defraud, cheat, or CHIROPODIST, kī-rop'o-dist, n. a hand ers, especially those belonging to a impose upon.-n. one easily cheated : a

and foot doctor: one who removes corns, church : the part of a church appropri trick. [Turk. chiaus, a messenger or bunions, warts, etc. [Gr. cheir, the ated to the singers : the part of a cathe envoy. "A chiaus sent to England in hand, and pous, podos, the foot.]

dral separated from the nave by a rail or 1609 committed gross frauds upon the CHIROTONY, ki-rot'o-ni, n. imposition of screen. [Fr. chour-L. chorus — Gr. Turkish merchants resident in Britain ; hands in ordaining priests. [Gr. cheir, choros.]

hence chouse, to act as this chiaus did, the hand, and teino, to hold out.]

CHOKE, chok, v.t. to throttle : to suffo to defraud.] CHIRP, cherp, CHIRRUP, chir'up, n. the cate: to stop or obstruct.-v.i. to be CHRISM, krizm, n. consecrated or holy

sharp, shrill sound of certain birds and choked or suffocated. (Ety. dub., prob. oil : unction. so, Fr. chresme, Fr. chréme insects.—v.i. to make such a sound. from the sound.]

-Gr. chrisma, from chrio, chriso, to [From the sound.)

CHOKE-DAMP, chok-damp, n. carbonic anoint.] CHIRURGEON, ki-rur'jun, n. old form of acid gas, so called by miners from its CHRISMÅL, kriz'mal, adj., pertaining to SURGEON.-n. CAIRUR'GERY, now SUR- often causing suffocation.

chrism. GERY.-adj. CHIRUR'GICAL, now SURGI- | CHOKEY, chok'i, adj. 1, same as CHOKY; CHRIST, krist, n. the Anointed, the MesCAL. [Fr. chirurgien-Gr. cheirourgos 2, inclined to choke: having a choking siah. [A.S. crist-Gr. Christos-chrio, cheir, the hand, ergon, a work.]

sensation in the throat. (Colloq.) “ The chrisö, to anoint.] CHISEL, chiz'el, n. a tool to cut or hollow allusion to his mother made Tom feel CHRISTDOM, kris'dum, n. the rule or serout wood, stone, etc.—v.t. to cut, carve, rather chokey."-T. Hughes.

vice of Christ, whose service is perfect etc. with a chisel :-pr.p. chis'elling; CHOLER, kol'er, n. the bile : anger or freedom. (Rare.) pa.p. chis'elled. ro. Fr. cisel-Low L. irascibility, once supposed to arise from They know the grief of men without its wisdom:

They sink in man's despair without its calm: cisellus-L. sicilicula, dim. of sicilis, a excess of bile. [O. Fr. cholere-L., Gr.

Are slaves, without the liberty in Christdom. sickle, from seco, to cut.] cholera-Gr. cholē, bile. Cf. E. GALL.]

E. B. Browning. CHIT, chit, no a baby : a lively or pert | CHOLERA, kol'er-a, n. a disease charac CHRISTEN, kris'n, v.t. to baptize in the

young child. [A.S. cith, a young tender terized by bilious vomiting and purging. name of Christ : to give a name to. shoot.] (Gr. cholera-cholē, bile.]

SA.S. cristnian, to make a Christian.] CHITCHAT, chit'chat, n. chatting or idle CHOLERAIC, kol-er-ā'ik, adj., of the nat CHRISTENDOM, kris'n-dum, n. that part talk : prattle. [A reduplication of CHAT.] ure of cholera.

of the world in which Christianity is the CHIVALRESQUE, shiv'al-resk, adj. per- CHOLERIC, kol'er-ik, adj. full of choler or received religion: the whole body of taining to chivalry : chivalrous. “Some anger : petulant.

Christians. [A.S. Cristendom-cristen, warrior in a chivalresque romance."- Miss CHOOSE, chõõz, v.t. to take one thing in

a Christian, dom, rule, sway.] Burney. [Fr. chevaleresque.]

preference to another : to select.-v.i. to

CHRISTIAN, krist'yan, n. a follower of CHIVALRIC, shiv'al-rik, CHIVALROUS, will or determine :-pa.t. chose; pa.p.

Christ.-adj. relating to Christ or his shiv'al-rus, adj., pertaining to chivalry : chos'en. [A.S. ceosan ; cog. with Dut.

religion.-CHRISTIAN NAME, the name bold: gallant.-adv. CHIVALROUSLY. kiesen, Goth. kiusan, to choose, and akin

given when christened, as distinguished CHIVALRY, shiv'al-ri, n. the usages and to L. gustare, to taste.)

from the surname.-adjs. CHRIST'IANqualifications of chevaliers or knights : CHOP, chop, v.t. to cut with a sudden

LIKE, CHRIST'IANLY. [A.S. cristen-L. the system of knighthood : heroic ad blow: to cut into small pieces.v.i. to

Christianus-Gr. Christos.1 ventures. (Fr. chevalerie-cheval-L. ca shift suddenly, as the wind: — pr.p.

CHRISTIANIZE, krist'yan-iz, v.t. to make ballus, a horse. See CAVALRY.] chopp'ing; pa.p. chopped'. [From "a

Christian : to convert to Christianity. CHLORAL, klõ'ral, n. a strongly narcotic Low-Ger. root found in Dut. kappen, substance obtained by the action of chlo also in Ger. kappen, to cut; cf. Gr.

CHRISTIANITY, kris-ti-an'i-ti, n. the religrine on alcohol. Word formed by com kopto, from a root skap, to cut.]

ion of Christ. bining chlor- in chlorine, and al- in alco CHOP, chop, n. a piece chopped off, esp. of

CHRISTMAS, kris'mas, n. an annual festihol.] meat.

val, orig, a mass, in memory of the birth CHLORALISM, klõ'ral-izm, n. in med, a CHOP, chop, v.t. to exchange or barter:

of Christ, held on the 25th of December. morbid state of the system arising from to put one thing in place of another :

[CHRIST and MASS.] the incautious or habitual use of chloral. pr.p. chopp'ing; pa.p. chopped'. [M.E.

CHRISTMAS-BOX, kris'mas-boks, n. a box CHLORIC, klõ'rik, adj., of or from chlorine. copen-0. Dut. koopen, to buy. Same containing Christmas presents: a ChristCHLORIDE, klõ'rid, n. a compound of chlo root as CHEAP.]

mas gift. rine with some other substance, as pot CHOP, chop, n. the chap or jaw, generally

CHRISTOLOGY, kris-tol'o-ji, n, that ash, soda, etc. used in pl. (See CHAPS.)

branch of theology which treats of the CHLORINE, klõ'rin, n. a pale-green gas, CHOP-FALLEN, chop'-fawln, adj. (lit.) nature and person of Christ. (Gr. Chriswith a disagreeable, suffocating odor. having the chop or lower jaw fallen

tos, and logos, a discourse.) [Gr. chloros, pale-green.]

down: cast-down: dejected.

CHROMATIC, kro-mat'ik, adj, relating to CHLORITE, klõ'rīt, n. a soft mineral of a CHOPPER, chop'er, n. one who or that colors : colored : (music) proceeding by greenish color, with a soapy feeling when which chops.

semitones.-n.sing. CHROMAT'ICS, the scihandled.

CHOPSTICKS, chop'stiks, n. two small ence of colors. [Gr. chromat.100-chroma, CHLOROFORM, klõ'ro-form, n. a colorless sticks of wood, ivory, etc., used by the color.]

volatile liquid, much used to induce in Chinese instead of a fork and knife. CHROME, krom, CHROMIUM, krõ'mi-um, sensibility. [Orig, a compound of chlo CHORAL, kõ'ral, adj. belonging to a cho n. a metal remarkable for the beautiful rine and formic acid ; Gr. chloros, and rus or choir.-CHORAL SERVICE, a church colors of its compounds.-adj. CHROM'IO. formic acid, so called because orig. made service of song : said to be partly choral (Gr. chroma, color.) from ants, L. formica, an ant.]

when only canticles, hymns, etc., are CHROMOPHOTOGRAPHY, k ro'm ō-f CHLOROSIS, klor-o'sis, n. a medical name chanted or sung, and wholly choral tog'ra-fi, n. the art or process of pro

for green-sickness. [Gr. chloros, pale when, in addition to these, the versicles, ducing colored photographic pictures. green. responses, etc., are chanted or sung.

See CHROMATYPE.) CHOCOLATE, choko-lāt, n. a kind of paste CHORD, kord, n. the string of a musical CHROMOTYPOGRAPHY, kro'mo-ti-pog'made of the pounded seeds of the Cacao instrument: a combination of tones in ra-fi, n. typography in colors : the art of theobroma: a beverage made by dissolv harmony: (geom.) a straight line join printing with type in various colors. ing this paste in hot water. [Sp. choco ing the extremities of an arc. [L. chorda CHROMOXYLOGRAPHY, kro'mo-zi-log'late; from Mexican kakahuatl. See -Gr. chordē, an intestine.]

ra-fi, n. the art or process of producing CACAO, Cocoa.]

CHORISTER, kor'ist-er, no a member of wood engravings in various colors. CHEROGRYL, kē'ro-gril, n. a name of a choir.

CHRONIC, kron'ik, CHRONICAL, kron'ikthe Hyrax syriacus or rock-rabbit. [Gr. CHORUS. ko'rus, n. a band of singers and al, adj. lasting a long time : of a disease, choiros, a bog, and gryllos, a pig.]

dancers, esp. in the Greek plays : a com deep-seated or long-continued, as opp. to CHEROPOTAMUS, ker-7-pot'a-mus, n. a pany of singers : that which is sung by acute. (L. chronicus, Gr. chronikos

genus of fossil ungulate quadrupeds of a chorus : the part of a song in which chronos, time.] the group Suidæ, remains of which have the company join the singer. [L. chorus CHRONICLE, kron'i-kl, n. a record of been found in the gypsum beds of Mont

events in the order of time : a history.

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v.t. to record in history.-N. CHRON'ICLER,L ill-bred.-adv. CHURL'ISHLY.-n. CHURL- | CINERATION, sin-er-ā'tion, n. the act of a historian. ISHNESS.

reducing to ashes. [L. cinis, cineriel CHRONOLOGY, kron-ol'o-ji, n. the science CHURN, churn, v.t. to shake violently, as | CINNABAR, sin'a-bar, n. sulphuret

of dates.-adjs. CHRONOLOG'IC, CHRON cream when making butter.-n. a vessel cury, called vermilion when us OLOG'ICAL. - adv. CHRONOLOG'ICALLY in which cream is churned. [Ice. kirna, pigment. [L. cinnabaris, Gr. ki ns. CHRONOL'OGER, CHRONOL'OGIST. [Gr. a churn, Dut. and Ger, kernen, to churn; a dye, known as dragon's blr chronos, time, logos, a discourse.]

akin to KERN-el; as if to extract the es Pers.) CHRONOMETER, kron-om'e-ter, n. an in sence or best part.]

CINNAMON, sin'a-mon, n. tb strument for measuring time: a watch. CHUSE, chooz, v.t. a form of CHOOSE.

of a laurel in Ceylon. IL -adjs, CHRONOMETRIC, CHRONOMET'RI- | CHYLE,? b. a white fluid drawn from -Heb. kinnamon.] CAL. [Gr. chronos, and metron, a meas the for ile in the intestines.-adjs. CINQUE, singk, n. tl ure.]

CHYLA S, CHYL'OUS. [Fr.-Gr. chy CINQUE-FOIL, singk CHRYSALIS, kris'a-lis, n. the form, often los, ju heo, to pour.]

ed clover. [Fr. cing gold-colored, assumed by some insects CHYLI VE, kil-i-fak'tiv, adj. having lium, Gr. phyllon, a before they become winged :-pl. CHRYS they ► make chyle.-N. CHYLIFAC CIPHER, sī'fer, n. (ar AL'IDES (i-dēz).-adj. CHRYS'ALID. [Gr. | TIO

LIFICA'TION. [L. chylus, and any of the nine fig chrysallis-chrysos, gold.]

ake.]

tle value : an intr CHRYSANILINE, kris-an'i-lin, n. a beau- | CH

, n. the pulp to which the of a name : 2 tiful yellow coloring matter (

CHN)

iced in the stomach.-adj. v.i. to work a obtained as a secondary product in the

Gr. chymos, from cheo.]

Fr. chiffrepreparation of rosaniline, and considered

ON, kim-i-fi-kā'shun, n. the

CIRCASŠIAN, a splendid dye for silk and wool. Called

formed into chyme. [L. to Circassic also ANILINE YELLOW. [Gr. chrysos, gold,

io, to make.]

Mount Caus and E. aniline.]

ISTRY, now CHEMIST, CIRCEAN, CHRYSANTHEMUM, kris-an'the-mum, n. (lit.) gold-flower : a genus of composit

CALA, si-kā'la, n, an change plants to which belong the corn marig

or the sound it pro sono and ox-eye daisy, (Gr. chrysos, po

CIRC anthemon, flower.]

Fr.], CICATRIX, b CHRYSOLITE, kris'o-līt, n. a ste

s rover a wound yellowish color. [Gr. chrysos, a stone.

help the forCHRYSOPHYLL, kris'ő-fil,

a wound golden yellow coloring me xanthophyll. [Gr. chry

phyllon, a leaf. CHRYSOPRASE, kris'o-pr

of chalcedony: (B.) a stone, nature unknown

and prason, a leek.] CHTHONOPHAGIA

CHTHONOPHAGY, the
eating : cachexia Africa,
chthonos, earth, and phi

DIRT-EATING.]
CHUB, chub, n. a smal

[Ety. dub., but same root a CHUBBY, chub'i, adj. short

Avati plump.-n. CHUBB'INESS.

obacco fo CHUCK, chuk, n. the call of a

of tobacco word of endearment.-v.i. to cal. hen. [From the sound-a varie

& a little cigar: a CLUCK.

o rolled in paper CHUCK, chuk, v.t. to strike gently, toss.-n. a slight blow. [Fr. choquer,

air-like appendages on jolt; allied to E. SHAKE.T

egetable body, or on an CHUCKLE, chuk'l, v.t. to call, as a hez

sr animalcule.-adjs. CIL' CIRCUL 5 does her chickens: to caress.

ED, having cilia. L. cilium, round a CHUCKLE, chuk'l, v.i. to laugh in a quiet,

elids, eyelashes.]

move rol suppressed manner, indicating derision

sim'brik, adj. relating to the circulo, ci or enjoyment. (See CHOKE.1

a tribe originally from the north CIRCULATIC CHUM, chum, n. a chamber-fellow. [Perb.

many.

of moving i a mutilation of COMRADE, or CHAMBER

R, sim'e-ter. See SCIMITAR.

returaing : th FELLOW.]

ERIAN, sim-ē'ri-an, adj. relating to in a country. CHURCTI, Cuurch, n. a house set apart for

Cimmerii, a tribe fabled to have lived | CIRCULATORY,
Christian worship: the whole body of perpetual darkness: extremely dark. lar: circulating
Christians : the ciergy: any particular CNCHONA, sin-ko'na, n. the bark of a CIRCUMAMBIEŽ
sect or denomination of Christians.-v.t. tree that grows in Peru, from which going round abe
to perform with any one the giving of QUININE is extracted, a valuable medi cum, about, am
thanks in church. [A.S. circe; Scot. cine for ague: also called Peruvian bark. Gr. amphi, arou
kirk; Ger. kirche ; alf from Gr. lyria [Said to be so named from the Countess | CIRCUMAMBULA
kon, belonging to the Lord-Kyrios, the del Cinchon, but prob. from kinakina, the v.i. to wall rou
Lord.]
native word for bark.]

AMBULA'TION. [L.
CHURCHMAN, church'man, n, a clergy CINCTURE, singk'tūr, n. a girdle or belt: walk.
man or ecclesiastic: a member of the a moulding round a column.-adj. CINC' CIRCUMCISE, serkum-siz,
Church of England.

TURED, having a cincture. [L. cinctura the fore-skin according to
CHURCH WARDEN, church-wawr'den, n. cingo, cinctus, to gird.]

law. [L. circumcido, circui an officer who represents the interests of CINDER, sin'der, n. the refuse of burned to cut.] a parish or church : a long clay-pipe. coals: anything charred by fire. [A.S. CIRCUMCISION, ser-kum-si [CHURCH and WARDEN.

sinder, scoriæ, slag. The c instead of s act of circumcising. CHURCHYARD, church'yärd, n. the yard is owing to Fr. cendre, a wholly uncon CIRCUMFERENCE, ser-kui

round the church, where the dead are nected word, which comes from L. cinis, the boundary-line of any round body: buried. cineris, ashes.]

the line surrounding anything.--adj. CHURL, churl, n. an ill-bred, surly fellow. CINDERY, sin'der-i, adj., like or composed CIRCUMFERENTIAL. [L. fero, to carry.] [A.S. ceorl, a countryman ; Ice. karl, Ger. of cinders.

CIRCUMFLECT, ser'kum-flekt, vt. to kerl, a man ; Scot. carl.]

CINERARY, sin'er-ar-i, adj. pertaining to mark with a circumflex. CHURLISH, churl'ish, adj. rude : surly :| ashes.

CIRCUMFLEX, ser'kum-fleks, n. an accent

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(1) denoting a rising and falling of the round or outwit a person : to deceive or ENGINEER, one who plans railways, docks, voice on a vowel or syllable. [L. flecto, cheat.-n. CIRCUMVEN'TION. [L. venio, etc., as opp. to a military engineer, or to flexns, to bend.) to come.]

a mechanical engineer, who makes maCÍRCUMFLUENT, ser-kum'floo-ent, adj., CIRCUMVENTIVE, ser-kum-vent'iv, adj. chines, etc. CIVIL LIST, now embraces flowing round about. (L. fluens, fluentis, deceiving by artifices.

only the expenses of the sovereign's flowing.

CIRCUMVOLUTION, ser-kum-vol-ū'shun, household.-CIVIL SERVICE, the paid serCIRCUMFUSE, ser-kum-fūz', v.t. to pour n. a turning or rolling round : anything vice of the State, in so far as it is not

around.-n. CIRCUMFU'SION. (L. fundo, winding or sinuous. [L. volvo, volutum, military or naval.-CIVIL-SUITED, suited fusus, to pour.] to roll. I

or attired like a civilian or citizen, as CIRCUMJACENT, ser-kum-jā'sent, adj., CIRCUS, serkus, n. a circular building for opp. to the gay dresses of courtiers, etc. lying round: bordering on every side. the exhibition of games : a place for the -CIVIL WAR, a war between citizens of L. jacens, lying-jaceo, to lie.]

exhibition of feats of horsemanship. [L. the same state.--adv. CIV'ILLY. (L. civCIRCUMLOCUTIOŃ, ser-kum-lo-kü'shun, circus; cog, with Gr. kirkos, A.S. hring, ilis-civis.) n., round-about speaking: a manner of a ring.)

CIVILIAN, siv-il'yan, n. a professor or expression in which more words are used | CIRQUE-COUCHANT, sirk-koo'shant, adj. student of civil law (not canon law): one than are necessary.-adj. CIRCUMLOC'U lying coiled up. (Rare.) [Fr. cirque, a engaged in civil as distinguished from TORY. [L. loquor, locutus, to speak.] circus, and couchant, lying.)

military and other pursuits. CIRCUMNAVIGATE, ser-kum-nav'i-gāt,

He found a palpitating snake, CIVILITY, siv-il'i-ti, n. good-breeding : pov.t. to sail round.-n. CIRCUMNAVIGA' Bright, and cirque-couchant in a dusky brake.

liteness. TION. (See NAVIGATE.)

-Keats.

CIVILIZATION, siv-il-i-zā'shun,n. the state CIRCUMNAVIGATOR, ser-kum-nav'i-gāt CIRROUS, sir'us, adj., having a curl or of being civilized. or, n., one who sails round.

tendril.

CIVILIZE, siv'il-iz, v.t. to reclaim from barCIRCUMNUTATE, ser-kum-nū'tāt, v.i. to CIRRUS, sir'us, n. the highest form of barism : to instruct in arts and refine

nod or turn round : specifically, in bot. cloud consisting of curling fibres : (bot.) ments. to move round in a more or less circular a tendril: (zool.) any curled filament. CLACK, klak, v.i. to make a sudden sharp or elliptical path : said of the stem and L., curled hair.)

noise as by striking.-n. a sharp sudden other organs of a plant. “It will be CISALPINE, sis-alp'in or -alp'in, adj., on sound frequently repeated. [From the shown that apparently every growing this side (to the Romans) of the Alps, sound. part of every plant is continually circum that is, on the south side. (L. cis, on CLAD, klad, pa.t, and pa.p. of CLOTHE. nutating, though often on a small scale." this side, and ALPINE.]

CLAIM, klām, v.t. to call for: to demand -Darwin. (L. circum, round, and nuto, CIST, sist, n. a tomb consisting of a stone as a right.-n, a demand for something freq. from nuo, to nod. See CIRCUMNU chest covered with stone slabs. [See supposed due: right or ground for deTATION. CHEST, CYST.)

manding: the thing claimed. [O. Fr. CIRCUMNUTATION, serkum-nū-tā'shon, CISTERN, sis'tern, n. any receptacle for claimer-L. clamo, to call out, from calo,

n. a nodding or inclining round about: holding water or other liquid : a reser cog. with Gr. kaleo, to call.] specifically, in bot. the continuous mo voir. L. cisterna, from cista, a chest. | CLAIMABLE, klām'a-bl, adj. that may be tion of every part or organ of every CIT, sit, n. shortened from citizen, and claimed. plant, in which it describes irregular el used as a term of contempt. (See CITI CLAIMANT, klām'ant, n. one who makes liptical or oval figures ; as, for instance, ZEN.1

a claim. the apex of a stem, after pointing in one CITADEL, sit'a-del, n. a fortress in or near CLAIRVOYANCE, klär-voi'ans, n. the aldirection commonly moves back to the a city. [It. cittadella, dim. of città, a L leged power of seeing things not present opposite side, not, however, returning | city. See City.]

to the senses. (Fr.-clair-L. clarus, along the same line. While describing CITATION, sī-tā'shun, n, an official sum clear, and Fr. voir-L. video, to see.] such figures, the apex often travels in a mons to appear: the act of quoting: the CLAIRVOYANT, klār-voi'ant, n. one who zigzag line, or makes small subordinate passage or name quoted.

professes clairvoyance. loops or triangles. “On the whole, we | CITE, sit, v.t. to call or summon: to sum CLAM, klam, v.t. to clog with sticky matmay at present conclude that increased mon to answer in court: to quote : to ter :-pr.p. clamm'ing; pa.p. clammed'. growth first on one side, and then on the name. (L. cito, to call, intensive of cico, [A.S. clam, clay; a variety of lam, other, is a secondary effect, and that the cio, to make to go, to rouse.]

LOAM.1 increased turgescence of the cells, to CITHERN, sith'ern, CITTERN, sit'ern, n. | CLAM, klam, n. a common shell-fish.--As gether with the extensibility of their a musical instrument like the guitar. HAPPY AS A CLAM, a common expression walls is the primary cause of the move A.S. cytere-L. cithara-Gr. kithara. A in those parts of the U.S. coast where ment of circumnutation." -Darwin. doublet of GUITAR.]

clams are found. CIRCUMSCRIBE, ser-kum-skrīb', v.t. to CITIZEN, sit'i-zen, n. an inhabitant of a CLAM, klam, n. the state or quality of

draw a line round: to inclose within cer city: a member of a state ; a townsman : having or conveying a cold, moist, vistain limits. [L. scribo, to write.]

a freeman.-n. CIT'IZENSHIP, the rights cous feeling: clamminess. "Corruption, CIRCUMSCRIPTION, ser-kum-skrip'shun, of a citizen. [M.E. citesein-0. Fr. cite and the clam of death."-Carlyle.n. limitation : the line that limits.

ain. See CITY.]

CLAMANT, klam'ant, adj., calling aloud CIRCUMSPECT, ser kum-spekt, adj., look CITIZENRY, sit'i-zen-ri, n. the inhabitants or earnestly.

ing round on all sides watchfully: cau of a city, as opposed to country people, CLAM-BAKÉ, klam'-bāk, n. an out-door tious: prudent.-adv. CIR'CUMSPECTLY. or to the military, etc. : townspeople. feast, customary on exceptionally joyn. CIR'CUMSPECTNESS. [L. specio, spectum,

“No Spanish soldiery nor citizenry, ful occasions in the New England States, to look.)

showed the least disposition to join at which huge quantities of clams are CIRCUMSPECTION, ser-kum-spek'shun, n. him.”—Carlyle.

baked in improvised ovens of stone and watchfulness : caution.

CITRON, sit'run, n. the fruit of the citron weeds. CIRCUMSTANCE, ser'kum-stans, n. some tree, resembling a lemon ; also, same as CLAMBER, klam'ber, v.i. to climb with

thing atiendant upon another thing: CITRON-WATER. “Drinking citron with difficulty, grasping with the hands and an accident or event :-pl. the state of his Grace.”-Miscellanies by Swift, Pope, feet. [From root of CLUMP; cf. Ger. one's affairs. [L. stans, stantis, standing and Arbuthnot. [Fr.-L. citrus--Gr. kit klammern-klemmen, to squeeze or hold -sto, to stand. ron, a citron.]

tightly.) CIRCUMSTANTIAL, ser-kum-stan'shal, CITY, sit'i, n. a large town: a town with CLAMMY, klam'i, adj. sticky : moist and

adj. consisting of details : minute.-adv. a corporation. Fr. cité, a city-L. civi adhesive.- N. CLAMMÄINESS. CIRCUMSTAN'TIALLY. – CIRCUMSTANTIAL tas, the state-civis, a citizen ; akin to L. CLAMOR, klem'or, n. a loud continuous EVIDENCE, evidence not positive or di quies, quiet, E. HIVE and HOME.]

outcry : uproar.-V.i. to cry aloud in derect, but which is gathered indirectly CIVES, sivz, n. a plant of the leek and mand : to make a loud continuous outfrom the circumstances of a case.

onion genus growing in tufts. (Fr, cive cry.-v.i. to salute with clamor. (L. CIRCUMSTANTIALS, ser-kum-stan'shals, -L, cæpa, an onion.

clamor.) n.pl. incidentals.

CIVET, siv'et, n. a perfume obtained from CLAMOROUS, klam'or-us, adj. noisy : CIRCUMSTANTIATE, ser-kum-stan'shi-āt, the civet or civet-cat, a small carnivor boisterous. — adv.. CLAM'OROUSLY. n.

v.t. to prove by circumstances : to describe ous animal of N. Africa. [Fr, civette CLAM'OROUSNESS. exactly.

Ar. zabad.]

CLAMP, klamp, n. a piece of timber, iron, CIRCUMVALLATION, ser-kum-val-ā'- CIVIC, siv'ik, adj. pertaining to a city or a etc., used to fasten things together or to shun, n. a surrounding with a wall: a citizen. (L. civicus-civis.]

strengthen any framework.-v.t. to bind wall or fortification surrounding a town CIVIL, siv'il, adj. pertaining to the com with clamps. (From a root, seen in A.S. or fort. [L. vallum, an earthen rampart munity: having the refinement of city clom, a bond, Dut. klamp, a clamp, and or wall.]

bred people: polite: commercial, not akin to E. CLIP, CLIMB.) CIRCUMVENT, ser-kum-vent', v.t. to come military: lay, not ecclesiastical.-CIVIL CLAM-SHELL, klam'-shel, n. the lips or

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mouth : the patent lock on a mail bag. 1 —v.t. to strike noisily against. Formed, formerly used by the Scottish Highland (Amer.)

from the sound, like Ger. and Sw, klatsch. ers. [Gael. claidheamh-mor-Gael. and CLAN, klan, n. a tribe or collection of CLASP, klasp, n. a hook for fastening: an Ir. claidheamh, sword, and mor, great:

families subject to a single chieftain, embrace.-v.t. to fasten with a clasp : to cf. L. gladius, a sword.) bearing the same surname, and supposed inclose and hold in the hand or arms: to CLEAN, klēn, adj. free from stain or to have a common ancestor: a clique, embrace : to twine round. (M.E. clapse, whatever defiles : pure : guiltless : neat. sect, or body of persons. [Gael. clann, from the root of A.S. clyppan, to embrace. -adv. quite : entirely : cleverly.--v.t. to Ir. clann or cland, offspring, tribe.] See CLIP.)

make clean, or free from dirt.-n. CLEAN'CLANDESTINE, klan-des'tin, adj., con CLASPER, klasp'er, n., that which clasps : NESS. [A.S. clæne; W., Gael. glan, shine, cealed or hidden: private : unlawful : | the tendril of a plant.

polish ; Ger. klein, small.] sly.-adv. CLANDES'TINELY. (L. clandes CLASP-KNIFE, klasp'-nif, n. a knife, the CLEANLY, klen'li, adj. clean in habits tinus-clam, secretly, from root kal, seen blade of which is clasped by, or folds into, or person : pure : neat.-adv. in a cleanalso in celo, to conceal.] the handle.

ly manner.-n. CLEAN'LINESS. CLANG, klang, v.i. to produce a sharp,

CLASS, klas, n, a rank or order of persons CLEANSE, klenz, v.t. to make clean or ringing sound.-v.t. to cause to clang.-n.

or things: a number of students or schol pure.

ars who are taught together : a scientific CLEAR, klēr, adj. pure, bright, undimmed : a sharp, ringing sound, like that made by metallic substances struck together.

division or arrangement. -v.t. to form free from obstruction or difficulty: plain, [L. clango; Ger. klang : formed from the

into a class or classes ; to arrange me distinct: without blemish, defect, draw

thodically. [Fr. classe-L. classis, orig. back, or diminution : conspicuous.-adv. sound.] CLANGOR, klang'gur, n. a clang : a sharp,

a rank or order of the Roman people when in a clear manner: plainly: wholly : shrill, harsh sound. [L. clangor.]

called together, from a root, kal-, seen quite.-v.t. to make clear: to free from CLANK, klangk, n. a sharp sound, less

in L. calare, clamare, to call, Gr. kaleo, obscurity, obstruction, or guilt: to free,

klēsis, prolonged than a clang, such as is made

acquit, or vindicate: to leap, or pass by by a chain.-v.t. or v.i. to make or cause

CLASSIC, klas'ik, CLASSICAL, klas'ik-al, or over : to make profit.-v.i. to become a clank.

adj. of the highest class or rank, esp. in clear : to grow free, bright, or transparCLANNISH, klan'ish, adj. closely united

literature : originally and chiefly used of ent. — n. CLEAR'NESS. [Fr. clair – L. like the members of a clan.-adv. CLANN'

the best Greek and Roman writers : (as clarus, clear, loud.] ISHLY.-n. CLANN'ISHNESS.

opp. to romantic) like in style to the au CLEARANCE, klēr'ans, n., act of clearing :

thors of Greece and Rome : chaste: re a certificate that a ship has been cleared CLANSHIP, klan'ship, n. association of

fined.-CLASS'ICS, n.pl. Greek, Roman, at the custom-house-that is, has satisfamilies under a chieftain.

and modern writers of the first rank, fied all demands and procured permission CLANSMAN, klanz'man, n. a member of a

or their works.-adv. CLASS'ICALLY.

to sail. clan.

CLASSICALITY, klas-ik-al'i-ti, CLASSIC CLEARING, klēr'ing, n. a tract of land CLAP, klap, n. the noise made by the sud

ALNESS, klas'ik-al-nes, n. the quality cleared of wood, etc., for cultivation. den striking together of two things, as

of being classical.

CLEARING, klēr'ing, n. a method by the hands : a sudden act or motion : a

CLASSIFICATION, klas-i-fi-kā'sbun, n. which banks and railway companies burst of sound.-v.t. to strike together so act of forming into classes.

clear or arrange certain affairs which as to make a noise : to thrust or drive

CLASSIFY, klas'i-fī, v.t. to make or form mutually concern them. — CLEARINGtogether suddenly : to applaud with the

into classes : to arrange :-pr.p. class'ify HOUSE, a place where such clearing busihands.-v.i. to strike the hands together : to strike together with noise :-pr.p. ing; pa.p. class'ified.

ness is done.

[L. classis, and facio, to make.

CLEARLY, klēr'li, adv., in a clear manner : clapp'ing; pa.p. clapped'. (Ice. klappa,

CLASSMAN, klas'man, n. one who has distinctly. to pat; Dut. and Ger. klappen : formed

gained honors of a certain class at the CLEAVAGE, klēv'āj, n. act or manner of from the sound.)

Oxford examinations : opp. to passman. cleaving or splitting. CLAPBOARD, klap'bord, n. a narrow, thin, I CLASTIC, klas'tik, adj. relating to what CLEAVE, klēv, v.t. to divide, to split: to planed board used for siding on houses,

may be taken to pieces; as, clastic anat separate with violence. - v.i. to part and so placed as to overlap the one below

omy, the art of putting together or tak asunder : to crack :- pr.p. cleav'ing; it. (Amer.)

ing apart the pieces of a manikin. [Gr. pa.t. clove or cleft; pa.p. clov'en or CLAPPER, klap'er, n., one who claps: that

klastos, broken.)

cleft. [A.S. cleofan ; cog. with Ger. which claps, as the tongue of a bell.

CLATTER, klat'er, n. a repeated confused klieben.) CLAP-STIČK, klap'stik, n. a kind of

rattling noise: a repetition of abrupt, CLEAVE, klēv, v.i. to stick or adhere : to wooden rattle or clapper used in raising

sharp sounds. —v.i. to make rattling unite :-pr.p. cleav'ing; pa.t. cleaved' or an alarm or the like." "He was not dis

sounds: to rattle with the tongue : to clāve ; pa.p. cleaved'. (A.S. clifian ; cog. turbed ... by the watchman's rappers

talk fast and idly.-v.t. to strike so as with Ger. kleben, Dut. kleven. See CLAY.] or clap-sticks."-Southey.

to produce a rattling. [Acc. to Skeat, CLEAVER, klēv'er, n. the person or thing CLAP-TRAP, klap'-trap, n. a trick to gain clatter-clacker, a freq. of CLACK.]

that cleaves : a butcher's chopper. applause.

CLAUSE, klawz, n. a sentence or part of a CLEF, klef, n. a character in music which CLARE-OBSCURE, klār'-ob-skūr',

sentence : an article or part of a con determines the key or position on the CHIARO-OSCURO, ki-är'o-os-kõõ'ro, n. tract, will, etc. [Fr. clause-L. clausus scale of the notes that follow it. (Fr., clear-obscure : light and shade in paint-claudo, to shut, inclose.]

from L. clavis, the root of which is seen ing. (Fr. clair--L. clarus, clear, and Fr. CLAVE, klāv — did cleave — past tense of also in L. claudere, to shut, Gr. kleis, a obscur-L. obscurus, obscure ; It. chiaro, CLEAVE.

key.) clear, oscuro, obscure.]

CLAVICLE, klav'i-kl, n. the collar-bone, CLEFT, kleft, in B., CLIFT, n. an opening CLARET, klar'et, n, orig. applied to wines so called from its resemblance to a Ro made by cleaving or splitting : a crack,

of a light or clear red color, but now man key. [Fr. clavicule-L. clavicula, fissure, or chink. used, generally, for the dark-red wines dim. of clavis, a key.)

CLEMATIS, klem'a tis, n. a creeping of Bordeaux. [Fr. clairet clair - L. CLAVICULAR, kla-vik'ū-lar, adj. pertain plant, called also virgin's bower and clarus, clear.] ing to the clavicle.

traveller's joy. [Low L.-Gr. klēmatisCLARIFIER, klar'i-fî-er, n. that which CLAW, klaw, n. the hooked nail of a beast klēma, a twig.] clarifies or purifies.

or bird : the whole foot of an animal | CLEMENCY, klem'en-si, n. the quality of CLARÍFY, klar'i-fī, v.t. to make clear. - with hooked nails : anything like a claw. being clement : mildness : readiness to

v.i. to become clear :-pr.p. clar'ifying; -v.t. to scratch or tear as with the claws forgive. pa.p. clar'ified.-n. CLARIFICATION. IL. or nails : to tickle. [A.S. clawu ; cog. | CLEMENT, klem'ent, adj. mild : gentle : clarus, clear, and facio, to make.]

with Ger. Klaue : akin to CLEAVE, to kind : merciful.-adv. ČLEM'ENTLY. [Fr. CLARION, klar'i-on, n. a kind of trumpet stick or hold on.]

-L. clemens. ] whose note is clear and shrill. Fr. CLAY, klā, n. a tenacious ductile earth : CLENCH, klensh. Same as CLINCH. clairon-clair, clear.)

earth in general.-v.t. to purify with CLEPSYDRA, klep'si-dra, n. an instru CLARIONET, klar'i-on-et, CLARINET, clay, as sugar. (A.S. cloeg; cog. with ment used by the Greeks and Romans

klar'i-net, n. a wind instrument of music, Dan. klog, Dut. klai, Ger. klei; conn. for measuring time by the trickling of sounded by means of a reed fixed to the with CLAG, CLOG, CLEW, L. gluten, Gr. water, as if by stealth, through a very mouthpiece. [Fr. clarinette, dim. of glia, glue ; and GLUE.

small orifice. [L.-Gr. klepsydra-klepclairon.)

CLAYBANK, klā'bangk, adj. denoting the to, klepsā, to steal, hydor, water.] CLASH, klash, n. a loud noise, such as is color most common to a bank of clay. CLERGY, kler'ji, n. the body of ministers caused by the striking together of weap (Amer.)

of religion : persons connected with the ons : opposition : contradiction.--v.i. to CLAYEY, klā'i, adj. consisting of or like clerical profession or the religious orders. dash noisily together : to meet in op clay.

I found the clergy in general persons position : to act in a contrary direction. CLAYMORE, klā'mör, n. a large sword of moderate minds and decorous man

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ners; I include the seculars and regulars | CLIMAX, klī'maks, n. in Rhetoric, the
of both sexes.”—Burke. (Fr. clergé-Low arranging of the particulars of a portion
L. clericia ; from Late L. clericus, Gr. of discourse so as to rise in strength to
klērikos, from Gr. klēros, a lot, then the the last. (Gr. klimax, a ladder or stair-
clergy ; because the Lord was the lot or case-from klino, to slope.)
inheritance of the Levites (Deut. xviii. CLIMB, klim, v.i. or v.t. to ascend or
2), or because the church was the inherit mount up by clutching with the hands
ance of the Lord (1 Peter v. 3), the name and feet; to ascend with difficulty.
being thence applied to the clergy.)

[A.S. climban; Ger. klimmen; conn. CLERGYMAN, kler'ji-man, n, one of the with CLAMBER and CLEAVE, to stick.)

clergy, a man regularly ordained to preach CLIME, klim, n. a country, region, tract.

the gospel, and administer its ordinances. [A variety of CLIMATE. CLERGYWOMAN, kler'ji-woom'an, n. a CLINCH, klinsh, v.t. to fasten or rivet a

woman connected with the clergy or nail : to grasp tightly : to settle or con-
belonging to a clergyman's family. firm. Causal form of klink, to strike
"From the clergycomen of Windham smartly; Dut. and Ger. klinken, to rivet
down to the charwomen the question a bolt.)
was discussed.”—Mrs. Oliphant.

CLINCHER, klinsh'er, n. one that clinches ;
CLERIC, kler'ik, CLERICAL, kler'ik-al, a decisive argument.

adj. belonging to the clergy: pertaining CLING, kling, v.i. to adhere or stick close to a clerk or writer.

by winding round: to adhere in interest CLERK, klerk, n. (orig.) a clergyman or or affection :-pa.t. and pa.p. clung.

priest : a scholar : one who reads the re (A.S. clingan, to shrivel up, to draw
sponses in the English Church service: together.]
in common use, one employed as a writer CLINIC, klin'ik, CLINICAL, klin'ik-al,
or assistant in an office.-n. CLERK'SHIP. adj. pertaining to a bed : (med.) applied
[A.S. clerc, a priest—Late L. clericus. to instruction given in hospitals at the
See CLERGY.]

bedside of the patient. [Gr. klinikosCLERUCHIAL, klē-rõõ'ki-al, adj. pertain klinē, a bed, from klino, to recline.]

ing to a kind of colonial land settlement CLINK, klingk, n. a ringing sound made
(called a klērouchia) in ancient Greece, by the striking together of sounding
by which a number of citizens obtained bodies.-v.t. to cause to make a ringing
an allotment of land in a foreign country sound.--v.i. to ring or jingle. [A form
while still retaining all the privileges of of CLICK and CLANK.)
citizens in their own state, where they CLINKER, klink'er, n. the cinder or slag
might continue to reside. [Gr. klērouchia formed in furnaces: brick burned so
-klēros, a lot, and echo, to have.]

hard that, when struck, it makes a CLEVER, klev'er, adj. able or dexterous : sharp and ringing sound.

ingenious : skillfully done; also, good CLIP, klip, v.t. to cut by making the natured, obliging (Amer.). -adv. CLEV' blades of shears meet: to cut off : forERLY.-n. CLEV'ERNESS. (Ety. dub.]

merly, to debase the coin by cutting off CLEW, klõo, n. a ball of thread, or the the edges : to give a blow to (Amer.):

thread in it: a thread that guides pr.p. clipp'ing; pa.p. clipped'. [From
through a labyrinth: anything that the root of Ice. klippa, to cut, and allied
solves a mystery : the corner of a sail. to A.S. clyppan, to embrace, to draw
-v.t. to truss or tie up sails to the yards, closely.]
(A.S. clive ; prob. akin to L. glomus, a CLIP, klip, n. the thing clipped off, as the
ball of thread, and globus, a sphere, from wool that has been shorn off sheep : also

root of CLEAVE, to adhere. See GLOBE.] a blow.
CLICK, klik, n. a short, sharp clack or CLIPPER, klip'er, n., one that clips : a

sound : anything that makes such a sharp-built, fast-sailing vessel.
sound, as a small piece of iron falling CLIPPING, klip'ing, n. the act of cutting,
into a notched wheel.-v.i. to make a esp. debasing coin by cutting off the

light, sharp sound. [Dim. of CLACK.] edges : the thing clipped off.
CLIENT, kli'ent, n. one who employs a CLIQUE, klēk, n. a group of persons in

lawyer : a dependent.-n. CLI'ENTSHIP. union for a purpose : a party or faction : (Fr.-L. cliens, for cluens, one who hears a gang :--used generally in a bad sense.

or listens (to advice), from clueo, to hear.) Fr., prob. from root of click, and so=a CLIFF, klif, n. a high steep rock: the steep noisy conclave.]

side of a mountain. [Perh. akin to CLOAK, CLOKE, klok, n. a loose outer CLIMB.)

garment: a covering: that which conCLIFT. Same as CLEFT.

ceals : a disguise, pretext.-v.t. to clothe CLIFTY, klif'ti, adj. applied to a river on with a cloak : to cover : to conceal. [Old

the banks of which limestone cliffs Fr. cloque-Low L. cloca, a bell, also a abound. (Amer.)

horseman's cape, because bell-shaped, CLIMACTERIC, klim-ak'ter-ik or klim-ak from root of CLOCK.)

ter'ik, n. a critical period in human life, CLOCK, klok, n. a machine for measuring in which some great bodily change is time, and which marks the time by the supposed to take place, esp. the grand position of its “hands" upon the dialclimacteric or sixty-third year.--adjs. plate, or by the striking of a hammer on CLIMAC'TERIC, CLIMACTER'IC, CLIMACTER'- | a bell. [Word widely diffused, as A.S.

ICAL. [Gr. klimaktēr-klimax, a ladder.] clucga, Gael. clog, Ger. glocke, Fr. cloche. CLIMATE, kli'māt, n. the condition of a and alla bell; the root is doubtful.]

country or place with regard to temper CLOCKMUTCH, klok'mutch, n. a woman's ature, moisture, etc. (Fr.-L. clima, cap composed of three pieces—a straight climatis-Gr. klima, klimatos, slope centre one from the forehead to the neck,

klino, to make to slope, akin to E. LEAN.] with two side-pieces. [D. klapmuts, a CLIMATIC, klī-mat'ik, CLIMATICAL, kli night-cap. Amer.] mat'ik-al, adj. relating to, or limited by CLOCKWORK, klok'wurk, n. the works or a climate.

machinery of a clock: machinery like CLIMATIZE, kli'ma-tiz, v.t. or v.i. See that of a clock, ACCLIMATIZE.

CLOD, klod, n. a thick round mass or CLIMATOLOGY, kli-ma-tol'o-ji, n., the lump, that cleaves or sticks together, es

science of climates, or an investigation of pecially of earth or turf: the ground : a the causes on which the climate of a stupid fellow: a bait used in fishing for place depends. [Gr. klima, and logos, eels, and consisting of a bunch of lobdiscourse.]

worms strung on to stout worsted (see

CLOD-FISHING):- pr.p. clodd'ing ; pa.p.

clodd'ed. [Alater form of CLOT. CLOD-FISHING, klod'-fish-ing, n. a method of catching eels by means of a clod or bait of Tobworms strung on worsted. The fisher allows this bait to sink to the bottom of the stream, and when he feels an eеl tugging he raises the bait without a jerk from the water, and if successful he will find the eel has its teeth so entangled in the worsted as

to be unable to let go.
CLODHOPPER, klod’hop-er, n. a country-
man: a peasant: a dolt. [CLOD and

HOPPER.)
CLODHOPPING, klod'hop-ing, adj. like a

clodhopper : loutish: boorish : heavy
treading, as one accustomed to walking
on ploughed land. “What a mercy you
are shod with velvet, Jane! a clodhop-
ping messenger would never do at this

juncture."-Charlotte Bronte. CLODPATE, klod'pāt, CLODPOLL, klod'

pol, n. one with a head like a clod, a stu

pid fellow. (CLOD and PATE, POLL.] CLOG, klog, v.t. to accumulate in a mass

and cause a stoppage: to obstruct : to encumber : - pr.p. clogg ing ; pa.p. clogged'. -n. anything hindering motion: an obstruction: a shoe with a wooden sole. (Akin to Scot. clag, to cover with mud, claggy, sticky ; from root of CLAY.] CLOISTER, klois'ter, n. a covered arcade

forming part of a monastic or collegiate establishment: a place of religious retirement, a monastery or nunnery.-v.t. to confine in a cloister: to confine within walls. [O. Fr. cloistre, Fr. cloître (A.S. clauster-L. claustrum claudo, clau

sum, to'close, to shut.] CLOISTERAL, klois'ter-al, CLOISTRAL,

klois'tral, old form CLAUSTRAL, klaws'tral, adj. pertaining to or confined to a

cloister; secluded. CLOISTERED, klois'terd, adj. dwelling in

cloisters : solitary : retired from the world. CLOMB, klom, old past tense of CLIMB. CLOSE, klos, adj., shut up: with no open

ing: confined, unventilated : narrow: near, in time or place : compact: crowded: hidden : reserved : crafty.-adv. in a close manner: nearly: densely.-n. an inclosed place: a small inclosed field : a narrow passage of a street.-adv. CLOSE'LY.-n. CLOSE'NESS. [Fr. clos, shut-pa.p. of

clore, from L. claudere, clausus, to shut.] CLOSE, klöz, v.t. to make close : to draw

together and unite : to finish.-v.i. to grow together : to come to an end.-n. the manner or time of closing: a pause

or stop: the end. CLOSET, kloz'et, n. a small private room :

a recess off a room.-v.t. to shut up in; or take into a closet: to conceal :-pr.p. clos'eting ; pa.p. clos'eted. [O. Fr. Closet,

dim. of clos. See CLOSE.) CLOSE-TIME, klös'-tim, n. a certain sea

son of the year during which it is unlawful for any person to catch or kill winged game and certain kinds of fish. “He had shot . . . some young wild-ducks, as, though close-time was then unknown, the broods of grouse were yet too young for the sportsman.” – Šir W. Scott. “They came on a wicked old gentleman breaking the laws of his country, and catching perch in close-time out of a

punt.”H. Kingsley. CLOSURE, klöz'ūr, n. the act of closing :

that which closes : specifically, the bringing or putting an end to a debate so as to proceed immediately to vote on a question or measure in a deliberative assembly, as a parliment, by the decision of a competent authority, as the president, or

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