Page images
PDF
EPUB

showing them that the real cause of their quarrel had M. Gant, who knew nothing of these vague rumours, been the want of mutual trust and confidence. “And bore his triumph with great moderation. Indeed, now, children,' said he, as he concluded, “take an old with his usual simplicity, he rather missed the appleman's advice-quarrel no more, and be ever more ready woman, and certainly thought more of the happiness to believe good of one another than evil.'

enjoyed by Louis and Angélique than of her defeat. Promising to follow this advice, and once more When the wedding took place, he was the spirit of the warmly thanking him for his kindness, the lovers now whole party: he acted as Louis's witness at the civil left the scrivener to his own reflections. Scarcely contract, gave the bride away in the church, settled were they gone, when M. Gant, who felt in a very un- every doubtful point of etiquette, and with Sergeant dignified hurry to impart the news to Sergeant Huron, Huron, who had been invited out of compliment to him, locked up his box before the usual time, and hastened sang such witty songs after dinner, that everybody was to the abode of his trusty friend, who, listening to his charmed. The scrivener himself was astonished, and prolix narrative with profound gravity, declared it was somewhat ashamed; he was even heard by his old an admirable bit of campaigning, and that the scrivener friend wondering what had induced a philosopher like had displayed the tactics of a general.

him to meddle in a silly love affair ; but, to say the Although she was not at her stall when Louis and truth, he was quite delighted. Angélique had their interview in the scrivener's abode, The married life of Louis and Angélique proved the applewoman had somehow or other obtained a more happy than their courtship. They treasured up knowledge of the fact. The next day she saw, as the words of their old friend, and acted towards each usual, M. Gant enter his box in the morning, but with other with confidence and truth. M. Gant, whose inthe addition of a large parcel, which he carried under firmities increase with age, has been induced, not to his arm; and a strange rumbling noise, as though M. abandon his box--nothing earthly could make him do Gant felt restless, and was walking to and fro in his that, but to take his meals with them, in return for mansion, followed his entrance ; it, however, gradually which he most zealously teaches their children how to subsided; and before long, he issued forth completely read and write, so that they will most probably be able transformed, clad in a suit of rusty black, with a new in time to indite their own love-letters. Sergeant Huron hat and a white cravat. The applewoman's heart is still alive, but, as the scrivener observes in a melanfailed her : she had forebodings of a defeat. After choly tone, growing rather weak-minded—a remark carefully locking his door, M. Gant walked at a stately which the worthy sergeant sometimes applies in turn to pace towards the washerwoman's shop. Whether by his old friend. The cobbler has retired from business ; chance, or because she was aware of his visit, Angé- the shed has been demolished, and a shop, occupied by lique was out of the way. The scrivener gravely asked Louis's brother, erected where it once stood. Marianne for her mother, and found the good lady up to her eyes is married to the young tailor. The washerwoman is as in soap-water. She looked upon him with some sur industrious as ever. We forgot mentioning that, as an prise, opened her eyes when he spoke of a private instance of the diminished faculties of his friend, Serinterview, inwardly wondered if he wanted to give her geant Huron has informed Angélique that M. Gant his custom, and wiping her hands and arins in a is convinced the applewoman will soon make her revery wet apron, led the way into the snall back par- appearance in the court. This he believes on philosolour. Here M. Gant gravely expounded to her the phical grounds, averring that he has been too long happy nature of his errand, relating all concerning the attach- and undisturbed. Of course Sergeant Huron is above ment of Louis and Angélique, and, in the name of his this learned nonsense ; but he has also informed Angéyoung friend, asking for her sanction to their attach-lique, from whom he can conceal nothing, that, after all

, ment. The washerwoman heard him, and was asto- he should not wonder if it were to turn out true; for nished. What could make Angélique wish to marry ? since his friend mentioned the subject, he has three She had always thought that if a woman washed, and times beheld in a dream the applewoman seated at her ironed, and worked hard, she had little time to think stall. But as six months have already passed away of marriage : so she had found since her husband's since then, it is somewhat doubtful if she will ever make death. Nevertheless, she was not unreasonable, and her appearance. declared that as Louis was a very honest, industrious young man, she should raise no objection to the match,

THE SILVER-MINERS OF PERU. if her daughter was bent upon it.

On the same evening the whole matter was settled. The number of Indian lives sacrificed in the mines of In the presence of her mother, of Louis's parents, whom Peru, during the last three centuries, is estimated by the young man had consulted long ago, and of M. some writers at nine millions! At the close of the second Gant, Angélique was accordée, or granted to Louis, who century of slavery, an attempt was made by the natives presented her with a gold ring and a handsome pair of to shake off the brutal yoke of the Spaniards ; and in earrings. The marriage was fixed to take place at the 1780 an Inca was actually elected, in whose person, it end of a month. The young couple were to reside in was fondly hoped, those glories of the old emperors were the court; and, to her mother's satisfaction, it was to revive which had been quenched in blood by Pizarro. agreed that Angélique should continue to work with The attempt was unfortunate, and the patriot king and her.

his family were executed with circumstances of terrific The applewoman was now fairly vanquished. Truth barbarity. Another effort cost a hundred thousand and M. Gant had triumphed: Louis and Angélique lives, including the slaughter of the whole inhabitants of were reconciled: and even the young tailor proved a town—twenty-two thousand men, women, and children penitent, and humbled himself to Marianne, who gra- |-by the insurgents. Then came the rising of the Creoles ciously received him once more into her favour. The themselves (the descendants of Europeans), and the war scrivener's spiteful little enemy could bear this po of independence; in which the Indians took, generally, longer; her heart was stung every day by some fresh the popular side, although, when an opportunity occurred, insult; she declared that the court was in a league they massacred indiscriminately all white men--vowing against her; and in order to be revenged on them all at not to leave a white dog or a white fowl alive, and in their once, she went off one morning with her stall and her fantastic hatred, even scraping the whitewash from their apples, and doubtless settled in some very remote walls! The war of independence overthrew the Spanish quarter, for she has never since been heard of. Some dominion, and established a republic; but although the old cronies of hers, with whom she constantly quarrelled Indians still remained the Pariahs of the country where while in the court, soon missed her very much, for she they were once masters, their condition and prospects was the great newsmonger of the place; and they threw were, and are, greatly changed by the results of the out dark hints against the scrivener, even averring that contest. They learned the art of war, and the use of he had caused her to be spirited away.

gunpowder and its manufacture ; and every man who

was armed by the belligerents, preserves his musket, which he becomes weary of after an hour's possession. and keeps it religiously in some secret recess, biding his I once saw an Indian purchase a cloak of fine cloth, for time. The Creoles have not been taught wisdom by the which he paid ninety-two dollars. He then repaired to fate of the Spaniards. The republicans are as tyran- a neighbouring tavern, where he drank till he became nical as the monarchists ; and the day will assuredly intoxicated, and then, staggering into the street, he fell come when the trampled Indians will writhe up in their down, and rolled in the kennel. On rising, and discoverfrantic despair, and deluge the country with blood ing that his cloak was besmeared with mud, he threw anew,

it off, and left it in the street, for any one who might In that day their chances of success will be consider- choose to pick it up. Such acts of reckless prodigality able. With arms, military habits, and, strange as it are of daily occurrence. A watchmaker in Cerro de may seem, treasure, their still overwhelming numbers Pasco informed me that one day an Indian came to his will tell upon their tyrants; and it would be hazardous shop to purchase a gold watch. He showed him one, to say that Peru will not, at some early period, be once observing that the price was twelve gold ounces (two more, for however short a period, under the govern- hundred and four dollars), and that it would probably ment of the Incas. Under such circumstances, the cha- be too dear for him. The Cholo paid the money, and racter of the people presents a subject of the deepest took the watch; then, after having examined it for a interest; and our readers will perhaps thank us for few minutes, he dashed it on the ground, observing that directing them to the best recent authority, the travels the thing was of no use to him. When the Indian miner of Dr Tschudi in Peru.* Three hundred years of possesses money, he never thinks of laying by a part of oppression, we are informed by this author, have im- it, as neither he nor any of his family feel the least ampressed their melancholy stamp upon the feelings and bition to improve their miserable way of life. With manners of the people. They are upsocial, gloomy, them, drinking is the highest of all gratifications, and in and meditative; they are fond of dark colours in their the enjoyment of the present moment they lose sight dress; and though indifferent to most other things, of all considerations for the future. Even those Cholos the wild sad wail of the reed - clarionet draws tears who come from distant parts of the country to share in from their eyes. They drink great quantities of intoxi- the rich harvest of the mines of Cerro de Pasco, return cating liquors, and chew habitually a substance called to their homes as poor às when they left them, and with chicha--answering in some respects to tobacco, and in manners and morals vastly deteriorated.' others to opium; but notwithstanding, they live to a The employers of the labourers, whether Europeans great age. Instances are not rare of their attaining or Creoles, it would appear, are neither more amiable to one hundred and twenty or one hundred and thirty nor more rational. They are called mineros. "The years, and our author himself knew an Indian who majority of the mineros are descendants of the old had at that time attained the goodly age of one hundred Spanish families, who, at an early period, became posand forty-two. This patriarch had regaled himself on sessors of the mines, whence they derived enormous chicha for ninety years, without ever tasting a drop of wealth, which most of them dissipated in prodigal exwater, and from his boyhood had masticated coca at travagance. At the present time, only a very few of least three times a day. It is likewise remarkable that the mineros are rich enough to defray, from their own these aged persons have always fine black hair, which resources, the vast expense attending the operations of with the Indians never turns white, and very seldom mining. They consequently raise the required money even gray. They likewise retain their teeth to the last. by loans from the capitalists of Lima, who require inThe silver mines are worked, and must always be so, terest of 100 or 120 per cent., and, moreover, insist on by Indians. The following is Dr Tschudi's account of having bars of silver at a price below standard value. the labourers :

To these hard conditions, together with the custom * The working-class of miners is composed of Indians, that has been forced upon the miners of paying their who throng to Cerro de Pasco from all the provinces, labourers in metal, at times when it is very abundant, far and near, especially when boyas are expected. At may be traced the cause of the miserable system of times, when the mines are not very productive, the mine-working practised in Cerro de Pasco. To liquidate number of Indian labourers amounts to between three his burdensome debts, the minero makes his labourers and four thousand; but when there is a great supply of dig as much ore as possible from the mine, without any metal, the ordinary number of mine-workers is more precautions being taken to guard against accidents. than tripled. The Indians labour with a degree of pa- The money-lenders, on the other hand, have no other tient industry, which it would be vain to expect from security for the recovery of their repayment than the European workmen similarly circumstanced. "This ob- promise of the minero ; and a failure of the usual proservation applies to the hapires in particular. Content duce of a mine exposes them to the risk of losing the with wretched food, and still more wretched lodging, money they have advanced. the hapire goes through his hard day's work, partaking • Under these circumstances, it can scarcely be exof no refreshment but coca, and at the end of the week pected that the character and habits of the minero (deduction being made for the food, &c. obtained on should qualify him to take a high rank in the social credit from the minero), he possibly finds himself in scale. His insatiable thirst for wealth continually possession of only a single dollar.' This, or whatever prompts him to embark in new enterprises, whereby he sum he possesses, he usually spends on intoxicating frequently loses in one what he gains in another. After liquors on Sundays and other holidays, on which occa a mine has been worked without gain for a series of sions he is rude and quarrelsome, and commits fearful years, an unexpected boya probably occurs, and an acts of mischief-intellectual darkness here, as among immense quantity of silver may be extracted. But a the railway excavators of England, producing excesses minero retiring on the proceeds of a boya is an event which are a scandal to the general community.

of rare occurrence. A vain hope of increasing fortune •When an unusually abundant produce of the mines prompts him to risk the certain for the uncertain ; throws extra payment into the hands of the mine and the result frequently is, that the once prosperous labourers, they squander their money with the most minero has nothing to bequeath to his children but a absurd extravagance, and are excellent customers to mine heavily burdened with debt. The persevering the European dealers in dress and other articles of ardour of persons engaged in mining is truly remarkluxury. Prompted by a ludicrous spirit of imitation, able. Unchecked by disappoir pent, they pursue the the Indian, in his fits of drunkenness, will purchase career in which they have embarked. Even when ruin costly things which he can have no possible use for, and appears inevitable, the love of money subdues the warn

ings of reason, and hope conjures up, from year to year, * Travels in Peru during the Years 1838–1842. By Dr J. J. Von visionary pictures of riches yet to come. Tschudi. Translated from the German by Thomasina Ross. Lon.

*Joined to this infatuated pursuit of the career once don: Bogue. 1847.

entered on, an inordinate passion for cards and dice

contributes to ruin many of the mineros of Cerro de daughter, perhaps, of a mine-labourer, could bring such Pasco. In few other places are such vast sums staked a dowry to her husband; but the following revelation at the gaming-table, for the superabundance of silver will account for the circumstance, and if viewed with feeds that national vice of the Spaniards and their de- reference to the probable destinies of the natives which scendants. From the earliest hours of morning, cards we have hinted at, will be considered of importance. and dice are in requisition. The mine-owner leaves his "Notwithstanding the enormous amount of wealth which silver stores, and the shopkeeper forsakes his counter, the mines of Peru have already yielded, and still conto pass a few hours every day at the gaming-table; tinue to yield, only a very small portion of the silver and card-playing is the only amusement in the best veins have been worked. It is a well-known fact, that houses of the town. The mayordomos, after being the Indians are aware of the existence of niany rich engaged in the mines throughout the whole day, as- mines, the situation of which they will never disclose semble with their comrades in the evening round the to the whites, nor to the detested mestizos. Heretofore, gaming-table, from which they often do not rise until mining has been to them all toil and little profit, and six in the morning, when the bell summons them to it has bound them in chains from which they will not resume their subterraneous occupation. They not un easily emancipate themselves. For centuries past the frequently gamble away their share of a boya before knowledge of some of the richest silver mines has been, any indication of one is discernible in the mine.' with inviolable secrecy, transmitted from father to son.

The enormous prizes, however, which individuals All endeavours to prevail on them to divulge these sometimes stumble on in this great lottery, serve as a secrets have hitherto been fruitless. In the village of temptation which can hardly be resisted. For instance, Huancayo, there lived, a few years ago, two brothers, 'the owner of the mines of San Jose requested the vice- Don Jose and Don Pedro Yriarte, two of the most emiroy Castro, whose friend he was, to become godfather nent mineros of Peru. Having obtained certain intellito his first child. The viceroy consented, but at the gence that in the neighbouring mountains there existed time fixed for the christening, some important affair of some veins of pure silver, they sent a young man, their state prevented him from quitting the capital, and he agent, to endeavour to gain further information on the sent the vice-queen to officiate as his proxy. To render subject. The agent took up his abode in the cottage of honour to his illustrious guest, the owner of the San a shepherd, to whom, however, he gave not the slightest Jose mines laid down a triple row of silver bars along intimation of the object of his mission. After a little the whole way (and it was no very short distance) from time, an attachment arose between the young man and his house to the church. Over this silver pavement the shepherd's daughter, and the girl promised to disthe vice-queen accompanied the infant to the church, close to her lover the position of a very rich mine. On where it was baptised. On her return, her munificent a certain day, when she was going out to tend her host presented to her the whole of the silver road, in sheep, she told him to follow her at a distance, and to token of his gratitude for the honour she had conferred notice the spot where she would let fall her manta ; by on him.' But the mineros were not always allowed to turning up the earth on that spot, she assured him he enjoy their wealth. ‘Don Jose Salcedo, a poor Spaniard, would find the mouth of a mine. The young man did who dwelt in Puno, was in love with a young Indian as he was directed, and after digging for a little time, girl, whose mother promised, on condition of his marry- he discovered a mine of considerable depth, containing ing her daughter, that she would show him a rich silver rich ore. Whilst busily engaged in breaking out the mine. Salcedo fulfilled the condition, obtained posses- metal, he was joined by the girl's father, who expressed sion of the mine, and worked it with the greatest suc- himself delighted at the discovery, and offered to assist

The report of his wealth soon roused the envy of him. After they had been at work for some hours, the the Count de Lemos, then viceroy of Peru, who sought old Indian handed to his companion a cup of chicha, to possess himself of the mine. "By his generosity and which the young man thankfully accepted. But he had benevolence, Salcedo had become a great favourite with no sooner tasted the liquor than he felt ill, and he soon the Indian population, and the viceroy took advantage became convinced that poison had been mixed with the of this circumstance to accuse him of high treason, on beverage. He snatched up the bag containing the metal the ground that he was exciting the Indians against the he had collected, mounted his horse, and with the utmost Spanish government. Salcedo was arrested, tried, and speed gallopped off to Huancayo. There he related to condemned to death. Whilst he was in prison, he Yriarte all that had occurred, described as accurately begged to be permitted to send to Madrid the documents as he could the situation of the mine, and died on the relating to his trial, and to appeal to the mercy of the following night. Active measures were immediately king. He proposed, if the viceroy would grant his set on foot to trace out the mine, but without effect. request, that he would pay him the daily tribute of a The Indian and all his family had disappeared, and the bar of silver, from the time when the ship left the port mine was never discovered.' of Callao with the documents, until the day of her re Before closing this interesting book, we must present turn. When it is recollected that at that period the a view of the great mining city referred to in the above voyage from Callao to Spain occupied from twelve to extracts. Having traversed the long and difficult route sixteen months, some idea may be formed of the enor- from the capital of Peru, by way of the wild Cordillera mous wealth of Salcedo and his mine. The viceroy to the level heights of Bombon, and from thence having rejected this proposition, ordered Salcedo to be hanged, ascended the steep, winding acclivities of the mountain and set out for Puno to take possession of the mine.* chain of Olachin, the traveller suddenly beholds in the

• But this cruel and unjust proceeding failed in the distance a large and populous city. This is the celeattainment of its object. As soon as Salcedo's death- brated Cerro de Pasco, famed throughout the world for doom was pronounced, his mother-in-law, accompanied its rich silver mines. It is situated in 10 degrees 48 by a number of relations and friends, repaired to the minutes south latitude, and 76 degrees 23 minutes west mine, flooded it with water, destroyed the works, and longitude, and at the height of 13,673 feet above the sea closed up the entrance so effectually, that it was impos- level. It is built in a basin-shaped hollow, encircled sible to trace it out. They then dispersed; but some by barren and precipitous rocks. Between these rocks, of them, who were afterwards captured, could not be difficult winding roads or paths lead down to the city, induced, either by promises or tortures, to reveal the which spreads out in irregular divisions, surrounded on position of the mouth of the mine, which to this day all sides by little lagunes, or swamps. The pleasing remains undiscovered. All that is known about it is, impression created by the first view of Cerro de Pasco that it was situated in the neighbourhood of Cerro de from the heights is very greatly modified on entering Laycacota and Cananchari.'

the town. Crooked, narrow, and dirty streets are bor. It may appear strange that a poor Indian girl, the dered by rows of irregularly-built houses; and miserable

Indian huts abut close against well-built dwellings, * The date of Salcedo's death was May 1669.

whose size and structure give a certain European cha

cess.

racter to the city when viewed from a distance. Without was that of gentie persuasion; her manual, the New bestowing a glance on the busy throng which circulates Testament. Virtue is ever respected by the most disthrough the streets and squares, the varied styles of solute; and Sarah had the satisfaction of seeing that she the buildings sufficiently indicate to the observer how was not only listened to, but obeyed. With no other many different classes of people have united together to power than kindness, she ruled the wild democracy found, in the tropics, and on the very confines of the with greater effect than if armed with all the terrors of perpetual snow, a city of such magnitude, and of so the law. motley an aspect. The wild barrenness of the sur Warming as she went on in her self-imposed duties, rounding scenery, and the extreme cold of the rigorous she gave up one entire working.day in the week, besides climate, the remote and solitary position of the city, Sunday, to the prison, thus devotedly sacrificing no inall denote that one common bond of union must have considerable portion of her means. Having brought drawn together the diversified elements which compose the prisoners into a kind of subjection, she divided them the population of Cerro de Pasco. And so it really is. into classes, and taught them reading and writing; and In this inhospitable region, where the surface of the afterwards, in order to keep them in useful employment, soil produces nothing, nature has buried boundless introduced work of different kinds. The capital with stores of wealth in the bowels of the earth, and the which she commenced these handicraft labours was no silver mines of Cerro de Pasco have drawn people from more than thirty shillings, which she had received in all parts of the world to one point, and for one object.' charitable subscriptions; but with this she procured

some useful materials, such as straw for hats, and cloth

for caps, and the sale of the manufactured articles kept SARAH MARTIN.

up the stock. Through these means many female priIn the last number of the 'Edinburgh Review'-one of soners were taught to sew in the prison, and general the best which has appeared for some time—an article industrious habits were created among all. occurs on the subject of “Prison Visiting,' interesting

But Sarah's labours did not end here. She caused from the reference it makes to a case of singular and the adoption of Sunday services in the prison, and she unostentatious benevolence. The history of this case, of being allowed to minister to the spiritual wants of

had now the inestimable privilege, as she considered it, which is quite refreshing, from the quantity of good the inmates on a comprehensive scale. For some time done in comparison with the little said of it by the she read printed sermons, but afterwards delivered principal party concerned, may be given as follows. discourses of her own composition, as more directly

About thirty years ago, the prison of Yarmouth in applicable to her purpose. We are not told to what Norfolk was in the most wretched condition. The sect Sarah belonged, and are therefore unable to gratify prisoners spent their time in gaming, swearing, fight- curiosity on that important particular. As far as we ing, and everything else that was abominable. There have the means of judging, she was a Christian after was no work, no schoolmaster, no clergyman. No divine have harassed either herself or her hearers with doc

the manner of the evangelists; nor does she appear to service was performed on Sunday, nor was any pecu- trinal difficulties or ecclesiastical disputes. She spoke liar attention paid to that day. The whole place was expressly to the understanding and feelings; and, like filthy, confined, and unhealthy, and the inmates were the good vicar of Wakefield in similar circumstances, infested with vermin and skin diseases. All this, it described, in simple and affecting language, the superior would appear, was disregarded by the town authorities, advantages of virtue over vice, of good over bad conand things continued to be as bad as possible till 1819. duct, along with the hopes of a blessed immortality enIn that year a woman was confined in the prison for hav- joyed by those who follow the injunctions of the gospel. ing cruelly maltreated her child; and with the view of Speaking of the efficacy of these prelections, the re

viewer observes :- The cold, laboured eloquence which exercising a beneficial influence over the culprit, a pious boy-bachelors are authorised by custom and constituted female in the neighbourhood bethought herself of visit- authority to inflict upon us—the dry liusks and chips ing her. The name of this excellent though obscure of divinity which they bring forth from the dark female was Sarah Martin. She was an orphan, resided recesses of theology (as it is called) of the Fathers, or with her widowed grandmother at Caister, and now, at of the middle ages-sink into utter worthlessness by twenty-eight years of age, gained a livelihood by sew.

the side of the jail addresses of this poor uneducated ing. She had received only a plain education, and seamstress.', of whom was her congregation usually was no further prepared for undertaking the office of steamboat brought to reap a harvest at some country

composed ? 'Pert London pickpockets, whom a cheap instructor than by the experience she had acquired festival; boors, whom ignorance and distress led into from teaching a class in a Sunday school.

thefts ; depraved boys, who picked up a precarious liveIt will seem very strange that a female with so little lihood amongst the chances of a seaport town; sailors, social influence, and entirely from the promptings of who had committed assaults in the boisterous hilarity her own heart, should have thought of reforming the consequent upon a discharge with a paid-up arrear of jail of Yarmouth; yet such was the fact. Having fre. wages; servants, of both sexes, seduced by bad company quent occasion to pass the prison, she was shocked with into the commission of crimes against their masters ; what she heard of its condition; and animated with profligate women, who had added assault or theft to the the hope of reclaiming the unfortunate woman above ordinary vices of a licentious life; smugglers; a few alluded to, she ventured, with the approval of her game-law criminals; and paupers, transferred from a grandmother, on making her first visit. Considering workhouse, where they had been initiated into crime, the character of the place, and of the individuals con- to a jail, where their knowledge was perfected. Such fined in it, the enterprise was daring; but our heroine were some of the usual classes who assembled around -and was she not a true heroine ?-entertained no fears this singular teacher of righteousness.' for her personal safety.

Thus did the self-devoted Sarah go on from year to Sarahi accordingly visited the cell of the unnatural year, heedless of worldly fame or worldly reward. In mother, and spoke to her in the language of pious ad- 1826 she came into the possession of a small annuity of monition and hope. The woman thanked her, and ten or twelve pounds, by the death of her grandmother; burst into tears; and the messenger of mercy felt con- but this did not substantially improve her circumfirmed in her resolutions. With this good beginning, stances, for about the same period her employment as a she visited the jail at such intervals of leisure as she dressmaker declined, in consequence of her mind being could spare from her daily occupations. From address so much absorbed in her prison labours. It might with ing the first object of her solicitude, she proceeded to some have now been a question whether to relinquishı speak and read to the other prisoners. Her language the prison teachings, or to go on with them in the

midst of poverty. Sarah never hesitated. In the notes out any preliminary parade, and continued her labours she wrote respecting her labours, the noble passage without the slightest desire for their public recognition. occurs—My mind, in the contemplation of such trials, In this latter circumstance is disclosed the truly magseemed exalted by more than human energy; for I had nanimous mind of the heroine—there is revealed the counted the cost, and my mind was made up. If, whilst true soul of the Christian. While the great ones of the imparting truth to others, I became exposed to tem- earth were dreaming or squabbling over their respective poral want, the privation so momentary to an indi- pet doctrines, and hesitating as to the exact methods by vidual would not admit of comparison with following which a crew of desperadoes were to be humanised and the Lord in thus administering to others.'

reclaimed, up rises an obscure and friendless female, It was impossible that such genuine philanthropy who, without parade, or talk, or any other species of should escape attention ; many individuals felt inte trumpeting, performs all that everybody could desire. rested in Sarah's struggles, and wished to relieve her It is, therefore, not alone as a poor woman, but as poverty. She accordingly received occasional presents a being who worked, and set about her work at once, of clothes, and other articles likely to render her life that she must be accorded the highest meed of posthumore comfortable; but whatever was sent to her, was mous fame. And how immeasurably great are her given away to persons more destitute than herself.' deserts compared with those of the many recipients of Some members of the corporation now proposed to make heaven's richest bounties, who consume life in mere some provision for her from the borough funds ; but speculative cravings, and who, while practising Christhe design was laid aside. A similar proposal was re- tianity, as they imagine, are doing little more than newed in 1841. Sarah, however, entertained serious shamming it! scruples about receiving what appeared to be a money compensation for her services. Such scruples,' observes the reviewer, ' should have been held sacred.

FOLLIES OF THE WIS E. Corporation gratitude should have been exhibited in In poring over the works of the natural philosophers some way which would not have excited a feeling of self- who flourished during the seventeenth, and part of the degradation; but alas ! a jail committee does not enter eighteenth century, it has afforded us considerable into questions of feeling. It was coarsely intimated to amusement to hunt up the follies and eccentricities with this high-souled woman, " If we permit you to visit the which these learned men alternately amused and astoprison, you must submit to our terms ;" and these wor-nished their friends and themselves. The seventeenth shipful gentlemen, who were then making use of Sarah century was particularly prolific in such men, among Martin as a substitute for the schoolmaster and the whom Kircher, Scholtus, and Porta were pre-eminent. chaplain, whom it was by law their bounden duty to They esteemed it perfectly congruous to unite mathehave appointed, converted her into their salaried ser- matics with magic; natural philosophy with feats of vant by the munificent grant of L. 12 per annum!' juggling and trickings of the senses ; and it may be

This remarkable woman did not long survive to enjoy doubted whether, in several instances, science was not corporation patronage or bounty. Her henlth began to pursued more for its marvels, than for the substantial fail in the winter of 1842 ; and after enduring the ago- benefits it was calculated to confer. The substance was nies of a protracted disease, she joyfully sunk to her prized only for its shadow! The learned of that day rest on the 15th of October 1843. She was buried thus became the wonder-working magicians, who, with Caister, by the side of her grandmother; and a tomb- an enthusiasm worthy of a nobler end, delighted a stone in the churchyard bears a simple inscription, select circle of friends and fellow-philosophers with written by herself, which commemorates her death and the illusions which the present age happily consigns to age, but says not a word of her many virtues !'

the itinerant conjuror, for the delectation of juvenile The notice of Sarah Martin's life has been drawn up parties. The truth is, philosophy was in its childhood : by the reviewer from a work purporting to be memoirs it had not yet learned to put away childish things. Few written by herself; also a volume of poems, of which subjects present us with a more striking illustration of she was the authoress; and the Report of Inspector of the immaturity of science, than the manifest tendency Prisons for the northern district: it may therefore be to the marvellous which formed the distinguishing presumed to be a faithful, though brief record of her feature of the philosophic character of that epoch. The meritorious works of mercy: In bringing prominently curious bits of clock-work, the phantasmagoric appainto view a biography of such practical value, the writer ratus, the ceaseless attempts at perpetual motion,' and of the article in question has done good service to the the sundry other contrivances, the history of which has cause of human amelioration; and we can sympathise come down to us, are melancholy trophies of its miswith him when he remarks, that it is the business of directed energies. They were toys which advancing literature to make such a life stand out from the masses years were to cast aside ; and the sketches about to be of ordinary existences, with something of the distinct given, are offered simply to remind us of what were the ness with which a lofty building uprears itself in the immediate precedents of the brighter light we are now confusion of a distant view. It should be made to privileged to enjoy. attract all eyes, to excite the hearts of all persons who The learned Jesuit Kircher has been mentioned as think the welfare of their fellow-mortals an object of among the most eminent of these philosophers. From interest or duty; it should be included in collections of his voluminous writings, and from a huge folio volume biography, and chronicled in the high places of history; descriptive of his museum, may be collected some of men should be taught to estimate it as that of one the devices with which he succeeded in surprising whose philanthropy has entitled her to renown, and and terrifying his acquaintance. His museum was, children to associate the name of Sarah Martin with in fact, a kind of polytechnic in miniature, only it those of Howard, Buxton, Fry-the most benevolent of contained things and mechanisms of which our polye mankind!'

technist is entirely ignorant. Among his automatic If Sarah Martin, however, is to be judged by the instruments was one which he appears to have greatly means at her disposal, and by the unostentatious man- delighted in : it was a kind of turreted castle. Down ner in which her services were performed, we should the towers a couple of brass balls were wont to be rolled, pronounce her to be deserving of a higher meed of and, surprising to say, in some mysterious manner they applause than Howard, Fry, Buxton, or any other reappeared at the summit again. The same apparatus modern philanthropist. It must not be forgotten that then exhibited a scene representing a large number of she was never anything else than a poor needlewoman, female heads in succession, each displaying a different struggling to earn her bread; and that, finally, she mode of coiffure. While the spectators were wondering sacrificed even this means of subsistence to carry out when this marvellous development of female ingenuity her considerate schemes of charity. It is of not less would have an end, suddenly a gate would burst open, importance to remember that she went to work with- / and reveal a dismal cave, in which a horrid monster,

« PreviousContinue »