« PreviousContinue »
TO THE LACE-WINGED FLY.
down this delicious dell was like a little paradise. It emerged upon the open heath, and came into Glen was so cool, so verdant, so full of beauty and perfume, Candlic; up which a road for ponies has been formed and the warbling melody of birds so harmoniously by Mr Farquharson of Invercauld, the proprietor, and blended with the refreshing sound of falling waters, is continued all the way, gradually ascending, to the that one felt as if in fabled fairyland. Bright insects west shoulder of Ben-na-Bourd. In this wild and soliwere flitting about through the trees, and among others tary glen plenty of deer were seen, and Epilobium angus. I noticed one that has long been a favourite, the lovely tifolium was not uncommon among the rocky banks of and delicate lace-winged fly, and which recalled to the stream. Soon after leaving Glen Candlic, we crossed inemory a few lines addressed to one several years ago. a stream descending to Glen Quoich, on the banks of Those of my kind and good-natured readers acquainted which Arabis petræa was both in flower and fruit. The with the insect will, I hope, attribute my introducing ascent now became steeper, and gave ample occupation them here to the right motive-a desire of awakening to our respiratory apparatus ; the air was keener, and pleasurable thoughts and associations.
the sky getting somewhat overcast, threatened us with
mist and rain. ... Bright fly! thou recallest the sweet days of my childhood,
On reaching the margin of a considerable field of When, wandering alone through the green sunny wildwood,
snow, a little below the summit, I came upon large To pull the fresh cowslips all drooping in dew
patches of Polytrichum septentrionale, and, to my great And list to the ringdove so plaintively coo,
joy, bearing plenty of capsules! There was a drizzling I there first beheld thee in happy repose
rain, and the cold was so severe, that my fingers were Thy pillow the half-opened leaves of a rose. How enraptured I stood ! and, in silent surprise,
almost benumbed; but the sight of this rarity was Viewed thy fair pearly wings and thy bright golden eyes!
enough to diffuse a thrill of warmth through every And how with delight my young bosom did glow
nerve, and for a few minutes the effects of the elements When thou mountedst aloft to the cherry-tree's bough, were entirely forgotten. I was also gratified with fine And then, in the wake of a clear sunny ray, Rose far in the blue sky, and vanished away!
specimens of Dicranum Starkii, and picked up besides, And still, when I visit the woodland's green bowers,
while my guide laid out dinner on a snowy table, DicraTo quaff the rich breath of the gay summer flowers,
num fulcatum, Trichostomum microcarpum, Conostomum And hear the sweet birds in their happiness singing,
boreale, Polytrichum hercynicum, and Jungermannia scaTill all the glad echoes with music are ringing, I love to behold thee on rose-blossom sitting,
luris. My guide and I were soon on the summit, which Or under the fragrant trees merrily flitting,
is nearly four thousand feet above the level of the sea, Thy beauty-the pleasure thou seem'st to inherit
and about eight miles north from Castleton. Here the Impart a pure ray of delight to my spirit;
mountain breeze was certainly revelling in all its freshFor who can be sad while a creature like thee, With so fragile a form, yet so happy can be ?
ness, but rather too “arrowy;" the sky was too murky Does He who has clothed thee in vestments so fair,
for allowing the eye to enjoy any extent of prospect, And sed thee, and watched thee with tenderest care,
and the ground was too sterile to produce much of Not watch over all with unwearying eye,
interest to the botanist. The contrast between this And pour from a fountain that never runs dry Ilis kindness unbounded on great and on small,
hard, cold, bare region of clouds, and the soft, warm And his power and his love that sustaineth them all!
luxuriance of the vale we had left in the morning, Then welcome, bright fly! for a teacher thou art,
was striking. We had exchanged, in a few hours, the That can win, with thy gentle persuasion, my heart:
genial glow and beauty of summer for the surliness of No anger, no threatenings, thou usest to awe me, But with love's silken cord dost more easily draw me,
winter—the mildness of a temperate, for the rigour of To willingly offer, at gratitude's shrine,
an arctic climate—the cheerful hum of society, for the 1 The spirit's pure praise to thy Maker and mine."
awful depth of nature's most sacred solitude. * Among other plants growing in this dell were Rubus which means a kettle), a large hollow in the side of the
"We descended by the Corry (from correi in Gaelic, saxatilis, Melica nutans, and uniflora Melampyrum syl- mountain, surrounded by a circular range of precipices. vaticum and pratense, and abundance of Epilobium angus. | In most cases these corries have a lake in them, or a tifolium, but not in flower. The Melampyrum sylvaticum had some of its flowers of a deep orange colour. Carex bog, where a lake has formerly been. Where the rocks pulicaris and pallescens were in perfection on moist
are micaceous, the ravines, the steep water-courses, and rocky banks, and I culled a specimen or two of the shelves of the corry-rocks, are rich in alpine plants, as beautiful and, apparently distinct Luzula multiflora. is the case among the Clova and Breadalbane mounBartramia Halleriana occurred among the rocks in dense tains; but here, the rocks, being of hard, dry granite, tufts, with Weissia curvirostra, Ilypnum pulchellum and
are almost destitute of verdure, and, from their vastness stellatum, and, where water was trickling, Weissia acuta and sterility, present a spectacle of singular sublimity and Fissidens adiantoides. There had been here prim- and grandeur. At the base of these wild and wintry roses, cowslips, woodroof, and wood-anemones; but they cliffs vegetation began again to invite attention, and were all past flowering, and some of the leaves of the Thalictrum alpinum showed its small fragile flowers. latter were covered with Æcidium leucospermum. Near Gnaphalium supinum was abundant, but in general not the foot of the dell the barberry was flowering, and on
very far advanced; and in one sheltered spot, small its leaves plenty of Æcidium Berberides.
specimens of Trollius Europæus were ornamented with With a light heart and heavy vasculums I returned their swelling globular flowers of golden hue. The from Corrymulzie when the lark was leaving his station most interesting acquisition on our descent was Azalea in the blue sky, and the brilliancy of day giving place procumbens in flower. This humble but pretty shrub to the softness of evening.'
usually grows on mountain-summits, and flowering Next day was devoted to an excursion to the summit early, is rarely seen in that state by botanical tourists, of Ben-na-Bourd, the account of which we are likewise whose peregrinations are generally made towards the tempted to extract. • The second sun of July was
end of July, or in August. Its bright rosy corolla is a brightening with his early beams the waters of the Dee, perfect gem; and to all who admire the beautiful, its when I left Castleton, with a guide, for the lofty moun- contemplation must afford no small share of delight. tain solitudes of Ben-na-Bourd. About a quarter of a
The only other plant of interest noticed in our descent mile from the village we crossed the Dee in a boat, was Betula nana ; some clumps of which were spreading who chained his little bark to a tree on the opposite were ferried over the river long after twilight had deferried over by a picturesque-looking kilted boatman, over the heaths, but almost destitute of catkins.
* Crossing Cairn-a-Drochel, we descended to Deeside, bank. Passing the boatman's pretty cottage, we entered the fresh woods, where
parted, and reached Castleton, tolerably fatigued, late
in the evening.' “Song, fragrance, health, ambrosiate every breeze;"|
From these extracts, it will be observed that the va. and after walking on for some time
rious obstacles which impeded the author in his early "Beneath the umbrageous multitude of leaves,"
career have neither prevented him from acquiring &
tasteful and pleasing style of composition, nor stood in great emporium of the north, now rising, like a phenix, the way of pious and poetical communings with nature. in renovated beauty from its ashes, our traveller finds Other little works followed . The Botanical Rambles ;' his way at first into the marsh district of Holstein, and one of which, now before us, entitled • Twenty Lessons is presently lost in admiration of its beef and butter. on Mosses,' is a curiosity worth noticing.* Instead of Here it is that are reared those great herds of cattle being illustrated by coloured engravings, the work is which are beginning to be brought so largely into Engembellished with real specimens of mosses, dried and land. Scarcely three years have elapsed since the late gummed on its pages in the manner of a Hortus Siccus. government first legalised their importation, and now This mode of illustration is not new, but it must be every flood-tide bears with it up the Thames or Humallowed to be more effective than that of giving imi- ber a black, smoking vessel, loaded from stem to stern tations with the press or the pencil. In the present with motionless captives, wedged together as if by a instance, the delicate and varied tints of the mosses hydraulic press, and all staring steadfastly forward out are preserved in a remarkable manner, and insure the of their melancholy eyes, in mute expectation of being recognition of the plants in their growing state. By within twenty-four hours converted into beef for the means of this ingenious and interesting little book, English stomachs. Here, too, the Holstein butter is any one, without the assistance of a teacher, may made, which, under the name of Dutch butter, is imported acquire a thorough elementary acquaintanceship with among us to the extent, Kohl says, of a hundred thouthe leading tribes of mosses. We may venture to prog- sand casks; but this is an exaggeration. The producnosticate that it will be the precursor of many larger tion, however, is great, and increasing ; and as more and more valuable works on a similar plan, which Mr and more capital is being brought into it every year, it Gardiner will be tempted to give to the world.
may fairly be expected to rival the Dutch and Irish Our story of William Gardiner's uneventful but not butter in the English market. The dairy-farms are useless life, as far as it has gone, may now be said to be very large, with seven or eight hundred cows a-piece in told. Stepping beyond the ordinary usage of maintain some of the greatest, so that a smaller proportional ing silence respecting persons of genius and modest profit will remunerate the producers—this, too, in a merit till they are in their grave, we have taken some land where there are very few taxes, and the pastures pains to collect these few particulars of a self-taught among the richest in the world. man of science, who still, we are happy to say, lives Nothing can surpass the luxuriance of the Holstein amongst us, battling, it may be, with difficulties, but meadows, every inch of which has been created by the nevertheless inspired with a genuine Scotch spirit of sea. The great rivers flowing from Northern Germany, self-reliance, and drawing no small measure of happi- the Elbe, the Weser, and the Ems, bring down a huge ness from his perseveringly-conducted botanical re mass of rich mud, which, in a tideless sea like the Balsearches. If our notice shall be the means of extend- tic or Mediterranean, would speedily form a delta ; but ing a knowledge of his name into quarters where it has the furious tides, currents, and winds of the North not hitherto happened to penetrate, and, above all, if it Sea, keep it in suspension till it is finally deposited at serve to stimulate youth to undertake the great task of a distance, and forms an alluvial belt along the coast. self-culture, the great duty of self-dependence, it will The soil thus progressively created is so rich, as to not have been written in vain.
quadruple the value of the adjoining land, and every possible contrivance is adopted to accelerate its for
mation. Jetties, constructed of strong beams, driven KOHL'S TRAVELS IN DENMARK.
from twenty to thirty feet deep into the mud, are carMR Kohl, whose travels through different countries ried out to low-water mark, each of these of course are well known, has just added another work to the creating a backwater, in which there is no motion, and all already long list - Travels in Denmark'- a country the earthy matter in suspension is able to settle. After of which little is distinctly known in England.
a time, a layer of soil rises to the surface, and divers Generally speaking, Denmark is not a picturesque saline plants creep over it, which grow and fatten upon country. The peninsular portion, comprising two-the slime. Plants of a higher order succeed, and contrithirds of the whole, is little better than an immense bute, by their decaying remains, to increase and raise sand-bank, two hundred miles long, bound together and the ground; and this process goes on for years, till at kept in shape, as it were, by a backbone of limestone last a fine grass springs up in spots, and the cattle are hills running along its length from north to south. The forthwith driven down at ebb-tide to graze. As the high ground keeps throughout close to the eastern tides are apt to be brought violently forward without shore, where the country is highly pleasing in parts, warning over grass, and all by the westerly winds, it is with the clear, blue, beautiful Baltic heaving deep in- only the oxen which are risked in these exposed situashore down the narrow inlets, and slumbering in lakes tions, as they fly at once upon the approach of danger to as transparent as Windermere, though of the salt sea the higher ground, and there make the best fight for brine, under the lea of the hills, which are forested with their lives that they can, while the sheep, like the beech down to the water's edge. Kohl speaks with stupid, blundering things they are, stand quietly still to rapture of the beauty of the beechwoods hereabouts, be drowned. If the herbage, such as it is, promises which, he says, are the finest in Europe, though they well, a subscription is raised, the government engineers are hardly equal to some along the Weser. Some of are called in, and a dike is carried out at great cost and these tideless lakes are of great extent: one of them labour round the outlying portions, which thus, after cuts right across the peninsula, making an island of descending in the shape of mud from the romantic crags Northern Jutland: many of them are tolerably deep and valleys of Bohemia, ends in becoming a constituent close in-shore; and some of the small towns upon them part of the kingdom of Denmark. are, in consequence, considerable shipping ports. The The country thus created is very curious. From other side, along the North Sea, facing England, seems Hamburg to Ripen it extends round the coasts nearly to be a waste of peat bogs, clay, and drift sand, where one hundred and fifty miles in length, but of inconsithe sea breaks in a perpetual surf upon a line of shoals, derable breadth. The whole is a dead flat, without a without a single port which can be entered by a ship of shrub on it as big as a gooseberry bush, but a veritsize. The dry ground bears nothing itself but buck-able paradise to a grazing farmer, being one uninterwheat and rabbits, and is a terra incognita to all but the rupted stretch of fat alluvium, alternately corn and Datives, and a few German pedlers, who barter rabbit- meadow, every inch of which is in the highest degree skins and goose-quills for the luxuries of life-namely, productive, and is made to produce accordingly. To spuff and red-herrings. Starting from Hamburg, the the right and left, as far as the eye can reach, is a sea
of grass, covered far and near with grazing herds—the * David Mathers, Drummond Street, Edinburgh. Second edition. backs of the cows and oxen in parts just peering above 1846.
the abundant herbage. Dikes in straight lines to keep
out the sea, and canals in straight lines for drainage, English queen, who, in revenge, caused a channel to be cutting each other at right angles, run endlessly along cut through the isthmus which then united England to the horizon. On the tops of these dikes the roads are the continent, and thus precipitated the sea upon the carried; for a very few days of rain is sufficient to con- Jutland coast. A very restless important personage, vert the marsh below into a deep tenacious slime, im- a kind of Puck on a larger scale, is constantly in the passible for wheel-carriages. The cost of keeping them mouths of the people, under the name of Peter of up is immense, in some parts as much as a hundred Scotland,' supposed to haunt the highest summits of the pounds per mile; but it is cheerfully borne, as the sea Grampians, and from thence to breathe across the sea would else flood the whole country; and the soil is rich north-west winds, and their accompaniments of famine enough to pay for all.
and disease. Most of these ideas are referable to natuIn his second volume, we find our author transported ral causes. Where acre after acre of the land has been into another peculiar region—the island group along the swallowed up by the sea, till the present coast-line is western coast, about which he tells us more than full fifteen miles east of the shore from what it was two enough. After wading through his manifold details hundred years ago, it is not wonderful that the people about seal-bunting and duck-catching, dikes and sand should fancy that they still see the houses and farm-yards hills, tides, currents, and north-west gales, a chapter on of the sunken continent through the clear water, and each, our only wonder is, how people can be found to hear the church-bells ringing with unearthly sweetness live by choice in such a dreadful country. Most of from below. The belief in a malignant water-spirit, who these islands, which have no dikes to keep out the sea, rides upon and propels the inundations, has the same are flooded at every spring-tide; and he tells a marvel- origin. • No one dares walk at night by a certain bay lous story of a ship having sailed right across the in Jutland, from the vision of a bleeding arm, which is flooded land, at one unusually high tide, without know- supposed to be witnessed there, commemorating the ing it. The houses are perched on mounds from fifteen fate of a shipwrecked mariner, who, after winning his to twenty feet high, but the tides sometimes rise even way to shore, was murdered by the wreckers for the higher, turning the scanty stock of rain-water in the sake of his gold. The murderers were yet quarrelling tanks into brine, and sweeping everything off but the over the division of their plunder, when the sand was haystacks, which, to guard against such an emergency, slowly stirred, and the vision of the murdered man are secured by strong cables, passing over their tops, arose among them to reclaim his own. They tore from and brought down on either side to the heaviest stones the body the head and right hand, but still the bleeding that can be got, by way of anchors. Then we have a arm moved with them, and stood where they stood, till good deal of curious matter (chap. ii, vol. 4) upon a sub- the murder was found out.' No doubt this ghostly ject of peculiar interest to the student of our early his superstition has had but too real an origin among the tory_namely, the origin and location of the northern many catastrophes which happen every year on this tribes who settled among us in the Saxon times. A wreck-strewn coast. district of some twenty miles square, on the eastern Kohl lingers so long among the wild people and side, is still called Angelu, and inhabited by Angles, a scenery of the western coast, that he is obliged to make separate people in face and speech from any of the short work of the more civilised districts extending to Danes. The alternation of hill and dale, with green Copenhagen. From the .neat and cleanly' Kiel, as he thorn-hedges, the comfortable people and farm-houses truly calls the capital of Holstein, he pushes on at once of this little district, are all peculiarly English-like, and to the passage of the Little Belt, now traversed in two reminded him, he says, at every step of the county of places by steamboats. But Kohl being romantically Kent. The Frisian people, on the other hand, upon the inclined, prefers to cross it in an open boat by moonwest coast, claim for themselves exclusively the honour light, and gives us, in consequence, whole pages of Byron of having planted the Anglo-Saxons, and appeal to the at second-hand. The Little Belt, the narrowest and identity of their language, which comes nearer to Eng- least-used of the three great inlets to the Baltic, is imlish than any other. Kohl gives us a distich current passable for shipping, through a sand- bank running among them, in which every word is identical, 'Good right across it in the middle from shore to shore. In bread, and good cheese, is good English, and good the early winter months, from November to January, it Friese' (or Frisian). Walking in one of the villages, presents a curious scene when the great herds of por. he abruptly asks a child whom he met, “Where did poises moving in from the North Sea are intercepted Hengist and Horsa sail from?' To which the answer in this natural cul de sac, and there, unable to escape, immediately was, From Tondern on the Eyder.' It is with the land on two sides, the sand-bank in front, and certainly curious thus to see traditions familiar even the hunters in rear, are slaughtered by hundreds for the to little children on the opposite side of the North Sea, sake of their blubber and skins. Besides a lengthened which have so completely passed away from among description of this sea-hunt, which he never saw, and ourselves.
some remarks on the duties levied at the Sound, he All the popular tales of dwarfs, giants, and 'good tells us nothing more of these great inland straits, the people,' gnomes, nixes, and water-spirits, which are arteries of Denmark; but to make amends, there is a current in Germany and Ireland, and wherever good great deal about Odin and Thor, and still more about literature is dear, meet here with full acceptance, to- German patriotism and philosophy, remarks on art and gether with many a local legend of the true Scandina- architecture, landscape gardening and general educavian species, in which everything that is not minute tion, which have nothing more to do with Denmark than is gigantic. Such is that strange fancy of the Danish any other corner of the globe. His discursiveness besailors about the phantom ship, called • Mannig Fual,' comes by this time a decided nuisance, and we are not which is so huge, that the captain rides round its deck sorry when he takes up his quarters finally at Copenon a goblin steed to give his orders, and the life of a hagen, and there dilates through a volume and a half, man is consumed in the time necessary to mount to to his heart's content, upon everything and every body. and furl its sails. The islands of which we have spoken The Danes are very proud of Copenhagen ; and no are formed of the ballast thrown overboard when it ran wonder, for it is the only town they have. It is likeaground, and the chalk cliffs of Dover, according to the wise the only island capital in the world, past or present, legend, owe their whiteness to the paint on its cabin of any consequence; for Venice is morally and matewindows, which was rubbed against them once upon a rially connected with the continent, and some peculiaritime when the vessel was somewhat squeezed in passing ties of manners and appearance are the consequence. through the Straits. Great Britain forming the western Living as we do in the focus of a network of railways, boundary of the North Sea, and stretching the whole which knit us inseparably to two hemispheres, we can way right opposite to Denmark, is a frequent theme in hardly realise the situation of Copenhagen; sometimes, these popular superstitions. Thus the Straits of Dover in the winter time, cut off by the drift-ice for a fortnight arc attributed to the quarrel of a Danish king with an | together from all communication with the continent,
when not a letter or a newspaper can pass, and the king much, the public would save L.10,000 a-year in extra and the citizen are equally imprisoned, in ignorance of washing. all that is going on in the outer world. The inhabitants,
It was on a Sunday morning, says Mr Gardner the at such times, look dreary enough, but the town is botanist, that I arrived in Liverpool from Brazil, and duralways noble-looking. Its aspect, on emerging from ing the course of that day I saw in the streets a greater the narrow entrance into the port, is very grand and number of cases of drunkenness than, I believe, I observed striking. In summer, the enormous transit of vessels five years' residence in that country!
among the Brazilians, whether black or white, during a through the Sound causes a peculiar degree of animation ; In connexion with the above, we may extract the followand then one may see the noble panorama of sea, and ing distressing and discreditable statistics from a recent islands, and gliding sails, and ancestral towers, rising little work, entitled The Poor Man's Four Evils : ?-The above the dark-green clumps of fir which Southey has quantity of spirits entered in 1845 for home consumption painted in his living prose. As to the general street in the United Kingdom was 26,672,477 gallons ; of wine, views and interiors, however, Copenhagen is only a 6,838,681; of ale, 480,000,000: the population was 27,000,000. kind of representative city-very neat and clean, and This would give for each person eight pints of spirits, which, all that—where one may see, in the compass of a walk, at 1s. 6d. a pint, amounts to 128. ; two pints of wine, at 2s. warehouses and dockyards after the model of London each, comes to 4s ;, in ale, L.2 a-year for each personand Woolwich ; palaces like Versailles and St Cloud, being in all upwards of seventy-five and a half millions only a third of the size ; granite quays like St Peters- sterling spent in the country for preparations in a great
degree unnecessary and destructive. burg; and abundance of bridges after the Venetian ; The beneficial effects of sewerage and ventilation could all of them well worth seeing for those who cannot see not be more convincingly exhibited than in the following the originals, but altogether lacking that in-born indi- quotation from Mr Liddle's evidence before the Health of vidual character, that embodying in brick and stone, Towns Commission :-- The London Hospital was badly of the peculiar spirit of a peculiar people, which are drained, heated with hot air, and not large enough for the $0 wonderful in the old Flemish and Italian cities. number of inmates. In 1837 and 1838 respectively, the
In 1839 the sewerage The air of the whole is respectable and substantial; mortality was 14 and 124 per cent. and the people, so far, are very like their city.
was completed, and the mortality fell to 94 per cent. În Such is a glance at the contents of the work before 1840 the hot air was discontinued, and a further decrease us, which unfortunately we cannot speak of in the terms opened, when the mortality fell to 8 per cent., and in 1843
to 9 per cent. took place. In 1842 the new wing was of laudation often lavished on this writer. The work is to 7 per cent.! doubtless often amusing, whether the author is enlarg Mr Morse, the American electric telegraph inventor, is ing on his own or other people's speculations ; his own said to have effected improvements in his apparatus, by or other people's eating, walking, boating, and suffer which communications are impressed on paper at the rate ing from wind and weather; the lakes and inlets he of fifty letters per minute. crosses, or would have crossed, if he had been able ; A German journal states that the application of galvanand much more to the same purport. His subjects | ism has been made in Austria for preserving trees and also are frequently good, but unluckily he never knows plants from the ravages of insects. The process is very when to have done with them. He often excites our simple ; consisting only in placing two rings, one of copper, interest, and then suffers it to die from pure inanition; and
tree not that he could not put the matter in a tenth part of electric shock, which either kills it, or causes it to fall to
or plant. Any insect that touches the copper receives an the room, but then he could not fill his book. The the ground. result is a perfect olla podrida of subjects—sometimes interesting, sometimes long and dry--the whole diluted and overlayed with interminable German reflections,
THE PARIS BAKE R.* moral and philosophical, mostly of that species which You descend, by a tortuous flight of steps, into a subno one can deny, and every one can make. He some terraneous cavern, which resounds with sharp cries and times mingles his sublime pathos with the bathos ; and suppressed murmu The reflection from a burnhis descriptions of scenery are always as flat as the ing furnace unites, with the pale light of the lamps, to country he traverses ; but then, it must be allowed, reveal, under a black and smoky vault
, the confused there was very little in its aspect to kindle his enthu- forms of meagre and haggard humanity, half-naked and siasm.
half-roasted, ready to cry out with St Lawrence, •Turn me on the other side!' What are these mysterious and
busy shapes? Are they conspirators, coiners, or someFACTS FOR THE CURIOUS.
thing worse? You see before you simply bakers at Dutch papers mention the discovery of an extensive bed work. That huge orifice gleaming with flame is the of coal at Batol Apie, on the south of Borneo. As steam mouth of the oven; those sharp whistling cries are the navigation is on the increase in the East, such a deposit song of the cricket, the familiar guest of the bakehouse;
prove of infinite value. This discovery, conjoined with and that sob-like sound proceeds from the chest of the the fact, that coal is also met with in the isle of Labuan, man who is laboriously kneading the dough in prepawould seein to demonstrate that the Malaysian islands are ration for your morrow's meal. All those instruments as rich in mineral as they are already known to be in me- which you see about, scattered on the floor, resting tallic and vegetable produce. At a recent meeting of the Geological Society, a fact was made use of in the confection of bread: shovels, knead
against the walls, or in the hands of the workmen, are stated in reference to the low-conducting power of clay and sand, which may prove of value not only in the pre-ing-troughs, dough-knives, oven-rakes, baskets, handFention of fire, but in the retention of heat for an almost mills for grinding compressed flour, and divers other indefinite period. It was, that a thickness of half an inch bread-making implements. of clay and sand intercepted the heat of a mass of eleven At Paris only can you witness this nocturnal travail tons of white-hot melted cast-iron for twenty minutes, in all its extent. The provincial baker goes late to rest without the heat on the outside of the vessel being suffi- and rises early, but still he passes the night in bed. cient to pain the hand !
From dawn until noon he prepares his mass-bakes his The loss to the public from excess of washing, scrubbing, batch of bread, and carefully controls the operations of &c. which a smoky atmosphere renders necessary, is much his oven ; after which he has a respite for some hours ; larger than at first sight might appear. Dr Lyon Playfair but he resumes his functions towards nine in the evenhas shown, that to this one item Manchester has been expending L.60,000 a-year, and that if the expense of addi- ing, preluding his night's repose by hours of wearisome tional painting and whitewashing be added, the actual
labour. Doney loss would be double the amount of the poor-rates
It is a singular thing, that this branch of industry, The Rev. Mr Clay states, that in Preston only which one would have supposed as ancient as agricultwo furnaces consume their smoke, and even that imperfectly; but were all the factories in the town to do as
* This article is principally from the French.
ture, was hardly known to the Pagan world. The tion, and the offender is liable to penalty or imprisonRoman matron made bread for the family during the ment; though it would appear that this regulation is hour which preceded the repast; it was baked upon the never enforced in the present day, judging from the hearth, by covering it with hot cinders, or sometimes universal disregard that is shown in respect of it. upon a kind of grill over burning coals. The use of the Notwithstanding the heavy shackles which the French oven was imported to Europe from the East, in the five government have thought fit to append to this branch of hundred and eighty-fourth year from the building of commerce, the art of bread-making has arrived at great Rome. At this period bakers were established in the perfection in Paris. Under Louis XVI., the labours fourteen departments of the Eternal City, and formed a of Parmentier and Cadet de Vaux had already greatly college, to which they remained attached, with their improved it. Lenoir, the lieutenant-general of police, families ; nor were they permitted to quit their occu- had established in the Rue de la Grand Truanderie a pation, nor even to pass from one locality to another. gratuitous school for bakers, where they might witness
The first bakers in France were called tamisiers, from the fabrication of the fine white bread of the Royal the word tamis, a sieve, which would seem to indicate Military College, and the brown bread of the prisons of that they were the first of their countrymen who Paris. Nevertheless, at that period the Parisians were sifted the meal; afterwards, in the thirteenth century, far behind the rest of Europe in the making of fine they were called boulangers, from the spherical or ball. bread. At the present moment, however, they have like shape of the loaves they manufactured. Their nothing to learn: the bread displayed in the windows community was under the protection of the Grand of the magnificent boulangeries of Paris is of exquisite Panetier of France, and its freedom was only to be ob- delicacy; and, in particular, the succulent products of tained by a candidate who had been successively win the Boulangerie Viennoise are the subjects of general nower, bolter, assistant-kneader, kneader, and head- desire and eulogium. journeyman for a period of four years. He then The trade of a baker is acquired at Paris in a year, appeared before the chief of the community, bearing in or a year and a half, during which the pupil pays a his hand a pot full of walnuts. "Master,' said he, “I premium of one hundred and fifty or two hundred francs. have accomplished my four years, here is my pot full of An accomplished workman is paid partly in coin and walnuts.' The chief, having first carefully ascertained partly in kind: his daily wages are two francs seventythe actual duration of the apprenticeship, took the pot, five centimes (about two shillings and threepence), and broke it upon the pavement, and received the neophyte. a loaf weighing one kilogramme (a little more than
In the seventeenth century, the community was sub- two pounds). The salary of chief journeyman amounts jected to the jurisdiction of the provost of Paris, and to five francs a-day. Few of them pursue their labours the lieutenant-general of police. In 1762, the number beyond the age of forty; at which period of life they of bakers in the city proper amounted to two hundred are thoroughly worn-out and exhausted, and compelled and fifty; in the faubourgs were six hundred and sixty to beat a retreat. The fire of the oven is as fatal to more; and upwards of nine hundred brought bread the baker as the fire of the enemy is to the soldier: the to the capital twice a - week from St Denis, Gonesse, man who sustains his race in his old age, ranks in inCorbeil, and other places.
firmity with the man who destroys it; and after having The Revolution did not effect the complete enfran- passed his whole life in making the bread of others, he chisement of the bakers, who are still subjected to cer- may find himself at its decline without an asylum and tain old ordonnances; such as that of the provost of Paris without a crust. of the 22d November 1546. •The bread,' says this edict, Against such contrary chances of fortune, and against 'must be without mixture, well kneaded, fermented, the cares of their laborious existence, the operative properly shaped, well baked and dusted, cooled and bakers have sought a refuge in companionship. They dressed, by half-past six in the morning. It is forbidden form a part of a certain sect of undevout devotees, who to use any rejected or damaged flour, or injured grain, pretend to have for a founder a certain Master · Jacques,' or bran re-ground.' Two ancient decrees of parliament architect of the Temple of Solomon ! This associaremain in their pristine vigour-one of the 16th of No- tion, composed at first of carvers in wood, joiners, and vember 1560, the other of the 20th of March 1670. The locksmiths, has successively adopted the bakers, the first interdicts the employment of any other yeast than farriers, the turners, the glaziers, the wheelwrights, the that which is produced in Paris and its environs, fresh tanners, the curriers, the bleachers, the braziers, the and unadulterated. The second compels the bakers to dyers, the founders, the tinmen, the cutlers, the harprovide proper weights and scales, and to keep them ness-makers, the saddlers, the nailers, the shearers, the publicly suspended in their shops, that the purchaser basket-makers, the slaters, the hatters, the rope-makers, may have the article weighed if he choose. They have the weavers, and the shoemakers. taken as a base for the weight of each loaf, a report of The Bakers' Companionship has in every town a place the Academy of Science, confirmed by decree of parlia- of rendezvous, where the members reside when out of emment of the 25th of July 1785, which lays down the ployment, and whence they are hired. Their sign of reprinciple that a sack of good flour, of the weight of cognition is an ear-ring, in the form of a grain-strike; and three hundred and twenty-five pounds, yields at least in their solemnities they carry large ivory-headed canes. four hundred pounds of bread.
On the 15th of May, in every year (the day of Saint The profession of a baker can neither be commenced Honoré), they walk in procession to hear mass, preceded nor abandoned without the previous permission of the by musicians, and the syndics of their body, adorned authorities. The list of bakers of Paris, classed accord- with flowers and tricoloured favours. On the follow ing to the quantity of flour which they consume daily, is ing day they attend the celebration of a service for the published every year. Special decrees and ordinances dead, to which they bear a consecrated loaf, made of the regulate the state of the profession, both in the capital finest flour; this is carried upon the shoulders of four and in the departments. The minutest details of this of their companions, and ornamented with flags and inimportant branch of industry have been cared for; numerable ribbons. and the bakers' apprentices are the only operatives There is a long-standing and hereditary enmity ex. for whom the law prescribes a uniform. They are to isting between the Companionship of Bakers, the folwear, when at work, a frock which reaches below the lowers of Master Jacques, and that of the carpenters, calf of the leg, without any slit or opening, and a waist who style themselves the followers of Father Soubise. coat closely buttoned, which may be witliout sleeves. This hostility is of such great antiquity, that it admits They are not, in any case, to show themselves in the only of a legendary explanation. Upwards of two streets without pantaloons, and a waistcoat with sleeves.' | thousand years ago, says the tradition, Master JacIf, therefore, you see a baker in his working-dress tran- ques, who was travelling in France, was persecuted quilly smoking his pipe at the door of his shop, you are by the disciples of Father Soubise; a party of whom, authorised to raise the hue and cry. It is a contraven- | to the number of ten, attempted to assassinate trim,