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conceived her to possess the power of invisibility, as she discovery among the dry grass which surround them more has ran along the seared stump or mossy bank before his difficult. The partridge also, to lure away an enemy, will feet! The hawk thus often loses his prey, and wheels off run just as if it was wounded. Some of the feline tribe, in sullen disappointment, while the lark he has been pur- and others among animals, will simulate sleep, until suing is all the time only crouching down among some their hapless prey has been drawn near enough to be kindred coloured herbage. The small birds, when under pounced upon. Singular to relate, there is a crab, the pursuit, seem to be quite sensible of the value of this Cancer phalangium, which cuts off small pieces of a defence, and seek out those spots of ground, or patches marine fucus, and fastening them upon its spines, marches of vegetation, which bear the nearest resemblance to their upon its enemies, like Birnam wood to Dunsinane. own colour. Darwin tells us that birds which are much Armour must be considered as the next and most obamong flowers, such as the goldfinch, are furnished with vious defence, and may be regarded, as in the former very vivid colours themselves. The partridge, the wood- instance, both as passive and active : passive where, like cock, the tree-pigeons of the East, and the quail, and eren a coat of mail, it is a negative defence, and active when the tiny tom-tit, are deeply indebted to this provision of it consists of weapons used by the voluntary efforts of the colour for their defence.
anirnal. The insects are frequently provided with an Among animals too, although in a less remarkable armour of hairs, some of which, on being touched, will manner, passive imitativeness is a means of defence. produce violent pain and inflammation of the hands; The changeful appearance of that animal Proteus, the and others are protected by a covering of mail. Many chameleon, is a striking instance in point. The tra- beetles may be trodden upon by the human foot without pelus, the polychrus, and several of the anolii, possess injury: ants and others often escape death even after the same wonderful property ; some of them can change being apparently crushed beneath the weight of man. their colour even more suddenly than the chameleon The forest-fly, or Hippobosca equina, is well known to be itself. The reader must be familiar with the explana- killed with the utmost difficulty by the pressure of the tion of this phenomenon; which consists in the sudden finger and thumb. The cocoon of the silk-worm is a inflation of the enormous lungs of these creatures, render- beautiful illustration of this kind of safeguard. The larva ing them almost transparent. The hare, as she sits in her is here protected by its silken envelope from many of the furm, can only with great difficulty be distinguished, by dangers that would otherwise be fatal to it. The frog the unpractised eye, from the herbage around her; and spittle,' as it is vulgarly called, so often seen on our were it not for eyes and noses more acute than those bushes, contains and protects the larva of a little insect, of men, she would often escape by this means. It appears by its very disagreeableness, from the attacks of wasps not improbable that the change of colour in the animals and birds, &c. Others are covered, or cover themselves, of northern regions in winter, is an additional provision with a kind of cottony or feathery armour. Some roll against their enemies.
themselves up; and their projecting hairs make it a Actice Imitativeness is one of the most curious subjects matter of difficulty to take hold of them. Among the in natural history. To only a limited number of the mem- inhabitants of the waters we immediately encounter the bers of the zoological scale has it been given to play the crustaceous animals, which are protected by a calcareous mimic in the great game of life and death. Commencing coating outside; the familiar examples are the sea-urchin, with insects again, which are mimics in a wonderful de- the crab, the lobster, crayfish, &c. Shells are a defence gree, the first stratagem we meet with is the mock death. common to land and marine creatures, and are in some Many insects, on being touched, instantly curl themselves cases so strong, as to render them almost impregnable. up, and drop into a seemingly lifeless condition, out of The scales of fish, as of the carp, are also of service as a which nothing but the pressure of urgent danger can
defence. The solid armour of the genus Testudo, the arouse them, and then, like some human malingerers we tortoise tribe, are good illustrations. Among these the have read of, they speedily find their limbs, and run for bosc-tortoise is wonderfully provided ; for it possesses a their lives. There is a beetle called the Anobium per- shell articulated by two lids, so that when the head and tinar, commemorated by writers on entomology, whose limbs of the animal are withdrawn, it is completely astonishing endurance in this deathlike condition scarcely encased in it, and can bid defiance to its enemies. The finds a parallel in the marble rigidity of the tortured armadillo has received its name from the paving-stoneIndian. This little Spartan may be pricked with needles, like armour which protects it. The term Pachydermata, roasted over a slow flame, mained, wounded, and even or thick-skinned animals, is applied to those whose tegutorn limb from limb, without evincing a single symptom ment is so thickened as to form a very effectual defence. of sensation or of life; but in its own time, if indeed it The skin is sometimes so plated, as in the hide of the has not been too seriously injured, it will come to life rhinoceros, as to resemble the roof of a house ; while again, and coolly walk away as if nothing had happened. among snakes there is a remarkable illustration of mailThe spider is known to every one to perform this feat of like armour. The scaly ant-eaters, again, are provided simulation. Some insects will, when assaulted, turn on with large scales like tiles, which, on being attacked, their backs, and stretch out their little limbs in all the they can elevate, and then roll themselves into a ball. immobility of death itself; and after shamming until The hedgehog curls up the vital parts, bending himself the danger is over, they will resume their briskness again. into a round prickly ball, which has not one weak part This device seems directed against that sentiment in the exposed. The dense coat of hair is in other animals a breast of their enemies which prevents their attacking defence not to be despised ; that of the shaggy bear is anything from which life has departed. Other insects used on our soldiers' caps as a shelter from the blows of will lie on the branches of trees, and arrange themselves the sword. The feathers of birds are in some instances in such stiff, inanimate postures, as to cause them fre- of a similar value. Many of the alligator family have quently to be mistaken for the branches or twigs them- skins so studded and carbuncled with warty excrescences, selves.' An anecdote is told of a gardener who, seeing, as to give them the appearance of those doors which are as he thought, a dry twig on a tree, broke it off, and to covered with iron nails. Helmets and bony shields are not his surprise found it to be a caterpillar. Another is uncommon among fish. related of a servant who, finding, as she thought, little Active armour is, however, a more general provision, round beads in the garden, began to string them into a being possessed by an infinite number of the members of rosary, when she found them to be animated creatures. the animal world. Among insects it is the great leveller The puss-moth, hawk-moth, and others, are caterpillars of the enormously disproportionate power between their of the appearance of withered leaves and twigs. Among enemies and themselves; rendering some of the least of
birds, the pee-witt or plover is familiarly known to imi- such apparently insignificant creatures objects of terror, | tate lameness. It will turn over and over, limping and suffering, and 'aversion both to man and to the brute
bobbling, and uttering its peculiar plaintive cry, until it creation. The sting of the mosquito tribe, that scourge has drawn the intruder to a distance from its nest, when of hot and cold countries alike, is a well-known instance. it takes wing, and leaves him baffled and disappointed. The venom of the scorpion is frequently so powerful, as to Its eggs, too, have a brown colour, which makes their prove fatal, or to require the airputation of the bitten
limb. Some of the black ants sting so keenly, that the means for crushing the shells of the smaller creatures part feels as if cauterised; and there is an ant called the upon which they prey. It is even reported that some of . Ant of Visitation,' before which the inhabitants will the large species have been known to seize a goat, and even rise in the middle of the night and fly. The cele- drag it into the water, drowning and devouring it. brated tarantula spider, about which so many fables have been circulated, gives a very sharp and venomous bite;
AMERICAN INDIAN SKETCHES. but its effects soon disappear. Many of the centipedes bite in a similar way. The stag-beetle is another fero- In the vain hope of awakening the conscience of the cious insect, terrible from the power of the great forceps it United States government to a proper sense of the duty carries, like antlers, on its head. The common ear-wig it owes to the unfortunate aborigines who still exist carries a similar weapon at his tail. Some of the large within its territories, the pen has been taken up by a South American spiders are so powerful and venomous, as to be able to destroy humming-birds, pigeons, &c. The zealous and well-known friend of the Indians, Thomas burning sand-fly occasions a wound so minute as to be L. M.Kenney, late chief of the bureau of Indian affairs almost imperceptible, as if the flesh were burned with a at Washington.* We have perused this benevolent red-hot needle. There is a small wood-spider called the gentleman's narrative with considerable interest, and tenderaman, whose bite is usually fatal. · Among fish are cannot but lament with him that year after year the nathose terrific instruments the teeth of the shark; the tive tribes are lessening in number, less from their own spike of the xiphias or sword-fish, a weapon so powerful, intestine feuds, than from the dishonest appropriation of as to be frequently driven violently through the bottom their lands, and the vices introduced among them by of a ship's boat; and many more. The saw-fish has a powerful serrated snout, with which it attacks, and fre- the whites. Alive to the disgrace of this national crime, quently successfully, the largest whales. There is a a number of respectable citizens in New York, in 1829, roundish species of fish, known as the diodon, which looks attempted to move the government on the subject; but like an aquatic porcupine. Cuvier compares it to the private interests were too powerful to be overcome, and burr of a chestnut, it is so thickly covered with sharp- nothing was eventually done to improve the condition pointed spines, which it is able to erect at its will. of the sufferers. For the last sixteen years a systematic Others are armed with sharp instruments upon their fins and tails, which are directed in different ways to suit the course has been persevered in of banishing the remains habits and motion of the fish. Some of the Scorpena of the Indian tribes to wildernesses beyond the avowed tribe are so hirsute with these fearful weapons, as to limits of the States—to be again, doubtless, molested in present an aspect perfectly frightful; and some possess these new hunting.grounds, when it suits the purpose poisonous instruments as well. The flying-fish has a long, of the white man to make further encroachments. stout spine, which forms a powerful weapon. A fish called Referring principally to official proceedings, Mr the monocentris is wonderfully defended by being com- M‘Kenney's work does not admit of analysis, and nopletely mailed with rough angular scales, besides having thing of the kind need be attempted by us. The author, five or six immense spines disposed on different parts of its body. The reader scarcely requires to be reminded of however, occasionally relates an anecdote illustrative of the little stickle-back, whose sharp dorsal spines must his Indian experiences, and one or two of these we shall often have pierced his hands. Some foreign members of pick out for the amusement of our readers. The first the same family, in addition to these spiny ornaments, refers to an expedition in which he was concerned, along have likewise a bony hauberk. There is a fish vulgarly with General Cass, in 1837, with the view of settling a known as the suryeon, found in the Indian Ocean, treaty with several collected tribes at a place called which carries a strong movable spine on each side of its Butte de Morts (Hillock of the Dead). tail, as sharp as a lancet, and inflicts severe wounds on those who carelessly handle it. There is a curious
• The business of the treaty over, everything was in fish with green bones, called the belone, which has a bite motion, preparing for the departure of all to their reconsidered highly dangerous; and some of the genus spective destinations. At one place might be seen a Silurus possess å spine above the shoulder, which they group of squaws, and children, and dogs, all seeming can raise or depress at will, the wounds of which are often to be engaged in huddling together, or hauling to the followed by tetanus. It is only necessary just to men- water's edge their provisions and effects; whilst others tion, to avoid incompleteness, the fangs of serpents, with had their canoes in the water, and others again were in the consequences of their bites; and the vast claws, the act of gliding away upon the smooth surface of the sharp enouts, tusks, and horn-like processes of some of the Carnaria, are also weapons which will occur to the river, enjoying the quiet satisfaction which the presence recollection of every one.
The tail of serpents and apes, of rations and good fare are so well calculated to proand particularly of the Marsupialia, is a weapon occa- duce. sionally of considerable efficacy. The hoof and horns of *At this moment of general activity, a scream, wild the horse and buffalo may be also enumerated. The jaws and fearful, was uttered. It was by a female. A rush of the lion, tiger, &c. are terrible instruments too: of the of a thousand Indians was made for the spot whence it hyena it is mentioned that so great is the muscular force with which it fastens upon anything, that it is im- proceeded. I looked, and saw in the midst of the possible to separate it from its object; the Arabs, on this crowd a man's arm raised, with a knife in the hand. It account, give its name as a synonyme for obstinacy. It is fell- and then was heard another scream! When I a remarkable circumstance, that some of the Orycteropi, sprang towards the scene of what seemed to be a strife or ant-eaters, have a spur on their hind-feet, perforated by of blood, and just as I had reached it, Major F., hava canal, which leads to a gland secreting a liquid, and ing started from an opposite direction, was a few feet placed in the inner part of the thigh ; the wounds of this in advance of me; and at the instant when the third instrument, which is almost an anomaly in itself, are blow was about to fall upon the victim, he struck and said to be highly dangerous. Among birds, the talons and the beak forin the chief offensive instruments. The knocked down the man who was thus desperately encourageous little shrike, and a bird called the American ploying the bloody weapon. There stood, trembling tyrant, use the beak alone, and with success, against the and bleeding, a fine-looking squaw. She was mother of attacks of the largest birds. Many birds have hooked the wife of the man who had made the attempt upon bills; the albatross, or man-of-war bird, eagles, and vul- her life. The deltoid muscle of each arm, just below tures, possess this powerful addition. Finally may be mentioned the claws or forceps of the Crustaceans—the crab and lobster. These are appendages of vast power, among the Northern and Southern Indians. By Thonias L.
* Memoirs, Official and Personal; with Sketches of Travels and are used with etfect both as a defence and as a M'Kenney. New York: Paine and Burgess. 1846.
the shoulder, was cut with deep gashes. These were Attention being called through the various intergiven, as each arm was raised, in succession, to shield preters, the governor spoke, explaining the case--the her body from the impending knife. The first thrust innocence and kind designs of the woman—the prohad thus disabled one arm, the second the other; and priety and usefulness of the interference, which was not if the third had been given, there being no shield in rudely attempted --- the noble object of keeping her the arms for further protection (for they both hung and being bereft of all their stores, and then going
daughter's husband from joining in drunken revelries, powerless by her side), it would doubtless have gone, home poor, and naked, and hungry. That was her where the two first were aimed, to the heart!
object; whilst the whisky-trader cared for none of these I took charge of the trembling and agitated woman, things, but sought only to rob them of their blankets giving orders to the soldiers to take the offender, and and calicoes, &c. and give them nothing in exchange lock him up in our provision-house, until some suit for them but fire-water. The Great Spirit looked down able punishment should be agreed upon for a crime so
and smiled on this act of the woman, and was angry at flagrant and bloody. Our surgeons having gone to the trader. It was for an attempt so kind and so proper
the bad conduct of the man, and with the whiskyvillage, I cleansed and bound up the wounds; and by
on her part that this man, the husband of her daughter, the employment of bandages, kept the arms stationary, had seized her, and with his knife struck at her heart, giving her directions not to use them, and sent her in to kill her, and but for her arms, with which she had charge of her daughter and some friends to Green Bay, shielded her breast, she would have been murdered. to our surgeon, to be attended to.
Her cries, and tears, and blood, were all unavailing ; * The cause of the outrage was as follows:- This nothing could have saved her but the timely arrival of woman and her daughter had carefully put away their help, and a blow that put it out of his power to consupplies, &c. in their canoe, and were on the eve of summate his bloody purpose. For this act he shall be no embarking, when it was rumoured among the Indians from henceforth let him be a woman!
longer a brave; he has forfeited his character as a man; that a whisky-dealer had arrived in the woods, behind
* At this annunciation, the chiefs and braves muttered our treaty-ground. The moment it reached the ears vengeance. We were told by the interpreters they of this reckless Indian, he started with others in quest would resist us. But never before were hearts put more of the whisky. The mother-in-law, well knowing that at rest, or did hope gleam in upon such a multitude of their calicoes, and blankets, and strouding, and pork, squaws; never did eyes dance in frames of such emoand beef, and flour, &c. would soon be parted with, in tion, or smiles radiate faces with such animation. Never exchange for this fire-water, followed him, intreating was the "neaw !"— a term expressive of mingled surhim not to go, but to go home and enjoy what had been prise and gladness-uttered with such vehemence and given them there. She clung to him rather inconve- joy. Even the papooses, turning from their sources niently, when he resolved on freeing himself by the use of nourishment, 'looked round as if some new and of his knife. For some time she kept off his blows with blessed influence was felt by them; and the very dogs her paddle; but this being presently knocked from barked. her hand, she had no shield left but her arms, and 'Meantime a voyager had procured of an old squaw these were alternately disabled in the manner I have her petticoat, stiff with the accumulated grease and stated.
dirt of many years. As he ascended the mound with Governor Cass coming along, I narrated all this, this relic, another mutter of vengeance was heard from and to the inquiry, “ What shall we do with this the men, whose faces were black with rage ; but it was man?" answered promptly, “ Make ţa woman of him." literally drowned amidst the acclamations that broke at And 80 we did. The process was on this wise. The this moment from the squaws. Now they saw, for the several interpreters were sent out to summon in the first time, new light and new hope breaking in upon Indians, and to arrange them around the Butte de Morts their destiny. Our burdens, they seemed to say, will be -the women and children in front. This being done- lighter, our rights more respected, our security more from eight hundred to a thousand perhaps being thus secure. There stood the voyager, holding the petticoat. assembled—the offender was brought from his confine. The sight of both was far more obnoxious to the culprit ment, and led by a couple of our voyagers to the top of than would have been the executioner armed with his the mound, and placed against the flag-staff; Governor axe. But still he was unmoved. Not a muscle stirred. Cass and myself, and the interpreters, being there also. Around his waist was a belt, with a knife in it, such as Never before had I witnessed in Indians a feeling so in- butchers use. Taking hold of the handle, I drew it from tense. Every eye of chief, half-chief, brave, and squaw, its scabbard, thrust the blade into a crack in the flagay, and of every child, and it seemed to me of every staff, and broke it off at the handle; then putting the dog also, was beaming with concentrated lustre, and handle in the culprit's hand, I raised it well and high every eye was upon us. They had all heard of the up, and said, “ No man who employs his knife as this assanlt upon the woman, but to a man justified it, man employs his, has a right to carry one. Henceforth alleging that a woman was nobody, when the power and this shall be the only knife he shall ever use, Woman, freedom of the man were attempted to be interfered wherever she is, should be protected by man, not murwith; and that the life of any woman would be no more dered. She is man's best friend. The Great Spirit gave than a just forfeit for such intermeddling.
her to man to be one with him, and to bless him; and • The squaws entertained different notions, and were man, whether red or white, should love her, and make deeply interested, personally, in the scene before them- her happy.” Then turning to the voyager, I told him to not one of them knowing anything further than that strip off his leggins and his ornaments. It was done, some punishment was to be inflicted on the man for his when the old petticoat was put on him. Being thus conduct. The offender stood unmoved. Not a particle of arrayed, the voyagers, each putting a hand upon his interest did he seem to take in what was to befall him. If shoulders, ran him down the mound, amidst a storm of he had been there alone, listening to the rustling leaves, indignation from the men, mingled with every variety and the moaning of the winds, and looking upon the of gladsome utterance by the squaws; when, letting him woods, the sky, the river, and the lake, he could not go, he continued his trot alone to a lodge near by, have been more unmoved. He was dressed in his best. rushed into it, and fell upon his face. An interpreter Moccasins, ornamented, were on his feet; his leggins followed him, and reported his condition, and what he were of scarlet cloth, fringed and decorated, besides, said. His first words, as he lay on his face, were —"
I with bits of fur, foxes' tails, and rattles. A good wish they had killed me. I went up the mound to be blanket was about his waist; his ears were ornamented shot. I thought I was taken there to be shot. I'd rather with silver rings, his arms with bracelets, his face with be dead. I am no longer a brave; I'm a woman !" paint, and his hair sprinkled with vermilion,
• Now, this mode of punishment was intended to
produce moral results, and to elevate the condition of "I wrote, and gave him an order for the presents, women among the Indians. It was mild in its physical when he shook hands and left me, doubtless much edieffects, but more terrible than death in its action and fied, as well as benefited, by the interview, to carry on consequences upon the offender. Henceforth, and as his operations as a rain-maker till it should rain.' long as I continued to hear of this “brave," he had not been admitted among his former associates, but was
BLACK-FISHING. pushed aside, as having lost the characteristics of his sex, and doomed to the performance of woman's labour, It is generally known that salmon, during the winter in all the drudgery to which she is subject, as well of months, swim up rivers to spawn ; and, having obeyed the lodge, as of all other menial things. The whisky- this instinctive impulse, that they return in a lean and trader had made off, or he would have been taught a unsound condition to the ocean. To attack and kill the lesson which, with the proper using, might have been poor creatures while swimming up the streams, burmade useful to him for the remainder of his days.' dened with spawn, is cruel and murderous, for it is
On one occasion, when visiting the Choctaw nation, annihilating myriads of salmon which the spawn would Mr M'Kenney was introduced to a professional rain. in due season produce. To kill then coming down is maker.' This personage had the address to pass himself not less brutal, for the animals are not in a fit state to off among his brethren as one who was in alliance with be eaten : they are foul fish. In order to protect salmon the Great Spirit, and could produce plenteous showers in these circumstances, the law establishes a close time, by his intercessions.
during which, under heavy penalties, they must not be I shook hands with him, and told him I was glad captured. Nevertheless
, killing salmon while the rivers to see him; that I had heard of his greatness; and that are legally shut is an exceedingly common offence. I was so anxious to know the secret of rain-making, Along the whole course of the Tweed, and other rivers, that I would give him an order on the agent for a this species of poaching is perpetrated nightly, on an pair of scarlet leggins, a pound of tobacco, a string extensive scale, by bands of men prepared to offer a of wampum, a pound of powder, two pounds of lead, determined resistance to authority. The plan usually and a blanket, if he would tell me all about it. He stood pursued is to walk along the banks of the stream with up, and looked around him; and then, holding his head burning wisps of straw or fagots, and the instinct of first on one side, and then on the other, listened; when, the salmon drawing them towards the light, they are looking well round him again, he sat down, saying to readily speared. Many fish are thus killed while in the the interpreter, “ Ask him if he will give me these act of spawning. Touching the injurious consequences, things.” Most certainly, I replied, upon the condition individual and social, arising from these unfair practhat he will tell me all about his art as a rain-maker. tices, the following passages occur in an article on the He stood up again, and looked and listened, and then subject in the Peeblesshire Advertiser, a small monthly seating himself, began :
paper of the kind we have frequently commended :“Long time ago I was lying in the shade of a tree on
During the spawning season, not only the appearthe side of a valley. There had been no rain for a long ance, but the habits of the salmon are totally changed : time—the tongues of the horses, and cattle, and dogs, the timid fish which, in its healthy state, is scared by a all being out of their mouths, and they panted for some shadow, hiding itself in the deepest and strongest water, water. "I was thirsty-everybody was dry. The leaves now exposes itself in the ebbest streams, with often were all parched up, and the sun was hot. I was sorry; scarcely enough of water to cover it, so that it can be when, looking up, the Great Spirit snapped his eyes, caught with the greatest facility by means of any device, and fire flew out of them in streams all over the heavens. however simple, or indeed without the assistance of He spoke, and the earth shook. Just as the fire streamed any device, but simply with the hand, so thoroughly from the eyes of the Great Spirit, I saw a pine-tree, that does it put itself in the power of man at this season. It stood on the other side of the valley, torn all to pieces must be obvious, therefore, that if, in the violation of by the fire. The bark and limbs flew all round, and then reason, mankind do not hesitate in destroying the fish, all was still. Then the Great Spirit spoke to me, and the law must be applied to prevent the utter extinction said, 'Go to that pine-tree, and dig down to the root of the species. It is not unusual to hear persons, in where the earth is stirred up, and you will find what their eagerness to vindicate a course to which they are split the tree. Take it, wrap it carefully up, and wear addicted, argue that the fish, under Providence, expose it next your body; and when the earth shall become themselves in the manner described, that they may dry again, and the horses and cattle suffer for water, go easily fall into the hands of the people at a time out on some bill-top, and ask me, and I will make it when the necessity of using them for food is greatest. rain. I have obeyed the Great Spirit; and'ever since, As well might they argue that birds and other animals when I ask him, he makes it rain."
might be destroyed when in a similar state ; for as'I asked to see this thunderbolt that had shivered suredly no animal undergoes more deterioration than the pine-tree. He rose upon his feet again, and looking salmon do in similar circumstances. It is more on well around him, sat down, and drawing from his bosom account of the welfare of the population, than any other a roll which was fastened round his neck by a bit of reason, that we would endeavour to dissuade them from deer-skin, began to unwrap the folds. These were of this pursuit. We may safely assert that no man can every sort of thing-a piece of old blanket; then one of systematically follow any occupation denounced by the calico; another of cotton-laying each piece, as he re- law of his country without having his moral nature moved it, carefully on his knee. At last, and after grievously outraged; the very fact of its being fortaking off as many folds as were once employed to encase bidden, calls into exercise many degrading qualitiesan Egyptian mummy, he came to one that was made of low cunning and duplicity of every description being deer-skin, which being unwound, he took out the necessary to commit and conceal the offence. It often thunderbolt, and holding it with great care between results, too, in the commission of crimes at first not his finger and thumb, said, “ This is it!” I took it, and contemplated by the unfortunate persons themselves; examined it with an expression of great interest, telling namely, among others, in resisting the officers of the him it certainly was a wonderful revelation, and a great law, for which, instead of having to answer for the sight; then handing it back to him, he carefully wrapped statutory offence of killing salmon in forbidden time, it up again with the same wrappers, and put it back in they may have to answer to a charge of assault, or, it his bosom.
may be, of murder! This is not a hypothetical case'The reader is no doubt curious to know what this it has unfortunately frequently arisen out of this and talismanic charm, this thunderbolt was. Well, it was similar pursuits.' nothing more nor less than that part of a glass stopper So much may be said of the injurious consequences of that fills the mouth of a decanter, the upper or flat part black-fishing ! as it is called ; but we should scarcely be having been broken off!
justitied in dismissing the subject without pointing out
what we conceive to be the source of the evil. For four as given by the mercury. The bulb must be placed as hundred years, as may be seen from acts of parliament, far back as possible, under the tongue, and the breaththe law has been endeavouring to prevent this kind of ing be carried on through the nostrils. If introduced poaching, and it has failed. In vain are the prisons between the cheek and teeth, the temperature given more or less crowded every winter with black-fishers; will be under the real amount, as shown under the in vain are heavy pecuniary penalties exacted; in vain tongue, where it should be left for some minutes, to are men ruined, generation after generation : the crime insure the maximum. is now as rife as it was in the fifteenth century. Has In a series of observations carried on daily for a it never occurred to the administrators of the law that period of eight months, the highest average temperature there must be some cause for all this? Are they not was found to be, just after the operator had risen in the aware of the excuse which black-fishers employ when morning, 98074; the medium, about three hours after challenged for their conduct? Let us give voice to this noon, 98.52 ; and the lowest, at the time of retiring to grumbling apology. The excuse of the men is, that rest at midnight, 97:92. A corresponding depression of they are dwellers on the banks of the river, and that if the respiration and pulse was noticed at the same hours. they did not catch the fish in close time, they would The temperature of the room in the morning was 50-9 ; never be able to get them at all; because gentlemen, at and at night 62: on the average of the whole eight the estuary and other places, set stake-nets to intercept months; thus showing that the maximum temperature and catch them wholesale.' Such is their mode of of the body is highest after the night's repose, and
reasoning; and rude as it is, it carries with it an air lowest at midnight, although at the latter period the I of justification. We are not sure that the practice is atmosphere was many degrees warmer.
not, in many instances, carried on from motives of ven The effect of active exercise is to increase animal geance, irrespective of any hope of profit. If such heat, when not carried to a fatiguing extent. The really be the case, how deplorable are the results ensuing average temperature of 98. rose to 99.5 after a fourteen from heedless legislation—a regular system of demoral- miles' ride under an August sun; the respiration and isation arising from the constant effort to protect the pulse quickened in a corresponding ratio. The proporinterests of one party at the expense of another! To an tion of heat to the amount of muscular exertion is seen unprejudiced observer, it will seem clear that the practice in the sum of the results obtained after riding from followed by landed proprietors, at the mouths of rivers, seven to ten miles in a close carriage; which showed a of sweeping up salmon wholesale, and so depriving all lower'teniperature than any previously indicated, even above them of any inducement to angle at the proper by the midnight observations. Desultory walking exerseasons, is inconsistent with equity, and must ever ex- cise in cold weather is also attended by a depressing cite hostile feelings. What common-sense points out effect; there must be vigour and animation to insure is this : rivers, from their source to their junction with an agreeable warmth. But the most lowering effects the ocean, with all the creatures which dwell in them, of all were noted after sitting, during service, in a are public property, or at least should be considered as church in which there was no fire. Notwithstanding sach. It is true the law has imparted a right of private warm clothing, a painful chill was experienced, with a property with respect to the capturing of salmon by strong tendency to drowsiness. stake-nets; but surely this requires revisal and modi
Excited and sustained attention, such as reading a fication, with a view to the public advantage. At pre- lively book, the labour of literary composition, continued sent, as we lament to observe, the populace on the banks from two to five hours, has the effect of raising the of rivers are in a continual embroilment respecting the temperature of the body slightly above the average ; right of fishing, and, as above stated, mercilessly destroy while, on the contrary, reading for mere amusement, the salmon at illegal periods. What we desire to press or the mechanical process of copying, are shown to be is, a general reconsideration of the whole question, in followed by the same sedative and lowering result, as
order to allay disputes, and to give each man an interest carriage exercise in comparison with muscular. | in preserving the law inviolate.
The taking of food into the stomach appears, from
careful observations taken immediately after dinner, to TEMPERATURE OF THE HUMAN BODY.
have the effect of reducing the temperature: the more
plentiful the meal, the greater would seem to be the INQUIRIES into the nature and sources of animal heat depression. On particular occasions,' writes Dr Davy, have ever occupied a large share of the attention of when a larger quantity of wine than usual was taken, physiologists, from the days when a subtle fluid was the reduction of temperature was commonly most supposed to be the mysterious medium for the diffusion strongly marked. A light meal, such as that of breakof heat, until modern researches have shown it to be fast, consisting of tea, with a portion of toasted bread the result of a chemical operation. By careful and with butter, and often an egg, has had little effect in well-defined observations, attempts have been made to depressing or altering materially the temperature.' trace its influence in derangements of the normal con From a few experiments tried on individuals advanced dition of the animal economy. Among these the inves- in life, the doctor finds that the animal heat in deeplytigations of Dr Davy of Ambleside possess sufficient seated parts is greater than at middle age; which he general utility to render an account of them interest. accounts for by supposing that the food they eat is ing.
expended rather in the function of respiration than in The doctor's observations were commenced about four compensating the waste of the system. The observayears ago on some fishes proper to the Mediterranean, tions generally show that the temperature of man among which, contrary to the generally received opi- undergoes fluctuations in common with some other ani. nion, he found that the sword-fish and tunny are warm- mal functions, and, like them, seems to obey a certain blooded ; and in extending his inquiry, was led to remark order—the one diurnal, in connexion with passive states that the increase of heat in fishes is in proportion to of the body; the other accidental, dependent on irrethe increase of red particles in their blood : thus showing gular circumstances, exercise physical or mental, exthat these red particles are in some way connected posure to heat and cold. The temperature of various with the generation of heat. These observations pre- individuals, after working several hours in a heated facpared the way for others on the human subject: the tory, was found to be raised one or two degrees above result hitherto obtained that the temperature of the average ; thus verifying the general proposition, the body in health is not constant, but rises and falls that the heat of the body riscs and falls with that of under the general influences of heat and cold, rest and the atmosphere. Here, however, the doctor remarks exercise.
that the increased heat penetrates but a short distance The method pursued was by the introduction of a below the surface, whether it arise from surrounding glass thermometer, bent at right angles, into the mouth, causes, or from exercise. A certain law of compensaso as to enable the observer to read off the indications. tion appears to come into play : by active exercise,