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of each and all you find him intimately acquainted— proverb says, is the thief of time—it might be added, nothing is too grave, nothing too gay for him—he is and the curse of Ireland. Putting off until to-morrow never for a single moment at a loss. You wonder who that which might be done to-day, and seldom looking this · Admirable Crichton' may be, or what his calling, forward to the day after, we go on 'waiting'-always and you ask the question. In ninety cases of every thing may turn up' for us in the long-run; and so we

'waiting,' and never 'doing'—in the hope that .somehundred you are told— A highly respectable young get through life. Those amongst us who are not man-waiting for a commission!!

commission-seekers, are seekers for something else; but Well, you turn from him to your neighbour on the in all cases, at least in all cases where `expectations' are left-a pale, delicate-looking student, who has evidently indulged in, the spirit is the same. And a paltry, piti' wasted the midnight oil' to some purpose. He dis- ful spirit it is, even make the best we can of it. The courses eloquently upon the beauties of the classic poets, true manly spirit is one of self-dependence-no trusting has been a successful digger amongst Greek roots, and to patronage, no cringing for favours, no servile bending written the last prize essay. Your admiration has a

of the knee to sue to a dog in office for a boon; but a

strong and honest determination to push on our fortunes shade of pity as you look at his attenuated form, and with our own talents and our own hands, and bravely to listen to his short dry cough. Who, and what is he? fight our own battle with the world 'without fear and An embryo lord chancellor perhaps? or at all events without reproach.' This is the spirit which has led our a deep-reading college man, looking forward to the best and bravest to their fame, and which is still ready honours of a senior fellowship? By no means you are

to lead others, if they would but follow it. quite mistaken. Despite his weakly frame and con

It is not by waiting' that fortune can be woocd or

distinction won. sumptive look, his voice is still for war ;' he is

It is not by lingering on from day to "waiting for a commission!!

day, and from year to year, enduring the corroding

miseries of that .hope deferred which maketh the heart Slightly disappointed, you leave the dinner-table, sick,' and wasting our prime of life in grasping at a and betake yourself to the drawing-room. Scated upon phantom, until hope itself at last deserts us, and leaves a sofa, in an attitude of studied gracefulness, is a us, in the bitterness of our ruined prospects, to lament middle-aged gentleman, dressed in the pink of fashion, the evil fortune which, by an effort, we might have and who is reputed the best waltzer in the county. At changed to good. We must lay our shoulders to the present he is delighting a bevy of young ladies with his wheel, and work. 'Up and be doing!' should be our chat. Surely he is a nobleman, or great landed pro- motto, in whatever rank of life our lot is cast. prietor at the least? Quite a mistake ; you don't know those from the civil service are no better. Even if

If expectations from the army are usually visionary, Ireland! He is a younger son, who never did anything successful, what has the employé but a clerkship in a useful all his life; he lives with his brother, and is in government office, at a salary of eighty pounds per andebt to everybody. For twenty years he has been — num, or an appointment in some of the colonies, where, * waiting for a commission!'

if he escape cholera and yellow fever, he is sure of a life You go to the theatre with a friend, and he intro- of healthless discomfort ? If less fortunate in drawing a duces you to a talented-looking personage, with a broad prize, perhaps the youth is made an excise officer or a forehead and a bright eye, who dilates with all the tide-waiter. Trust me, my young friends and fellowcritic's art upon the play and the performers, and who, countrymen, that until you get out of this habit of

,' Ireland will never be as she ought to be, nor if your taste happen to lie in that direction, quite fas- her sons what they might be. You have energy enough, cinates you by the happiness of his illustrations and the if properly applied-you have talents second to the classic purity of his ideas. You wonder who the gifted children of no other land on earth-you have bold hearts one can be-whether a distinguished reviewer, a dra- and ready hands, if you would but use them. Whiy, * matist, or something still higher in the literary world; then, should you waste your youth, your best gifts, and and on your way home you make the inquiry of your oftentimes your happiness itself, in 'waiting' for paltry friend. The answer is given, and astounds you— A chances, when you have within your own grasp the fellow with capital interest—" waiting for a commis- power to command the bright reality? sion!"

Many fields are open to you where your energies And so on to the end of the chapter. You can go would have fair-play. You may be told that every prointo no society without meeting at least one specimen fession is overstocked. Believe it not; you have the of the class ; and I defy any one who has lived amongst same prospect of pushing your way to fame as any of Irishmen to say that he is not acquainted with a score your neighbours. The will to do, the soul to dare,' are of expectant youths' waiting for commissions !' all that is required. Patience, perseverance, and deter

This same fatal passion of waiting-of forsaking the mination, can achieve everything. Instead of waiting' substance for the shadow, and pursuing an ignis fatuus -act. If circumstances are against your entering one instead of keeping the eye fixed upon a steady beacon of the professions, then take a trade. Let no false pride light-has been the ruin of many a fine, gifted youth, deter you. Set at nought the sneers of those who tell and has left many a broken-hearted man, who might you it is not respectable:' a man by his own conduct else have been an honour to his name and country, to can make any situation respectable : bread earned in spend the remnant of his life in vain repinings for his honesty is earned in honour; and he who labours for his misspent youth, and to weep, when regret is useless, daily food, preserving his integrity the while, has a betfor opportunities neglected, and talents misapplied. ter right to hold his head erect among his fellow-men

It is hard, certainly, to put gray heads upon young -ay, a far better right—than the proudest in the land shoulders, or to persuade light-hearted, unthinking wlió lead a life of indolence and sloth. Whatever your youth to reap wisdorn from the counsels and experience rank in life may be, make choice of your path acof those more advanced in years; but, even making full cordingly; but wait' for nothing and for nobody. Rely allowance for this, is it not a pitiable thing that, for upon yourself, and upon yourself only. Have the means generation after generation, and utterly disregarding the of existence in your own hands-go to work with head thousands and tens of thousands of examples proving and heart; and depend upon it, that however adverse the fatal folly of such a course, young men will go on circumstances may depress you for a time, you will pursuing the same misleading path with a degree of surely in the end come off a conqueror. obstinacy and moral blindness which seems incompre Look around you at the waiters.' What is most hensible?

commonly their lot ? After lingering on from day to Waiting for commissions,' and for many other things, day and year to year 'expecting,' recklessly squander. has left Irishmen as they are. Procrastination, the ling the best gifts that Heaven can bestow on man, and

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living the while nobody can tell how, they end an in- accordingly find that, taking the whole of England and glorious career of idleness, uncared for by a world to Wales, there are in every thousand living persons 71 which, from their infancy upwards, they have been only who are upwards of sixty. In Scotland there are 69, in an incumbrance.*

Bristol 69, in Edinburgh county 63, in the city 62, whereas in London there are 60, in Birmingham 50, in

Manchester 47, in Glasgow 42, and in Liverpool 30. In VITAL STATISTICS OF EDINBURGH.

all manufacturing towns there exists a greater proporIn our populous cities as now constituted, in order that tion of children and of adults than in a non-manufacthe community at large may enjoy anything like an | turing town-of children, because the parties marry average lease of healthy existence, life must be to a early; of adults, because the neighbouring rural discertain degree an art. When human beings live tricts are partially drained to supply the demand for scattered over the country, fresh air, ventilation, and labourers ; and in an increasing population there is fre. out-of-door exercises come as matters of course, with quently an excess of persons between the ages of fifteen many other natural advantages; but when they are and sixty. As a general rule, rural districts exhibit huddled together in narrow, close, and dark streets and the largest proportion of children and the greatest proalleys—when their labours confine them to ill-aired portion of aged, because the causes of mortality among apartments, and expose them to noxious fumes and children are less than in towns: more children are there. vapours, the case is then very much altered, and the fore reared, and more attain an advanced age. essential requisites of a healthy existence must then be But a more accurate plan of ascertaining from popusought for and procured by scientific foresight. Nothing lation returns alone the comparative healthiness of a perhaps will tend more to impress these truths on the town or country, is to strike off altogether from the public than accurate statistical details. Until of late existing population the children below fifteen years, and years, however, these have not been very available for ascertain the proportions which those above sixty bear this purpose; but now that the subject has been taken to the whole population above fifteen years of age. up by government, the English bills of mortality have When this is done, we find that in every thousand of thrown much light on the sanitary state of the country, the population above fifteen, there are in England and An interesting report, by Dr Stark of Edinburgh,f en- Wales 122 above sixty, in Scotland 116, in Bristol 99, ables us to draw a comparison between the vital sta- in Edinburgh county 95, in the city 92, in London 87, tistics of the two portions of the kingdom north and in Birmingham 78, in Manchester 72, in Glasgow 62, south of the Tweed, while at the same time the report in Liverpool 61. It thus appears that in these returns affords some highly important facts bearing on the Edinburgh holds a very favourable position, being more subject of the health of large towns in general.

highly favoured than any town of equal size in EngThe city of Edinburgh as to situation presents many land. Dr Stark next shows from an elaborate table local advantages. It is built on three hills or elevated the average annual mortality of the city of Edinburgh ridges, and is thus exposed to complete ventilation even for a series of years. From this table it appears that by the slightest breeze that blows; the sloping nature from the year 1780 to 1789, 1 person died annually of the ground on all sides permits of ready drainage; out of every 34 living; from 1790 to 1799, 1 died anand its proximity to the sea insures a generally mild nually out of every 36 living; from 1800 to 1809, there and soft air. It has comparatively few manufactories, died annually 1 out of every 39 inhabitants ; and from and thus its atmosphere is less clouded or vitiated with 1810 to 1819, only 1 out of every 40 living. The next smoky vapours than many of the manufacturing towns decennial period, from 1820 to 1829, shows, however, a of the empire. However low its former fame for clean- retrograde movement, the mortality increasing to 1 out liness, it now possesses an excellent police, who keep of every 38 inhabitants annually ; while the next ten its streets in a cleanly condition. The houses and ge- years exhibit a mortality of 1 in every 34 living. The neral accommodation of the higher and middle classes progressive elongation of life during the earliest of the are of the best description, though those of the lower, above periods may be attributed to the great improveand especially of the very lowest, are far from being ments of the extending city, and other advances of civi. so, and are often of the most wretched kind. The supply lisation. Dr Stark is inclined to attribute the subseof water, though at one time plenteous, is not now ade quent retrogression to the immigration of great numquate to the increased extent of the city, and is espe- bers of Irish labourers about the year 1819, and the cially deficient as regards the lower classes, and the consequent deterioration of the lowest class of labourers healthy ablution of the narrower streets and alleys. generally. During the period between 1830 and 1840,

The population of Edinburgh, which at the com the mortality was increased by 1500 annually, in con. mencement of the present century was computed at sequence of the prevalence for some time of Asiatic sixty-nine thousand, had in thirty years doubled, being, cholera, influenza, and other epidemics. according to the census of 1831, one hundred and thirty Another very important circumstance in the companine thousand; for the next ten years the increase was rative healthiness of different localities, is that regardso exceedingly small, as to be in 1841 only one hun- ing the number of young people, from one to fifteen dred and forty thousand, or nearly stationary. The years, found existing in each. Thus we shall find that great increase of population between the years 1800 out of 1000 persons who die in Edinburgh, there are and 1831 is to be accounted for from the immigration of under fifteen years of age 413; in London, under the strangers from other parts, and particularly to the same circumstances, there are 471; in all England and great influx of the lower Irish. The presence of these Wales, 473; in Bristol, 474 ; in Birmingham, 546 ; in latter has to a considerable degree influenced the habits Glasgow, 564; in Manchester, 564; in Liverpool, 583, of the lower population, and affected the general vital | These facts exhibit in a striking light the superior statistics of the community.

salubrity of Edinburgh as a place of residence for chilOne obvious means of ascertaining the comparative dren, seeing that at all ages under fifteen the proportion salubrity of a town or district, is to take the number of of deaths is much less than in any other of the places persons living in it who have attained the age of sixty mentioned, even exceeding that of England and Wales, years and upwards. On consulting the returns, we which of course includes the country districts, in which

the mortality among children is always much less than

in towns. If, on the other hand, we take the compara* The above article is, as it purports to be, written by a native of Ireland, who has given some consideration to the social fea tive proportion of aged, or those who die above sixty tures of his country. Although not mentioning what we consider years in every 1000 deaths in a population, we shall to be the root of Irish idleness--the unhappy coddling by England, find that in London, out of every 1000 deaths, there are scarcely avoidable in the existing connexion of the two countriesho says enough to corroborate the view lately adopted by us re

206 of them above sixty; in Edinburgh, 204"; in Brisspecting Irish affairs.--En. C. E. J.

tol, 198; Birmingham, 159; Manchester, 130; Glas| Edinburgh Medical Journal, January 1847.

gow, 129; Liverpool, 112. From these facts, the ge

neral proposition may be deduced, that, other things Edinburgh has the advantage. In London, the mean being equal, the less the proportion of deaths among age at death among the operative class is twenty-two children under fifteen, and the greater the proportion years ; in Edinburgh, even including the paupers, it of deaths above sixty, the greater will be the healthi- is nearly twenty-six years. In London, the mean age ness of the situation. With regard to the adult popu- at death of the highest class is forty-four years ; in lation, Dr Stark thus remarks—. As deaths among chil. Edinburgh, it is forty-seven. Strange enough, however, dren are proportionally much fewer in Edinburgh than it is from the poorest class that we can select the cases among the other towns, we ought to find a propor- of extremest age. Thus, of the first class, though 99 tionally greater number of deaths among adults. This out of the 1000 survive their eightieth year, all have may to many seem a paradoxical conclusion, but the died by the time the hundredth year is attained. Though slightest reflection must satisfy every one that such only 59 of the second class survive their eightieth year, ought to be the case. As a third more children, in pro- 1 of them survives the hundredth year of existence; portion to the living, survive the age of fifteen years in while in the third class, though only 26 live beyond Edinburgh than in Glasgow, and one-half more survive their eightieth year, 2 are still living above one hundred that age than in Liverpool, it follows, as a natural con- years. In Edinburgh, as we believe is the case all the sequence, that there are just so many more in Edin-world over, the married, both males and females, enjoy burgh who must die at some period of life after their longer life than the single. Thus the mean age at fifteenth year.

Now, this is what actually occurs ; | death of the married females is fifty-seven years, of the for we find that of those between the ages of fifteen single forty-two years; showing a difference in favour and sixty, London loses 1 annually out of every 80 of the married females to the extent of fifteen years : living; Birmingham, 1 out of 75; Glasgow, 1 out of 71; the difference in regard to males is even eighteen years! Edinburgh, 1 out of 65; Liverpool, 1 out of every 61.' Of the physical causes which appear to weigh so Under these circumstances, it becomes a matter of great heavily against the poorer classes, the following are importance to ascertain whether the increased mor the most obvious:-Accumulations of filth within and tality affects all classes alike, or is limited to the lowest around their dwellings; want of drainage or sewerage, class of the inhabitants. We accordingly find that, in or, where sewers are present, their unwholesome state, the case of children under one year, the highest class from the presence of fetid black mud closing up the in Edinburgh loses 72 out of every 1000 deaths in that sewers and cesspool; closeness and want of proper venclass. The merchant class at the rate of 127 out of the tilation within the houses ; crowding of families into 1000 deaths; while the artisan and labouring classes the same confined chambers; want of proper supply of lose 241 out of every 1000 deaths at all ages. That is water ; prevailing havits of intemperance, mainly proto say, that the merchant class loses annually very duced and kept up by the want of all comforts at home; nearly double the proportion of children under one retaining the corpses of the dead in the apartment year which the gentry and professional class lose ; occupied by the living. while the artisan and labouring class lose annually of the effect of ill-constructed drains and sewers in four times the proportion of children under one year lost individual houses on the health of the inmates, Dr Stark by the first class, and double that lost by the merchant gives several very striking examples which occurred in class. When the total deaths under fifteen years are the middle ranks of life, and he strongly recommends a reckoned, it is seen that the highest class out of every more improved system of domestic sewerage. 1000 deaths lose 204 ; the second class, 326 ; and the With these abatements, which are in general common, lowest class, 483. Thus it is apparent that, while in a greater or less degree, to all our large towns, Edinamong the first class there dies less than half the pro- burgh appears, on the whole, to stand at the head of portion of children under fifteen years, as compared with the cities and towns of the kingdom in respect to saluthe deaths among the third class, these deaths are more brity. In particular, it seems especially favourable to equally distributed over the fifteen years of life, and do the health of the young; and this is a matter of the not cluster around the first year of existence as they do greatest importance, considering that it is a chief seat in the lowest class. And this is just what might be ex- of education, where the young of both sexes, and from pected. Of the lowest classes, the strong alone survive all parts of the country, resort for mental training. the first year or years of existence; all the delicate are with all its advantages, however, the above statements cut off, so that in consequence of this, and of there show how very much the health and longevity of the being fewer left alive, the proportional number of deaths mass of the people depend on the state of the streets diminishes as life advances. Of the highest class, and houses, and all those arrangements which come again, so many more are reared—80 many delicate chil- under the denomination of general police, and how much dren get over the first year of life, that more are spared yet remains of judicious reform in this department to to die at a more advanced period of existence. As the render the poorer classes as comfortable as they ought natural consequence of this increased mortality of the to be. lowest classes during childhood, they show a less proportional mortality during the adult period; and thus

PARTNERS FOR LIFE. arises the fact already alluded to, that in Edinburgh and some other towns the mortality of the adult popu

BY CAMILLA TOULMIN. lation appears greater than in towns and localities less The age of guinea annuals is at its close; and these healthy.

expensive toys, with their steel engravings and sumpAnother view of the relative mortality of the different tuous covers of leather, silk, or velvet, are almost ranks of life may be taken by a table of deaths above entirely superseded by five-shilling volumes, bound in fifteen years of age. Thus, of 1000 of the first class cloth, and illustrated by woodcuts. This is in some above fifteen years of age, 481 die between the ages of sense matter of gratulation; but not because the one fifteen and sixty, leaving 519 to be cut off at an ad-book is, economically speaking, cheaper than the other vanced period of life. Of 1000 of the second class above —for the very reverse is the case. The guinea annual fifteen years of age, 594 die between the ages of fifteen was a most daring speculation. The letter-press did and sixty, leaving 406 to die at a more ripe age. Of not cost less than from L.200 to L.250 ; the eighteen or 1000 of the third class, however, above fifteen years of twenty drawings averaged perhaps L.15 each, and the age, no fewer than 606 die between the ages of fifteen good engravings perhaps L.30 each; while the binding and sixty, leaving only 304 to die at periods above alone absorbed a very considerable portion of the selling sixty years of age. The mean age at death of the diffe- price. For one engraving in the 'Souvenir,' Mr Alaric rent classes is thus stated - First class, 47-22 years ; Watts paid L.150; and in addition to all ordinary costs, second class, 36:58 years; third class, 25.88 years.

Mr Charles Heath defrayed liberally the travelling How heavily does mortality bear upon the lowest classes here! Yet, compared to other places, even here * With illustrations by John Absolon. Orr: London.

RIPE BREAD.

expenses in foreign countries both of author and artist. Employed by this gentleman for the purpose of getting up the letter-press and illustrations of one of those vo

Bread made of wheat flour, when taken out of the oven, lumes, Mr Leitch Ritchie and the late Mr Vickers spent is unprepared for the stomach. It should go througlı a several months in travelling in Russia, extending their change, or ripen, before it is eaten. Young persons, or wanderings beyond Moscow. The guinea annuals, there- persons in the enjoyment of vigorous health, may eat bread fore, were, and such of them as still survive are, cheaper immediately after being baked without any sensible injury in proportion to their cost than the five-shilling an- from it; but weakly and aged persons cannot; and none nuals, while they have the further merit of improving can eat such without doing harm to the digestive organs. the taste of the upper classes in point of art. They are Bread, after being baked, goes through a change similar to now, however, .dreeing their weird' just like other the change in newly-brewed beer, or newly-churned butterbooks. Fewer people can afford a guinea, and more milk, neither being healthy until after the change. During people a croin, than formerly; and so Mr Dickens, Mrs the change in bread, it sends off a large portion of carbon Gore, Miss Toulmin, and various others, have started

or unhealthy gas, and imbibes a large portion of oxygen or up, in the inevitable nature of things, to shove their healtlıy gas. Bread has, according to the computation of

physicians, one-fifth more nutriment in it when ripe than predecessors from their stools.

when just out of the oven. It not only has more nutriment, We do not put forward Miss Toulmin's volume as but imparts a much greater degree of checrfulness. He the five-shilling volume of the year. It has its own that eats old ripe bread will have a much greater flow of merits and defects like the rest, although, in pure and animal spirits than he would were he to eat unripe bread. high feeling, and thorough home-heartedness, it can Bread, as before observed, discharges carbon and imbibes have no superior; but we know our readers will look oxygen. One thing in connection with this thought should upon it with peculiar interest, as the production of one

be particularly noticed by all housewives. It is, to let the from whom they have so frequently received, in our bread ripen where it can inhale the oxygen in a pure state. own columns, both amusement and instruction. Part. Bread will always tasto of the air that surrounds it while ners for Life' is a story of the home affections, quiet- should never ripen in a cellar, nor in a close cupboard,

ripening; hence it should ripen when the air is pure. It perhaps too quiet at first-and yet full of interest as it nor in a bedroom. The noxious vapours of a cellar or a advances. It has no clap-trap, no startling effects, no cupboard never should enter into and form a part of the pitfalls for the feelings; but here and there, notwith bread we cat. Bread should be light, well-baked, and standing, the eyes moisten without our being aware of properly ripened before it should be caten. Bread that is it. We shall not be so rapacious as to appropriate the several days old may be renewed so as to have all the story of so small a book; but the following will serve freshness and lightness of new bread, by simply putting it as a specimen of the style and manner. It gives a lady into a common steamer over the fire, and steaming it lialf author's notion-and, in our opinion, a very just one

or three-quarters of an hour. The vessel under the steamer touching the accordance of ages in love.

containing the water should not be more than half full, ““I had hoped never to marry!” said Reginald mourn

otherwise the water may boil up into the steamcr, and wet fully. “Hoped never to marry! What an odd speech! taken out of the steamer, and wrapped loosely in a clothi,

the bread. After the bread is thus steamed, it should be Never is such a solemn word! Surely you don't wish to

to dry and cool, and remain so a short time, when it will be a melancholy, miserable old bachelor ?

be ready to be cut and used. It will then be like cold new "I am not sure that I wish to live to be old,” replied bread.--- American Farmer. Reginald with bitterness.

“Hush !--for shame! Life, depend upon it, has sweets LITERARY CULTURE NEEDFUL TO THE WORKING MAN. at every period,” said Carlton ; "and for my own part, I have a great notion that old age is a very pleasant by all means, but let him also have what diverts his mind

Let the working man have what aids him in his vocation time-like the evening of the four-and-twenty hours, a from his toils, and raises it above them. Let his undersort of dressing-gown and slipper period. But then of standing be cultivated, but also his taste, his sentiments, course I mean a proper, respectable, comfortable old age, and his language. But is there not culture for the underin which a wife-perhaps twenty years one's junior-standing too, in following with interest a critical deliplays rather a distinguished part.”

neation of an author's characteristics, a sharp definition "Then you don't approve of early marriages ?” ex of that in which two great pleaders are unlike; in judging claimed Reginald, pursuing the theme, which seemed on the specimens offered how far the lecturer is justified to have touched, perhaps jarred, upon some heart in his conclusions? It will by and by be more generally chord.

known that man's utterances may be as profitably studied “It is a pity for a man to marry while his liberty is

as his machinery; nay, even that a Shakspeare or a Dante

may be as wonderful a relic of ages as a mastodon or an pleasant—that is what I mean." And does it never occur to you as an audacious condition arise from our great classes not understanding

ichthyosaurus. Again, not a few of the evils of our social thing,” replied Reginald with emphasis, "for a man, one another. Between the race that is educated by ease, wearied as you would say with his liberty, but in reality by abundance, by books, and pictures, and operas, by surfeited with the pleasures which wear out, though they mental labour, if by any, and the race that is educated by do not satisfy, the heart-is it not an audacious thing manual labour, by anxieties about having leave to work, for such a one to dare to seek the affections, and ask by practical familiarity with the utilitarian properties the hand, of a young, inexperienced creature, with the things—a great gulf is fixed. Each is a barbarian unto bloom of her heart unruffed—to whom he cannot offer the other. Their thoughts and feelings, their likings, their sympathy in return for her love, any more than a

very words, are unlike. We must understand one anwithered branch can send back vigorous sap to its interest, we must learn to see through one medium, or we

other, we must confer on the common ground of common blooming neighbour : and since he cannot reflect back perish as a nation. One of the great mediators between the glorious hopes of youth, if there is to be heart

us is literature. Let Shakspeare, Milton, Scott, Wordsunion at all, he must drag her mind through the mire worth, intercede between the hosts ; give us truly one of his own experiences, until he teach her to synıpathise mind and one speech, and what remains will be settled with him, pluck from her at once the very flower of at least with a mutual intelligence ; and this worst alien youth, instead of suffering it to fall away, leaf by leaf, act, the want of a universal participation in the grandest little missed or regarded: rob her

of all national literatures, will be done away.--Rer. I. “You're in love!” interrupted Arthur Carlton, push- A. Scott at the annual meeting of the Woolwich Mechanics' ing back his chair, and half starting from it. “Reginald

Institution. Hamilton, you are in love!-and, puppy as perhaps you think me, I can respect, wonder at, almost admire deep Published by W. & R. CHANBENS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also feelings, though such I may never experience."

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORK,

147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London ; and J. M'GLASHAY, With this specimen we commend the book to the

21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAN BERS, favourable consideration of the gentle and the good.' Edinburgh.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' 'CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &o.

No. 165. New SERIES.

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1847.

Price 17d.

* Pub. Ay, if you will take them as wages, and often THE AUTHORS OF CALAMITIES.

before they are earned. Grant that you are the salt The poverty of authors and men of learning has been of the earth ; methinks the salt has wonderfully lost its a theme of all ages since literature and learning had an savour when it has to come with a manuscript in one existence, and a general reason for such poverty is very hand, and holds out the other for the instant pay, or obvious in the fact, that authors and men of learning the kettle cannot boil. See; there, now, is a man seldom address themselves to any of the recognised just gone that will be a name five hundred years means of money-making, but indulge in a toil or recrea- hence ; yet what does he come to me for? For a sovetion-call it what you will—which gratifies taste and reign! I tell you candidly, that if no hero can be a caprice in the first place, and only may be productive of hero to his valet de chambre, neither can an author be a more solid benefits in certain not very common circum- hero to his publisher, when he comes in forma pauperis stances. There are now-a-days, however, literary men every day before him. For the life of me, I cannot who, by writing for the periodical press, and in other de- maintain an admiration of a man when, like a rat, he finite ways, realise considerable gains, though generally is always nibbling at my purse-strings, and especially perhaps at the sacrifice of their more cherished predilec- when I know—and what publisher does not know it?tions. A small number, by unusually successful author- that, give the coin before the work is done, and it never craft, are in the tolerably regular receipt of incomes is done. I content myself with things as I find them, which might cope with some of the best in the profes- and I leave all homage to the reader.' sions, barring only a few of the highest. Still, there is We can vouch for the truth of Mr Howitt's general a general sense of the wretched nature of a purely lite- statements on this subject, for we have heard many rary life: instances of the misery of literary men even London publishers speak of the literary class as in great of considerable fame occasionally come before us; and part deficient in honourable principle respecting money the literary class itself is dissatisfied with its social and the fulfilment of engagements. It is, in fact, exposition, and irritated at the precariousness, as well as tremely painful to hear the report of these tradesmen meagreness, of its means of subsistence.

respecting the men of talent whom they have occasion Mr Howitt, in his · Homes and Haunts of the Poets,' to employ. They describe the more prosperous as launches forth some complaints on this subject, and crotchetty and unreasonable ; the poorer as unscrupualleges that authors are at this day regarded by pub- lous in taking advances, and careless in discharging lishers exactly as they were in the days of Grub Street their obligations. Some who realise large sums by -poor, helpless, and intractable. He then quotes an labours which appear by no means severe, not only anecdote which appeared a year or two ago in this squander these without any regard for the necessities Journal, to the effect that a London publisher expressed of the future, but contrive, besides, to be deeply in debt an inclination to give credit to a retail bookseller whom to their booksellers and others; so that a sudden failure he supposed to be prospering, when, being informed of health, or of the power of pleasing the public, would that the man was an author—'Oh, that alters the precipitate them at once into poverty ; in which case it question entirely. Open an account!—certainly not, would, as usual, be taken for granted that they only certainly not!' To which a similar lively illustration experienced the evil fortune of a miserable profession, is added :

when the fact is, that they had been fortunate far be• The publisher of a celebrated review and myself yond the same degree of desert in any other walk of were conversing on literary matters, when a very po- life, but had misused the best gifts of Providence. Inpular author was announced, who begged a word with spired by a feeling like that of the Arabs, who believe the publisher, and they retired together. Presently the that it will be long before they can make up to thempablisher came back.

selves for the disinheritation of their ancestor Ishmael, · Publisher. We were talking of the relative merits of some authors seem to consider the booksellers as 'fair authors and publishers just now.

game. There can be no harm in pillaging men who, · Myself. Yes.

as a class, are the usurpers of literary rights and lite*Pub. Well, you authors regard yourselves as the rary gains. To take, therefore, a sum from one booksalt of the earth. It is you who are the great men of seller towards the copy-money of a book, and, after all, the world: you move society, and propel civilisation ; hand over the manuscript to a second for an additional ve publishers are but good pudding-eaters, and pay- sum, or even to a third, after having taken sums in masters to you.

advance from two, is not unknown in practice. When * M. True enough ; but you think that you are the men whom one would rather expect to be models of master manufacturers, and we authors the poor devil honourable feeling are depraved to this extent, there artisans, who really have no right to more than artisan must be something strangely unsound in their situavages.

tion, for to no other cause can it be attributed.

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