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the darkened house. It was the night before all that tions; but it was a great thing to be able to construe was mortal of poor Cyril was given to earth. They Virgil and Cicero. As for Greek, he did not pretend could now speak of him without tears; and they talked to be so far learned as that. His master was at length of old times, and old pleasures shared with him who was so well satisfied with his conduct, and so convinced that
talents and industry like his only wanted encourageFrances took the hand of her former companion. ment to be followed by brilliant results, that he entered • All is changed with us now, Lucy; we are no longer him as a student in the Temple. Here was a chance young, and our feelings are different from what they for young Philip Yorke! But even this dignity had its once were. It can do no wrong, either to the living or attendant indignities ; for the attorney's wife considered the dead, if I tell you, now that you are a cherished and it only fair and proper to make the 'gratis clerk' useful, devoted wife, that he who is gone loved you with a pas- and therefore never scrupled to despatch him on family sionate love which ceased but with life.'
errands, highly derogatory to the honour of a Templar. Lucy's face grew pale, and she burst into tears. “Why When this had gone on for some time, the master, in -oh why did I never know this?'
settling his periodical accounts with Philip, was sur* Because he could not hope to marry; and he was prised to find such entries as these : 'Coach hire for too honourable to drive his sisters from his home, or to roots of celery and turnips from Covent Garden market? bind the girl he loved by a doubtful engagement. He — Ditto for a barrel of oysters from the fishmonger's ;' saw you did not love him.'
whereupon a consultation took place between the husBecause he never said one word of love to me, or I band and wife, in which it was decided that the practice should soon have learned to love him, and then he might of the latter was clearly against the rules of good housenot have died !' said Lucy, still weeping.
wifery. * Hush, Lucy! All is best now. You are happy-you It must not be supposed, however, that Philip's prolove your husband.'
fessional business was very dignified. Attending capI do love him; and he is worthy to be loved,' an- tions, and serving processes, are not very gentlemanly swered the wife earnestly. But poor, poor Cyril!' and employments; but they were necessary to a young lad again she wept.
who could contemplate nothing but the necessity, when Do not mourn for him,' said Frances ; ‘he might his studies were over, of going upon the roll of attornever have had a long life; and who shall say that he neys, with perhaps a misty prospect of the oflice of clerk did not feel the sweet peace of duties fulfilled, and of to the magistrates at petty sessions. All on a sudden, knowing that his self-sacrifice was not in vain? Lucy, however, the attorney was asked by Lord Chief-Justice I, Cyril's sister, amidst all my grief, shall love you, and Parker if he knew of any decent and intelligent person feel that you have done no wrong. Yet it is very bit fit to be employed as a sort of law tutor for his sons ; ter!' cried Frances as her composure forsook her, and and Philip Yorke receiving his master's strong recomshe bowed herself in agony. “Oh, would that I had mendation, removed at once from Brooke Street to died for thee, my brother-my only brother!'
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Here he studied something of
more consequence than Latin or Greek-namely, EngFORTUNES OF PHILIP YORKE.
lish ; a study, says Lord Campbell, .generally so much
neglected by English lawyers, that many of the most THERE was once a little lad called Philip Yorke, who eminent of them will be found in their written "opinions” was born in the year 1690. His paternal ancestors had violating the rules of grammar, and without the least been of some consideration in the county of Wilts, but remorse constructing their sentences in a slovenly manthat was an old story now; and his father, who prac- ner, for which a schoolboy would be whipped.' At that tised as an attorney, was very well contented to marry time Addison's Spectator was coming out in numbers ; his two daughters, one to a dissenting minister, and and Philip was so well satisfied with his progress in the other to a tradesman in a country town. As for his English, that he would needs try a paper. And, what mother, she was of the family of Gibbon--a rather is more, that paper actually appeared, and proved disfamous name, having been borne by the historian of tinctly — although it proved nothing more that the the latter days of Rome—who boasts of some alliance author had learned to write his mother tongue. with a certain Lord Say and Seale, who was brought But Philip Yorke was not cut out for an author: and into notice by Jack Cade. Indeed his lordship, if we he knew it. He attended the courts closely, revising are to believe the historian, distinguished himself by and digesting his notes in the evening; and with actual his own misdeeds--inasmuch as he had. most traitor- practice in prospect, he took care to study elocution and ously corrupted the youth of the realm in erecting a oratory. He was at length called to the bar in his grammar-school, causing printing to be used, and, con- twenty-third year; and enjoying, as he did, the good trary to the king, his crown, and dignity, building a opinion of his former master the attorney, and of his paper-mill-talking of a noun and a verb, and such present patron Chief-Justice Parker, and recommended abominable words as no one can endure to hear.' But to all who knew him by uniform good conduct, it is not all this was gone by; and the little lad, whose family very surprising that he should have met with immediate could look back so far, was fain to get any education success. Still, many people were surprised; and on one that was going at a school kept by a dissenter in occasion at a circuit dinner, Mr Justice Powis, addressBethnal Green. At fourteen, his father desired to ing the flourishing junior, who was sitting nearly oppobring him up to the law; but his mother, who was in site to him, said, “ Mr Yorke, I cannot well account for the way of knowing what the law was, insisted upon your having so much business, considering how short a
some honester trade' being found for the boy. Still, time you have been at the bar ; I humbly conceive you when a desk was offered him in the office of a respect- must have published something; for, look you, do you able attorney in London, she did not persist in her see, there is scarcely a cause before the court but you scruples; and accordingly Philip Yorke mounted his are employed in it, on one side or other. I should desk seat in Brooke Street, Holborn.
therefore be glad to know, Mr Yorke, do you see, Here, young as he was, he set himself to business in whether this is the case ?” Yorke. “ Please ye, my lord, downright earnest, and very speedily attracted the at. I have some thoughts of publishing a book, but as yet tention of his master by his uncommon assiduity. But I have made no progress in it." The judge, smiling to he did not confine his labours to office hours. The great think that his conjecture was not quite without founobstacle in his way was a defective education, and this dation, became importunate to know the subject of the he set himself to remedy with zeal and perseverance. book; and Yorke, not being able to evade his inquiries, He was not contented with acquiring the necessary at last said, “I have had thoughts, my lord, of doing knowledge of law Latin : he would likewise read the Coke upon Littleton into verse; but I have gone a very classics. It is true he was never quite au fait of the little way into it." Powis. This is something new, prosody, and to his dying day was very shy of quota- , and must be very entertaining; and I beg you will
oblige us with a recital of a few of the verses." Mr five years after, Lord Talbot dying suddenly, the attor. Yorke long resisted; but finding that the judge would ney's gratis clerk became the Lord High Chancellor of not drop the subject, bethought himself that he could England. not get rid of it better than by compounding a specimen This wonderful fortune was not the result of natural of such a translation, and accordingly recited the fol- genius and occasional exertion, but of steady, welllowing verses, as the opening of his proposed work : directed, and persevering industry, assisted by gentle, “He that holdeth his lands in fee,
not to say insinuating manners, and a propriety of conNeed neither to quake nor to quiver,
duct and moral bearing, on which it has never been I humbly conceive; for look, do you see,
attempted to throw the slightest stigma. As chancellor, They are his and his heirs for ever."
he in a few years raised a reputation which no one pre*The learned judge took this for a serious attempt siding in the Court of Chancery has ever enjoyed, and to impress upon the youthful mind the great truths of which was not exceeded by that of the great Lord Manstenures, and meeting Mr Yorke a few months after field as a common law judge. The wisdom of his decrees wards in Westminster Hall, he inquired “how he was was the theme of universal eulogy. Such confidence was getting on with the translation of Littleton?”
there in his administration of justice, that the business Philip Yorke now determined to marry, and in his of the court was greatly increased ; and it is said that choice of a wife he exhibited his usual prudence. He more bills were filed under him than at any subsequent married a widow, with a good temper and a good join-time, although the property administered by the Court ture, and never had reason to regret it, though they both of Chancery has since been increased sevenfold. There lived to a good old age.
were still rare complaints of delays in Chancery, from In 1718, Chief-Justice Parker (afterwards Lord Mac- the intricate nature of the inquiries, the death of clesfield) became the lord chancellor, and Mr Yorke parties, and other inevitable obstructions to the final transferred himself to the Court of Chancery, where winding up of a suit, but by great exertion, arrears his patron distinguished him by a partiality, which were kept down, “and this is fondly looked back upon some suppose was the cause of the enmity that even as the golden age of equity.” tually precipitated his own downfall. Yorke, however, In 1754 he was created Earl of Hardwicke and Visproceeded on his usual plan—that is to say, he studied count Royston. This honour was desired by himself, hard. He did not take things as he found them, but but delayed as long as possible by his wife, from a fear made it his business to understand the origin, history, of the effect it might have on the mind and manners of and nature of the jurisdiction he had now to deal with their two daughters. Two years after this he resigned All this had its usual effect. Lord Macclesfield pre- the great seal into the king's hands, who received it vailed upon the Duke of Newcastle to send his protégé | from him with many expressions of regret and respect; into parliament. Yorke may have felt elated, but he and in 1764, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, after did not show it. He entered the House of Commons; having accumulated an immense fortune, and magnifiand no special occasion offering for a speech, he sat cently provided for all his relations and dependants, he there for several months, and then went on the Spring submitted to the common lot of mortality with the Circuit, without having opened his lips. At this time forethought and deliberation which distinguished his some personal squabbles that had been going on between character. the two great law officers of the crown, the solicitor The materials for the above sketch are collected from general and attorney-general, became so odious, that the recently-published fifth volume of Lord Campbell's one of them was turned about his business. What was 'Lives of the Lord Chancellors. We look upon this this to Yorke? The following letter, which he re- memoir to be one of the most usefully suggestive in the ceived upon attending the assizes at Dorchester, will series; and we throw it into the present form, in order to show:
fix the reader's attention upon the facts of the strange “SIR—The king having declared it to be his pleasure eventful history,' undisturbed by the episodes and rethat you be his solicitor-general in the room of Sir Wil- flections of biography. liam Thompson, who is already removed from the office, I with great pleasure obey his majesty's commands, to require you to hasten to town immediately upon receipt
EFFORTS AT SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT. hereof, in order to take that office upon you. I heartily SCARCELY a day elapses in which we do not receive one congratulate you upon this first instance of his majesty's or more documents connected with social progress. It favour, and am with great sincerity, sir, your faithful would appear that, all over the country, in small as well and obedient servant,
PARKER, C. as in large towns, efforts are making to establish and When presented to the king on his taking office, he sustain institutions calculated to improve the mental received the honour of knighthood.
condition of the people. In very many instances, these This happened when he was only twenty-nine years efforts make little or no newspaper appearance. Plans of age, and when he had been practising at the bar only are matured quietly, and carried into execution unobfour years; and the consequence of course was abun- trusively. So far as we can observe, a number of the dance of envy, hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness. institutions thus originating are professedly for mutual But he disarmed enmity by the gentleness of his man- improvement. The principle of employing hired lecner, and commanded confidence by his solid talents turers succeeds only in connection with large establishand unwearied industry.
ments: where only a handful of persons are concerned, In three years Sir Philip Yorke was promoted to be with little money to spare, the members are necessarily attorney-general; and in two years more came the im- driven on their own capabilities—those who have a peachment of his patron, Lord Macclesfield, who was little more knowledge than the others volunteering to denounced as 'a trafficker in judicial affairs, and a rob- act as instructors. We are hopeful that plans of this ber of widows and orphans. On this occasion the par. kind will answer every reasonable purpose. In every venu begged to be left out of the conduct of the prose- locality there are persons who possess sufficient ability cution, and obtained his request with difficulty ; but to become the advisers and teachers of others. that appears to be the utmost extent to which his A library is the point round which the members of prudence permitted his gratitude to go. On the fall of such institutions rally. An improvement society withLord Macclesfield, he attached himself devoutly to the out a library of some kind, would be like a system Duke of Newcastle, who was hardly gifted with com without a sun. Fortunately, a library is not difficult mon understanding, and did not possess the knowledge to commence; and when once begun, it is surprising of geography and history now acquired at a parish how soon a collection of books swells into importance. school. In 1733, Sir Philip Yorke was made Chief- A mutual improvement society lately begun by a few Justice of the Court of King's Bench, and elevated to ploughmen in Aberdeenshire, has already, we are told, the peerage by the title of Baron Hardwicke; and in a pretty fair collection of books, and is otherwise doing
well. And it could scarcely fail to do so. All that is paper bears a stamp, and this gives it wings to fly over wanted is a little energy, in union with a little common the whole country. Without expense, and with no sense, and any dozen of rural labourers may instruct other trouble than the tying of a piece of string, and themselves in a manner which would not discredit much the writing of a name, off it will go to any part of the higher circles. The value of a small library of miscel. United Kingdom, even to the obscurest hamlet. Hacklaneous literature in a country district-say no more nied and useless though it seem to the sender, with what than a hundred volumes, mostly of a cheap class delight is it received at its destination! A ‘Times,' cannot be too highly estimated. Vacant hours in the read and tossed aside in a London counting-room, is evening, formerly spent in listless idleness, or degrading new to the inhabitants of a village hundreds of miles amusements, are devoted to reading, and by and by distant, and is read with an avidity greater than that a sensible improvement in the morals of the neigh- with which it was received wet from the press. We bourhood is effected. A few days ago, when visiting would, then, endeavour to press on all persons who have the house of a parish clergyman in a mountainous, used newspapers at disposal, the propriety and benevothough agricultural district of Scotland, he mentioned lence of despatching them to parties who are not in the that a remarkable change for the better had taken way of seeing them. Little recommendation, however, place in the morals of the neighbourhood within the will be necessary. Most people would be glad to find an last twelve months, in consequence of a small library outlet for what becomes a nuisance in their parlours. which he had set on foot. Among the population, young What we must incite people to do, is to get up readingand old, there was already created an eager thirst for rooms in various parts of large towns, and also in small reading, which unconsciously banished tastes and habits towns and villages, to which used papers could be gra. of a meaner kind.
tuitously sent. Let the directors of these institutions On our way to the above district, we had occasion to make known their wants to all who are likely to assist pass through a small county town, where a reading-them-natives of small towns living in cities or abroad room on a peculiar plan had been established about a not to be forgotten—and there can be little doubt of year ago, and was now in a flourishing condition. The their success. way in which this useful engine of instruction had been We have seldom heard of a body of artisans doing brought into, and kept in existence, deserves notice. anything more likely to be useful to themselves than A small committee of management, who assumed the that which has just been undertaken by the operative institution and direction of the establishment, procured printers of Newcastle-on-Tyne. These individuals have the use of a public hall gratis; and this apartment was organised themselves into a society, to be called the already furnished with a table and forms. Newspapers Newcastle and Gateshead Typographical Mutual Imwere supplied from divers individuals, also gratis. Gen-provement Society; the object being the improvement tlemen at a distance, who take an interest in the under of the profession generally, but more particularly in taking, send London and other papers daily; many reference to the training of youth in a knowledge of the papers have come even from America and India, the rise and progress of the art of printing, as well as to gift of natives of the town; in short, the quantity of imbue them with a spirit of emulation to become more papers which are contributed is immense. On the day proficient workmen, to promote a better general knowof our visit to the room, from forty to fifty different ledge of all matters appertaining to the trade, and to papers-English, Scotch, Irish, Isle of Man, Jersey, cultivate the moral, intellectual, and social well-being British American, United States, Bombay, and Austra- of all parties connected with it. The ordinary memlian-lay on the table; the whole forming quite a feast bers of the institution are to consist of journeymen to the various readers. We were told that the average printers and apprentices ; honorary members are to be attendance daily is about fifty persons, most of whom, employers, and others connected with the press, and however, make two or more visits. The only expenses donors of books or money. Besides addresses on the incurred are for one or two newspapers, which it is con- history and peculiarities of the art of printing, likely sidered necessary to have regularly and promptly, along to improve the professional taste, lectures are to be with two magazines and a review, at half price. The delivered on generally scientific subjects. A library is providing of attendance, and fire in winter, with lights, formed for reference and instruction. forms also an unavoidable cause of outlay; but it is Every one must wish well to a scheme fraught with confidently expected that the voluntary contributions so much benefit to the parties interested. As soon as dropped into a box in the room, and money from the the prospectus of the society came under our notice, we sale of papers, will leave only a trifle to be raised by felt that such an association was needed, and we should subscription. Admission is free to all. The whole be glad to hear that it was imitated in Edinburgh and population are invited to come and read for nothing; other cities. According to existing arrangements, apand this is a boon of so much value, that one could prentices receive only technical instruction in the parreasonably have expected to hear of a greater attend ticular department to which they are put. They never ance than that above alluded to. The pleasures and hear a word of general principles ; they may grow up advantages of literary recreation, however, are every- in ignorance of every interesting fact connected with where slowly appreciated. Men accustomed to stand their profession; and even as journeymen, they may be thirty years in the street with their hands in their deficient in a knowledge of nice peculiarities in the pockets, do not all at once fall in with the fashion of art, which an improvement of taste would suggest. The reading newspapers or monthly periodicals. Everything scheming of handsome titles, of neatly-shaped pages in in the way of mental improvement requires time; and reference to size of type, and similar matters, form experhaps, after all, little is to be expected from the old or ceedingly suitable themes for general and mutual inmiddle-aged. The great thing is to prevent the young struction among compositors. As to pressmen, how from forming bad habits; and this, to all appearance, is few are able to distinguish niceties in colour! In printdone by the reading-room which we speak of. As one ing a book, one sheet will be made pale and another means of improvement usually leads to another, a dark, by which general uniformity in the volume is library has just been added, which will greatly promote destroyed. Among the high-skilled pressmen of Lonthe objects of the institution.
don a better knowledge prevails; but rarely have we The account of the above reading-room will suggest seen proficiency in this respect in any provincial printwhat may be accomplished in thousands of situations ing. It is this defect alone-a defect arising entirely where no place of resort exists, at least for popular from want of care and taste — that keeps provincial improvement. There must be an incalculable number typography inferior to that of London. To this imof newspapers, of one kind or other, wasted after perfection, and also to a general ignorance in the art of being read. Why should a single paper be destroyed, printing wood-engravings, we beg to direct the attention while there are millions of people mentally famish of the Newcastle Society. We cannot conclude our ing for want of any accessible literature ? Every news- | notice without expressing a hope that other operatives
besides printers may see the importance of associating bers of them, even in our own institution, are capable for professional improvement.
of advancing to the regions of the higher culture. Let of the value of, and necessity for, mechanics' insti- no man, therefore, be abashed by difficulties. If he tutions, as respects general elementary instruction, we once stir himself under them, they will, as they have have a striking testimony in the report just published ever done, vanish away, and leave him free to advance of the Mechanics' Institution of Huddersfield. This onward. " Who art thou that saith there is a lion in useful establishment is attended by 778 students, pretty the way? Rise, sluggard, and slay the lion! The road nearly all of whom are operatives, or lads belonging to has to be travelled.” factories. The great business of the institution seems The classes for arithmetic, writing, grammar, and to be the conducting of classes; but there are, besides, logic, design, ornamental and mechanical drawing, eloa library, to which 500 members resort, a reading-room, cution, music, French, German, geography, and history, weekly lectures, and an annual soirée; the members are reported to be all doing useful service. An institugenerally enjoy likewise an annual cheap trip by rail- tion performing so much good has our best wishes. way, on which occasion there are some festivities. The An attempt at another species of improvement in main thing, however, as we have said, are the classes, the condition of operative bodies is now making in which are held in the evening; nor, from the account different parts of England. This consists in clubbing before us, are these means of improvement unnecessary. means to purchase articles at wholesale prices, with a What a revelation of the illiterate condition of a busy view to distribution among members. Thus we see manufacturing town in England, is afforded in the fol- proposals to establish a co-operative corn-mill, lowing candid statement :
operative baking establishment, the co-operative pur• The education of the working-classes in the town chase of groceries, and so on. No one can find any fault and neighbourhood has always been kept steadily in with these arrangements. The higher classes club for view by the committee, as the first and most important various purposes, why should not mechanics ? Conobject of their high trust; and the large extent to which sidering the immense sum in the aggregate paid as their exertions and appeals in this direction have been wages to the operative classes—as, for example, the responded to by the working-classes, is regarded as an large sum which is distributed weekly in Glasgow or augury of much practical good, and of true success for Manchester-it has always appeared to us a remarkthe future. Whilst the committee, however, are rejoiced able thing that there was so little clubbing of means for at the regular and frequent attendance of a large por- economic objects. We fear that a too common cause of tion of the members, they cannot but regret that so the phenomenon is the want of a general knowledge of many uneducated young men who enter the classes are business among the working-classes, also a want of deterred from continuing in them on account of the settled purpose or steadiness, and perhaps a want of difficulties which beset them at the commencement, and confidence in each other. Having often experienced who leave them in utter despair of achieving the mas- the deceitfulness of persons who pushed themselves fortery of the commonest rudiments of learning. There ward to act as managers and treasurers, they may well are the names of a large number of such men on the dread a recurrence of financial disaster. books, who, after paying for the first fortnight in ad In 'The Herald of Co-operation,' a paper which apvance, never appear again in the financial columns. pears to be the organ of co-operative principles, allusion These persons, in passing through the probationary is made to a plan for bettering the condition of the class, where they are examined by the secretary, are working-classes, described by us a year or two ago in for the most part totally deficient even in elementary connexion with the proceedings of a Parisian houseknowledge, and many of them are unable either to read painter. This plan consists in workmen having a pecuor write. Their average age is from eighteen to twenty- niary interest in the establishment to which they are five. The committee, fully alive to the necessities of this attached. Instead of depending altogether on wages, class, have long ago provided separate teachers in the they receive a share of the profits, much on the prinreading department to meet the emergency, and appor- ciple pursued in the pastoral regions of Scotland, where tioned a separate room for their exclusive use during the shepherds are paid partly by the profits derived the hours of their meeting; and there are other elemen- from sheep, their own property, which mingle with the tary classes, from simple addition to the compound rules flocks of their employer. We can conceive that plans in arithmetic, and like elementary classes for writing. of this kind might answer every desirable purpose in Notwithstanding all this, however, there are some men various professions, though, according to the existing who, conscious of their deficiency, and of the insur- laws of partnership in England, it would be difficult, mountable hindrance which ignorance presents to all perhaps impossible, to carry them into execution. We the advancements and noble immunities of life, cannot are less sanguine of the success of schemes of co-operabe persuaded to devote themselves to a necessary cul- tion in trade, where the partners are all to be manual ture. And whilst the committee would sympathise with labourers with a portion of capital. In a ready-money their unhappy condition, and regret the hard circum- business, as in selling bread, the obstacles to success are stances which may have operated against their educa- insignificant; but when we come to extensive concerns, tion in early life, yet still they feel that they should where capital must be expended and returns waited for, scarcely be discharging their duty, if they did not offer in some cases for years, the chances are greatly against them a word of friendly and faithful admonition. They the project turning out satisfactorily. In the article would say-You have never given a fair trial of your treating on this subject in the above paper, no allowance own strength against the armed power of knowledge. is made for possible losses or delays in paying debts. You have given up the contest the moment you entered This is a matter, however, which requires serious conthe lists, without so much as meeting your antagonist, sideration. In the conducting of most businesses, and defying him to the hazard of a battle. This is profits are slowly realised, quickly as they may appear neither brave nor manly. Who gave knowledge the to be effected. A tradesman, on making up a balanceimmense power she possesses, and armed her with those sheet at the end of a year, perhaps finds that he has swords of faming fire which terrify you so much? It made L.500 of profit during the past twelve months ; was the mind and industry of man. And are not you but that, strangely enough, he cannot take more than also a man-having the same average faculties of all L.10 or L.20 of cash from the concern. The profits are other men ? What one man can do, another man-and, all in figures—so much for debts owing to him, and so generally speaking, all men-can accomplish. It is the much for accumulated stock. Debts, if not bad, come will, and not the capacity, which is so frequently want- in of course in time; but the tendency to an increase of ing in the fight for learning; and the experience of the stock is a terrible drawback on money returns. The committee in connexion with the working-classes will stock may be in goods, or mechanism wherewith to justify them in saying, that few amongst them who carry on the trade ; but in any form, it is equally obhave the will lack the power to learn, and that num-structive of the principle of taking and dividing money
profits periodically. It is from this cause that so many ingly monotonous and tedious; the only amusement persons in trade are ruined by paying out partners. The being an occasional shot either at birds—which, if they bulk of the assets being in stock, the proportion belong- fell, were lost in the woods, growing in wild luxuri. ing to a retiring partner needs to be paid in cash ; and ance to the water's edge—or at a lazy alligator basking the struggle to carry on business after paying this cash, in the sun on a bank of mud, and which, if the ball which is effected by entering into serious obligations, struck his impervious hide, rolled over and over like a often leads to bankruptcy. It is quite possible to become log, till he sunk beneath the stream and disappeared. insolvent, and yet possess assets nominally worth more The heat by day was intense; for although the river is than would pay every one twenty shillings a-pound. very deep, it is very narrow, and so choked with foliage
All this we mention in a friendly way to bodies of on both sides, that a breath of agitated air is an unworking-men who feel inclined to attempt co-operative known luxury. Then, although the heights were cooler, trading. The subject is one of great difficulty, not only it was impossible to meet with a vacant spot to take in consequence of its novelty, but the state of the law, exercise; and it may be imagined that three days and and other circumstances. Our belief, on the whole, is, two nights of such purgatory was irksome in the exthat operatives, as a class, are not prepared to enter on treme. projects involving a considerable amount of capital, The spot where our canoe was now hauled up on the enterprise, and risk. But there is no reason why they muddy bank commanded a beautiful view, considering should not prepare themselves for taking advantage of it was in a wilderness, and flat. On the opposite side of any reasonable scheme of this nature which may by and the river nature had formed for herself a perfect park ; by offer. With this end, it is desirable in the means the velvet lawns sloped and undulated as if they had while that three things should be steadily kept in view, been laid out by elaborate art, whilst the majestic trees, and upon this there can be no mistake. Every man centuries old, . now singly stood, and now in groups, proposing to rise out of his sphere requires, first, to and it only required a stretch of fancy to picture an possess the general instruction and intelligence which old baronial hall in the distance, to transport one in would adapt him for performing the function of a imagination from a wilderness where possibly the foot partner; second, he requires to save and accumulate a of man had never trodden, to a country-seat in dear certain amount of capital, the whole of which he must old England ; so true is it that all the beautiful designs be prepared to peril or lie out of for a time; and third, of art may be traced to nature for their model. he requires to train himself in those habits of self-denial It was during our rest at this place that I nearly lost which would insure his conservation of whatever ad- the number of my mess :' the Indians were busied vantages fell to his share. All working-men who possess making a fire of dried sticks to roast a guana I had these three requisites are ready to become partners in a shot, and I determined to take advantage of their abco-operative trading system; and if their plans be well sence from the canoe to make my toilette.
I was matured, we wish them speed. Those who do not, leaning over the side of the boat, bathing my head in and we fear the bulk of the operative body are in this the rapid stream, when the canoe suddenly tilted with condition-must wait. Self-culture, economy, steadi- my weight upon her gunwale, and losing my equiliness—how much is kept back in the social world in brium, I plunged headlong into the river. How wonconsequence of your lingering delays !
derful is the flight of thought! I could not have been
more than a few seconds under water, and yet in that A TRIP ACROSS THE ISTHMUS OF DARIEN. abundant, but that, about a fortnight before, a brave
brief space I recollected not only that alligators were I was attached to a ten-gun brig, on the West India officer had lost his life by falling into this same river, station, when we were ordered to Chagre with des- and getting, as was supposed, into a strong under-curpatches for Panama. Chagre was a miserable, dirty rent, was hurried away by it, and unable to rise to the village, which, however, derived some importance from surface. What an age it seemed before I shook my head being at that time the starting-place from the Atlantic above the water; and when I did so, I found the stream to Panama, and also the port at which specie and goods had already swept me a considerable distance from the from Panama, destined for England viâ the West Indies, canoe, and more into the middle of the current. Cour. were embarked,
age!' shouted the captain of the boat's crew, The despatches with which we were charged were * Are there any alligators ?' I cried. not only important, but urgent; and being out of the Oh no,' said he, laughing encouragingly; and in a regular course of the mail, we could find no courier at few minutes I reached the bank, and, by a desperate Chagre to convey them to Panama; and as I had a effort, threw myself on a bed of mud, from which I great desire to cross the isthmus, I volunteered my ser- emerged darker in hue than our sable boatmen. vices as courier, and made arrangements for starting on At about nine in the evening we arrived at Cruses, the following morning. Fortunately I found at Chagre the place where the water-carriage ceases ; and proa merchant who was also desirous to cross. He was an ceeding to the 'head inn,' I pleased myself with visions exceedingly pleasant Scotchman, who had been to Pa- of a good dinner, and a refreshing night's rest, prenama several times, and spoke the Columbian Spanish' paratory to the ride of thirty miles onward to Panama like a native.
on the day following. Alas that our waking visions We engaged a large canoe, the after-part of which should so often prove no less illusory than our dreams was covered by a caravan-roof, composed of wicker-work of the night! and stout grass mats. This formed an excellent defence The head inn was not a dwelling for either feasting from the sun by day and the heavy dew by night; and or repose: the room into which I was shown to rest had it not been for the mosquitoes, which invaded our for the night was furnished with two grass hamsnuggery like an army of trumpeters, singing in our mocks, suspended from the rafters, and exactly reears, and stinging us right and left, we should have been sembled a large net made from the tough variegated comfortable enough. As it was, we smoked, to endea- grasses of South America, the meshes being about the vour to choke them; and by laughing at our troubles, size, and the network about the strength and subwe made them lighter. In truth we had great need of stance, of an ordinary cabbage-net. I stretched myself all our philosophy, for the current ran so strong, that in one of these, and had just begun to enter the realms the four stout Indians who composed our boat's crew of Somnus, when I was startled by the shrill crowing of a were obliged to abandon the paddle, and pole up the cock within a yard of my ear. This was followed by an. river the whole distance of sixty miles ; consequently it other, and another crow, and anon half-a-dozen throats was not until the afternoon of the third day that we were screaming defiance at one and the same moment. landed to refresh ourselves on the bank, a few miles The noise in so confined a place was absolutely painful, below the point where the part of the journey by water and jumping out of the hammock, I discovered that terminates. Thus far the journey had been exceed there were eight fighting cocks, each tied by the leg,