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timid prelude, and feeble, almost undecided tones, as most secluded places, into which they permit no intruthough he wished to try his instrument, and interest the sion; and on the occasions when they sing during the listener. But gaining confidence, he gradually becomes day, it is exceedingly difficult to detect the spot in warm and animated, and displays in their fulness all the which they are hidden. resources of his incomparable organ : brilliant throat The nightingale's voice may be heard over a circle of notes ; light and lively trills ; volleys of music, in which a mile in diameter, nearly the distance at which the the precision equals the volubility ; subdued interior human voice is audible. Possessed of such exquisite murmurs, scarcely appreciable to the ear, but well powers, they are much prized as cage-birds, but are not adapted to set off the brilliance of the appreciable easily domesticated, owing to their delicate and sensitones ; sudden roulades, rapid and sparkling, articulated tive nature. They are only to be reconciled to their with the power and severity of perfect good taste; plain- imprisonment, by rendering their restraint as much as tive accents, cadenced with languor ; sounds poured out possible like liberty. They require to be treated with without art, but filled with soul ; sounds, enchanting great tenderness; and if placed in an open cage, or in and penetrating, genuine sighs of love and voluptuous a northern aspect, they frequently worry themselves to ness, which, issuing apparently from the heart, make death. But when accustomed to their captivity, they every heart palpitate, and excite in all endowed with sing all the year through, except in the moulting seasensation the most soothing emotions and delicious son; and their music is then said, by a strange contralanguor.'

diction, to surpass that of their wild state. They may In juxtaposition with the French philosopher's prose, be taught to introduce variations into their song, and we may place the verse of a Dutch poet, Loots, who to take part in a chorus. In Aleppo, during the spring says enthusiastically

months, nightingales are hired by the evening to sing "Soul of living music! teach me,

at concerts and other entertainments. It is, however, Teach me, floating thus along;

difficult to imagine that the singing can possess the Love-sick warbler! come, and reach me,

same charm as when the birds are in perfect freedom, With the secrets of thy song. How thy beak, so sweetly trembling,

mingling their luscious notes with the leafy murmur of On one note long-lingering tries

shady woods. Or a thousand tones assembling,

• How passing sad! Listen, it sings again!
Pours the rush of harmonies.

Art thou a spirit, that, amongst the boughs,
Or-when rising shrill and shriller--

The live long day dost chant that wondrous strain,
Other music dies away,

Making wan Dian stoop her silver brows
Other songs grow still and stiller-

Out of the clouds to hear thee? Who shall say,
Songster of the night and day;

Thou lone one, that thy melody is gay?
Till-all sunk to silence round the

Let him come listen now to that one note,
Not a whisper--not a word-

That thou art pouring o'er and o'er again
Not a leaf-fall to confound thee

Through the sweet echoes of thy mellow throat,
Breathless all-thou only heard :

With such a sobbing sound of deep, deep pain!'
Tell me--thou who failest never,
Minstrel of the songs of spring!

The nightingale was little likely to be left out of the glo-
Did the world see ages ever,

rious mythology of the Greeks. According to the fable, When thy voice forgot to sing ?'

Progne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens, who was Attempts have frequently been made, but in vain, to married to Tereus, king of Thrace, had a great desire to note down the nightingale's melody. Bechstein fills see her sister Philomela. To spare his wife the fatigue nearly a page of his book with a number of incompre- of a voyage to Athens, Tereus offered to go and bring hensible-looking words, which he considers as convey. the maiden to his court. He, however, became enaing an idea of the sounds. One of our writers, however, moured of her, and at the end of their journey comcomprises them in much smaller space, and pretends mitted such an outrage, that in order to prevent the that the melody is contained in the following words : crime from becoming known, he slit the fair Athenian's

Sweet--sweet jug--jug sweet-sweet jug-pipe rattle tongue, and kept her in close confinement. But she, --bell pipe-swat, swat, swat, swatty-water bubble-working with her needle upon canvas, contrived to scroty-skeg, skeg, skeg-whitlow, whitlow, whitlow' send intelligence to Progne, and in revenge the sisters But the endeavour to reduce the complaining notes' to killed Tereus' son Itys, and cooked the child's flesh for writing must always be futile. Yet there are instances the father's dinner. Discovering what was done, he on record of individuals who could produce so perfect drew his sword to kill the guilty pair, when the gods an imitation by singing or whistling, that the birds appeared, and doomed Tereus to take the form of a themselves were deceived, and alighted on the mimic's vulture; Progne became a swallow, and Philomela was shoulder.

changed to a nightingale, to lament incessantly over Melancholy is supposed by the poets, probably on her wrongs. Such is the origin of the popular belief account of the associations of the hour at which the that the nightingale's tongue is split. notes, wild and lively in themselves, are heard, to be

It is a little remarkable, as the male bird only sings, the prevailing characteristic of the nightingale's song, that authors generally speak of the nightingale in the and most writers dwell upon this imaginary sadness. feminine gender ; a sacrifice of zoological accuracy to Milton says

poetical expression. A passage in Chaucer's poem, "Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly,

* The Flower and the Leaf,' is a striking exception to Most musical, most melancholy;

the mournfulness so universally considered as characThee, chantress, oft the woods among

teristic of this bird. The contest is going on in the I woo, to hear thy evening song.'

forest, when The poet, who addresses one of his sonnets to the night • The nightingale with so merry a note ingale, seems, in fact, to have entertained a most elo.

Answered him, that all the wood rong

So sodainly, that as it were a sote quent love for the bird : he makes frequent mention of

I stood astonied; so was I with the song it in Paradise Lost; in their bower, Adam and Eve,

Thorow ravished, that till late and long, ·lulled by nightingales, embracing slept ;' and he tells

I ne wist in what place I was, ne where; us, in those touching lines on the loss of his sight, that

And ayen me thought she song even by mine ere.' he

Buffon relates an instance of a nightingale that lived - feeds on thoughts, that voluntary move

seventeen years: it began to turn gray at the age of Harmonious numbers ; as the wakeful bird

seven; at fifteen the quill-feathers of the wings and tail Sing» darkling, and in shadiest covert hid,

were entirely white, his legs were greatly increased in Tunes her nocturnal note.'

size, and the feet became gouty, and it was often necesIn the latter lines we seem to have a reference to the sary to clean and sharpen the upper half of his bill. solitary habits of the birds. They live much alone, There were no other appearances of age, for the bird, arrive and depart singly, and, while pairing, seek the Iwe are told, was always lively, always singing as in the

prime of his youth. So strong is the disposition of like a veteran poacher; in which occupation, I was innightingales to migrate, that even when domesticated, formed, he was very expert. I have seen a nightinthey exhibit an extraordinary degree of restlessness at gale, a few days after it was caught, take its food out the migratory periods in spring and autumn. They are of his lips; but he kept his method of taning a also said to manifest strong likings and dislikings, and secret. . . . Poor fluttering bird,' continues the writer to be so sensible of attachment, as to pine away and die quoted, after recording a successful capture, “your large on the death of any person with whom they have been dark eye is full of fear and misery, and your tender familiar. Such is their horror of discordant sounds, frame can ill sustain those desperate but ineffectual that Belon, whom we have before quoted, says this feel. struggles for liberty. And what must be the sensations ing was taken advantage of to entrap them. A cat of the captive? for surely such a marvellous creation was fastened to a tree, and a string, tied tightly round must have sensations and feelings somewhat more acute some part of the animal, was carried to a distance than those of the vulgar sparrow, or the pert chaflinch, along the ground; when the string was pulled, the cat and more akin to its nature and worth.' squalled, and the nightingales flocking round in high indignation, were easily taken by bird-lime.

HOUSEHOLD SURGERY. Many strange things have been recorded and spoken of the nightingale. From its singing all night, our fore- In a recent number of the Journal, at the suggestion fathers considered its flesh to be a specific against of a correspondent, we published, in more minute drowsiness; and that if the heart and eyes were placed and practical detail than usual, the formula of treatunder the pillow of a person in bed, he would be unable ment of the apparently drowned ; and at a season of the to sleep; hence we find the nightingale adopted as the year when so many plunge into the water for health, symbol of vigilance. Many curious lists of drugs and and so many more for pleasure, the memorandum may decoctions are to be met with in the works of old perhaps be found of some utility. But at all seasons of writers, the marvellous virtues of which would incite the year there are emergencies of various other kinds the birds to sing. Chaucer again tells us

occurring, in which a little knowledge, and the coolness -Howe lovirs had a tokining,

and presence of mind that accompany a consciousness And among 'hem it was a commune tale,

of knowledge, may be of essential service; and we are That it were gode to here the nightingale

well pleased to see that a surgeon of standing and chaMoche rathir than the luedè cuccoo sing.'

racter has now come forward to enlighten non-profesAmong other singular freaks, nightingales were said to sionals as to what ought to be done, and the best way rear only such of their young as displayed any musical to do it, in the absence of the doctor.* Mr South sets talent. Most readers have heard of the famous dish of out by advising us to get the doctor always when we every talking and singing.bird known at the period, can; but it is vain to preach upon this text. There are prepared at a cost of nearly 1.7000, for the tragedian hundreds of accidents and coniplaints that have been Claudius Esopus, and of the feast of nightingales' tongues the property of old women, and other amateurs, from provided for Heliogabalus. A white nightingale, valued all antiquity, and that never by any chance get into at six thousand sesterces, was once presented by the the hands of the regular practitioner till the others Empress Agrippina to one of her friends. According have coddled them up into something worth his while. to Pliny, some nightingales belonging to the two sons It is of great importance, therefore, to bring this honeof the Emperor Claudius spoke Greek and Latin, and practice under the laws of science; and in sifting out made new phrases every day to divert their masters ; from Mr South’s collection, as we are about to do, the and Gesner gives an account of two others belonging cases that most frequently occur, together with the to an innkeeper at Ratisbon, which conversed all night treatment he recommends, so far from desiring to set up in German on the politics of Europe. He takes care, for a Goody Buchan on our own account, we design to however, to qualify the story, by adding that the birds call the attention of our readers to a useful and sensible did no more than repeat at night the conversations book, which they will do well to make acquaintance they had heard during the day, even with this quali- with. fication, the tale remains sufficiently marvellous. At Let us first look into the home-doctor's shop. Poultempts have frequently been made to naturalise the tices were treated as matters of consequence by Abernightingale in places to which it was a stranger. A nethy, who described them as of two kinds—the evagentleman near Swansea procured a supply of eggs porating or local tepid bath, and the greasy. Tepid from England, and distributed them among the nests bathing, by means of a poultice, he held to be the most of birds in that neighbourhood in the hatching season ; soothing of all local applications, but effective only but although the nightingales were contented to remain when the patient is kept in bed. To make it -- Scald in their new locality during the first summer, they out a basin, for you can never make a good poultice never returned to it in subsequent years. A similar unless you have perfectly boiling water; then having experiment, which equally failed, was tried by Sir John put in some hot water, throw in coarsely-crumbled Sinclair in Scotland.

bread, and cover it with a plate. When the bread In Moscow, the bird-fanciers keep large numbers of has soaked up as much water as it will imbibe, drain nightingales for sale ; the average price is fifteen roubles. off the remaining water, and there will be left a light They are so abundant in Warsaw, that the streets are pulp. Spread it, a third of an inch thick, on folded filled with their music. In some parts of Europe they linen, and apply it when of the temperature of a warm are still fattened for the table ; but the man who could bath. The drying of this poultice is not a defect, as our relish a nightingale must have a strangely-perverted worthy grandmother supposes, but the very thing that appetite. In Prussia, any person keeping one in a cage is wanted—the proof of evaporation; and as this goes becomes liable to a tax.

on, warm water must be dropped upon it, to keep up The nightingale, although timid, is not suspicious, the action. Poppy, carrot, and horse-radish poultices and is easily deceived by decoys, and captured. The are all bad: the juice only of these substances should nightingale-catcher,' says Mr Jesse, 'is generally a be mixed, when wanted, with the bread poultice. The stealthy, downcast vagabond, most justly detested by linseed-meal or greasy poultice is, on the same authoall owners of groves, plantations, and hedgerows, pos- rity, to be made in the following manner : - Get sessing any good taste, within twenty miles of the some linseed powder, not the common stuff, full of grit metropolis. I knew one of these men who passed much and sand. Scald out a basin ; pour in some perfectly of his time in the spring in the pretty lanes of Bucking- boiling water; throw in the powder, stir it round with hamsbire, trapping the "merry nightingales” as they “ Answered and provoked each other's song."

* Household Surgery, or Hints on Emergencies. By John F.

South, one of the Surgeons to St Thomas's Hospital. London : He was a hard-featured, uneducated man, looking very | Cox. '1847.

a stick, till well incorporated ; add a little more water, fresh flour of mustard put into a bottle with a pint of and a little more nreal; stir again, and when it is about spirits of turpentine, and shaken daily for two or three two-thirds of the consistence you wish it to be, beat it days. After this, the liquid is fit to be decanted for up with the blade of a knife till all the lumps are use; and its advantage is, that it may be made to act removed. If properly made, it is so well worked to- slightly or severely, according to the length of time it gether, that you might throw it up to the ceiling, and is rubbed: to tickle, prickle, or smart the patient, or it would come down again without falling to pieces; it take off his skin, whichever he likes. is, in fact, like a pancake. Then take it out, lay it on Ointments are of use merely to protect wounds from a piece of soft linen, spread it the fourth of an inch their coverings, from the air, and from filth, and the thick, and as wide as will cover the whole inflamed simpler they are the better. The common dressing for part; put a bit of hog's-Iard in the centre of it, and a blister .consists of a quarter of an ounce of white when it begins to melt, draw the edge of the knife wax, three-quarters of an ounce of spermaceti, and three lightly over, and grease the surface of the poultice.' ounces of olive oil, melted together. Elder-flower ointThe irritating poultice, to be used in cases where a ment, for anointing the face and neck when sunburnt, blister is unnecessary or inconvenient, is made simply is made of fresh elder-flowers stripped from the stalks, of mustard and water, mixed as if for the dinner-table, two pounds of which are simmered in an equal quantity and put within the folds of a piece of fine muslin, so of hog's-lard till they become crisp, after which the that only the watery part, oozing through, touches the ointment, whilst fluid, is strained through' a coarse skin. When this poultice is removed, the part should sieve.' Plasters may be bought in the roll, and spread be sponged with warm water, and then gently dried at home with a hot knife, when the parties are far from with a soft kerchief. In the case of a child, it should the druggist's shop. be taken off in two or three minutes after the skin We now come to the operations of household surgery, reddens. Cold poultices are disapproved.

beginning with bleeding and blistering. The best mode * Fomentations are warm fluids, applied for the pur- of bleeding to be adopted by an unprofessional person is pose of encouraging perspiration on the skin, and thereby by cupping, which is easily learnev, although we have to diminish inflammation, and to render the skin yield- no room for the directions. In the absence of a proper ing, so that the swelling which accompanies inflamina- instrument, a common cup, or a tumbler (if of a bellying tion may be less painful, by the greater readiness with shape, so much the better), 'may be turned down upon which the skin yields than when it is harsh and dry.' the part, after the air has been rarefied with lighted tow The usual practice, therefore, of 'rubbing, dabbing, or or paper. The skin rises into this, and is afterwards to pressing, is improper. The patient must be as well be wounded with a lancet or sharp knife in half-a-dozen defended as possible from exposure to wet, by having places. When leeches are inconveniently fastidious in something placed under hinı; and then a piece of thick their appetite, the skin may be scratched with a needleflannel, or blanket, after being saturated in the warm point till the blood comes, which will generally be irrefonientation, is to be instantly wrung, and laid liberally sistible. A warm bread-and-water poultice, renewed on the part of the body affected, and covered with oiled every balf hour, is better for encouraging the bleeding silk or a jack-towel, to keep in the warmth. This pro than sponging with warm water. Bleeding in the arm cess is to be repeated every ten minutes or so, for hours with a lancet is a delicate operation, owing to the neighif necessary. The foot or hand may be fomented by bourhood of the great artery, and must be learned from mere immersion, the heat of the flaid to be kept up by a regular practitioner. It is, besides, in much less use the addition, from time to time, of more which is hof. than formerly after common accidents—such as a fall or Warm water makes of course the readiest fomentation, a blow. The chief thing to be attended to in blistering and is generally the best.

is, that the plaster should never be suffered to remain The object of lotions (or washes) is to lessen the on a child under ten years of age longer than till the inflammatory condition of a part by diminishing its skin has become well inflamed, which will be in three or increased heat, which is one of the signs of inflammation;' four hours at most; and that if any of the disagreeand they are of two kinds-cooling, and stimulating: able effects of blisters are feared, they may be easily The cooling lotion acts by means of evaporation, and avoided by covering the plaster before application with should be applied by dipping a single piece of linen in tissue paper. the wash, and laying it upon the part, which of course The convulsion fits that so frequently carry off chil. is to be kept uncovered. As the evaporation goes on, dren are usually caused by the constitutional disturbthe linen is to be kept moist with the lotion by means ance incidental to their cutting their teeth ; and the of a sponge. A spirit wash is made of lialf a gill of remedy, or rather the safeguard, against these frightspirits of wine, or a whole gill of ardent spirits, to a pint ful consequences is trifling, safe, and almost certain, of water; and a vinegar wash, by mixing one fourth of and consists merely in lancing the gum covering the vinegar with three-fourths of water. In case of severe tooth which is making its way through.' Lancing the pain, a tablespoonful of laudanum may be added to a gum is very easily managed; and any intelligent person, pint of lotion. Stimulating washes are employed for after seeing it done once or twice, will do it very effecencouraging sluggish sores to heal. They are usually tually. Cline taught a mother of a family to do this ; applied by dipping lint in them, which, being then put and after lancing her children's guns she never lost on the sore, is confined with a roller.' The black wash another, at least from that cause; for, so soon as the is the most valuable of this kind, and is composed of a teething symptoms appeared, she looked for the indrachm of calomel in half a pint of lime-water.

flamed gum, lanced it, and they ceased. The operation Liniments are chiefly used to remove swellings, and is performed with a gum-fleam, the edge of which must are applied by rubbing gently with the flat of the hand be placed vertically on the top of the infamed gum, for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour at a time. In the and moved along, pressing firmly at the same time tin case of a large joint requiring the operation, the two the edge of the team grate on the tooth, and the busihands are to be used, one at each side, and moved alter- ness is finished. nately up and down at the same tine, making each hand • The best application for a bruise, be it large or travel half round the joint. One-third of hartshorn to small

, is moist warmth; therefore a warm bread-andtwo-thirds of oil make a good liniment for stiff neck and water poultice, or hot moist flannels, should be put on, lumbago; another is an ounce of camphor rubbed down as they supple the skin, so that it yields to the pressure in four ounces of olive oil; and a third, called opodeldoc, of the blood beneath, and thereby the pain is lessened.' is composed of three ounces of hard white soap and an In the case of a serious bruise, a dozen leeches may ounce of camphor, put into a bottle with half a pint of likewise be necessary, but only for an adult, and they spirits of wine, or other strong spirit, and as much may require to be repeated two or three times. With water, and shaken from day to day till dissolved. But regard to the bruise technically called a black eye, the best is the mustard liniment, made of an ounce of warm bathing and patience are the only remedies. For

be cut awai 7

the benefit of those who may feel tempted to do what wine or good brandy, lime-water and oil, lime-water and usually gives rise to this accident,' the doctor merely milk, milk alone, or bread-and-milk poultice; and all repeats the advice given else where to persons about to these wet applications must be made of sufficient warmth marry'-Don't.

to feel comfortable to the finger, but not hot.' When An ordinary cut or chop with a knife, chisel, axe, the blisters become uneasy, after the lapse of perhaps &c. even if it severs a finger or a toe, is only dangerous from thirty to fifty hours (for the pain moderates in a to the irritable or intemperate. The corresponding few hours after the accident, unless it has been very edges of the wound are to be brought together as per- severe), they must be carefully cut and dressed. The fectly as possible, and while thus held, some strips of treatment of the opposite accident, frost-bite, is analoplaster are to be laid across the wound, with small spaces gous. ' In restoring a frozen person, or a frost-bitten between every two, so as to allow the escape of an part, the object is directly the reverse-that is, to keep oozing fluid, which often continues for some hours. The the cold, which by its exposure the body has acquired, edges of the wound should not be dragged tightly to- and to withdraw it by slow degrees till the body has gether, but merely kept in place by the plaster; and if recovered its natural heat. If the person or part be the wound be in the finger, arm, toe, or leg, it is better brought suddenly into a hot room, or put in a warm that the ends of the plaster should not overlap.' If bath, he or it will be killed outright. “ The frozen common sticking-plaster be not at hand, court-plaster person,” says Chelius, “should be brought into a cold will do; or thin bands of tow may be wrapped round room, and after having been undressed, covered up with the part, and smeared with gum-water. Or if nothing snow, or with cloths dipped in ice-cold water, or he else is at hand, a bit of linen rag, by absorbing the may be laid in cold water so deeply, that his mouth and blood, constitutes itself a plaster as the moisture dries. nose only are free. When the body is somewhat thawed, The dressing is to be left on for several days, unless there is commonly a sort of icy-crust formed around it; the wound grow painful and throb; in which case it is the patient must then be removed, and the body washed to be taken off by the aid of warm water or a soft with cold water mixed with a little wine or brandy: poultice. If the discharge is inodorous, straw-coloured, when the limbs lose their stiffness, and the frozen person and creamy-looking, you may apply the plaster again ; shows signs of life, he should be carefully dried, and if otherwise, the wound, must be poulticed till these put into a cold bed in a cold roon: scents, and remedies wholesome signs appear. A bruised cut must be poul. which excite sneezing, are to be put to his nose; air is ticed with bread and water to moderate the inflamma- to be carefully blown into the lungs, if natural breathing tion, and then with linseed meal, till new flesh grows do not come on; clysters of warm water with camplioinstead of that which has been killed by the blow. The rated vinegar thrown up; the throat tickled with a latter comes away in appearance like a piece of wetted feather; and cold water dashed upon the pit of the buff-leather. Scratches are often futol, in consequence stomach. He must be brought, by degrees, into rather of soap, pearl-ash, or filth of any kind getting into warmer air, and mild perspirants, as elder and balm tea them, and should therefore be kept covered. Pricks (or weak common tea), with Minderer's spirit, warm with a thorn, &c. are likewise dangerous, occasionally wine, and the like, may be given to promote gentle perproducing locked jaw. Poulticing, leeching, &c. must spiration.”' Frost-bitten parts should be bathed or be had recourse to if serious appearances occur; with rubbed with cold water or snow. a smart dose of calomel inwardly, and some hours after, For sprains, warm moist flannels applied to the part, castor oil.

and a bread-and-water poultice on going to bed, are When blood is coughed up, it is known to come from recommended; but this, in our humble and unprofesthe lungs by its frothiness, if in small quantities, and sional opinion, is only adapted to cases in which the its pure bright redness when more plentiful; and when patient thinks proper to look forward to weeks of such vomited from the stomach, by its dark colour. In either coddling. We have before now cured ourselves in a few case, all that non-professionals can do is to cup or bleed, hours of a severe sprain of the ankle-joint, attended and keep the patient cool in bed. When the discharge with swelling, by fomentations of water as hot as we is from the lungs, the fainter he is the less danger. I could bear them. Bleeding from wounds is stopped by pressure on the

Broken linibs should not be set, as it is called-that part; or, if necessary, the ends of any little artery that is, bound up with roller, splints, and pads—for the first may be severed, are to be tied with a thread; or when three or four days, as for some hours after the accident the bleeding is important and continued, the main the part continues swelling, and if bandaged up tightly artery that supplies the limb may be stopped till media whilst this is going on, much unnecessary pain is procal assistance is obtained: in the case of the arm, by duced ; and if the bandages be not slackened, mortifipressing the thumb behind the middle of the collar- cation may follow, which I have known to occur. It is bone; and in the case of the leg, below the crease of the best then, at first, only to lay the broken bone in as groin. When the bleeding is below the middle of the comfortable a posture as possible, and nearly as can be

upper arm, or thigh, a stick tourniquet will answer in its natural direction, and it may be lightly bound to ! the purpose. It is merely a handkerchief passed two a single splint, merely for the purpose of keeping it

or three times round the limb above the wound, and steady. The arm, whether broken above or below the twisted as tightly as may be necessary by means of a elbow, will lie most comfortably half-bent upon a pillow. stick.

The thigh or leg will rest most easily upon the outer Scalds and burns are frequently dangerous; and in side, with the knee bent.' In the case of broken ribs, a them 'remember, that as it is always hoped the scald or flannel or linen roller, about six yards long and two burn is confined to inflaming or blistering the skin, it is hands’-breadth wide, must be wound tightly round the of the utmost importance not to burst the blister by chest. Bleeding should not be had recourse to, unless tearing the skin, nor to let out the water it contains by the patient complains of pain, or is troubled with cough. pricking it. The clothes, if any, over the part must. The bowels should be cleared with a purge, and twenty

but only so far as they will come easily. drops of antimonial wine, with a teaspoonful of syrup Tbe patient, if severely injured, must be kept warm; of poppies in a glass of water, given three or four times and if he continues to shudder or shiver, a little hot | a-day. After a few days, the person will find himself wine and water, or spirits and water, should be adminis- much more comfortable sitting up than lying in bed.' tered. The object in treating scalds and burns is to But the special treatment differs so much as regards the keep ups forest

a time, the great heat or high temperature different parts broken, that we can only refer generally to which the injured part has been raised by the scald- to Mr South's book. iog or burning, and to lower this by degrees to the A dislocation is reduced by the limb being returned natural heat of the body. The best and readiest dry ) to its place from which it has slipped out; and the chief materials to be applied are flour, or cotton, or cotton- difficulty lies in the instinctive or involuntary resistwadding, the wet are-spirits of turpentine, spirits of l ance made by the patient. A great part, therefore,

of the operator's dexterity consists in his putting the be brushed, the occupants having no further trouble sufferer off his guard at the critical moment.

with them. The bedrooms are supplied with iron bed. Having already described the treatment in a case of steads and wash-stands. Each room has a ventilator at stifling by drowning, we shall now only say on this sub the bottom and top; and the windows are so constructed, ject, that when the catastrophe occurs by hanging, there that they can be easily opened for the further admission is little or no hope after a few minutes' suspension. of air. There is also a cupboard in every cottage, and * The body should be stripped, dashed with cold water, all the apartments are neatly papered, painted, and fitted blood should be taken from the arm, and stimulating up with shelving, iron hooks for clothes, &c. 'The liniments rubbed perseveringly on the chest.'

building is fire-proof, there being no possibility of the Choking, by attempting to swallow too large a piece fire in one flat extending. In fact, beyond consuming of food, .may usually be overcome by taking large the furniture in the flat, little damage could be done to draughts of water, and making great efforts to swallow. the building by any fire which broke out. The roof of Sometimes, if a bone or pin be near the top of the throat, each house is flat, and covered with asphalte. It is also it may be got out by pushing the finger far down, and surrounded by a parapet wall several feet high, and hooking it up with the nail. But if below the reach of will form an excellent playground for children, who the finger, the best thing to try for immediate relief is will thus be placed beyond the danger of accidents from to take some crust of bread, or some hard apple into horses and carts. It may also be used for the drying of the mouth, chew it coarsely, get down two or three clothes; and the workmen, at the close of their day's mouthfuls without swallowing it completely, and then labour, may, in the summer time at least, pleasantly to swallow quickly three or four gulps of water, spend an hour or two in smoking their pipes, in readwhich acts like a rammer to the bread, and forcing it ing, or in enjoying the extensive prospect before them. against the bone or pin, not unfrequently carries it The rent of a cottage on the top storey is 3s. 9d. a-week; down into the stomach, and there the matter ends.' on the third storey, 48.; on the second, 4s. 3d. ; and on The buttons and other small matters a child some- the first, 4s. 6d. There are cottages with two aparttimes swallows are rarely attended by any troublesome ments, the lowest rent of which class is 2s. 6d. ; and consequences, although the source of so much alarm to others of four rooms, which of course are a little dearer. parents.

In all, there are about three hundred cottages already We have now run through this most useful volume ; | built. Between each pile of building there is a space of but although the passing hints we have collected from eighteen feet. When it is taken into consideration that it will be advantageous of themselves to many of our there are no back premises from which any nuisance readers, we are in hopes that they will only stimulate can arise, this may be considered a wide space; yet another class to possess themselves of the work. still, if there be any fault at all, this may be considered

as one. If it were a rule that the space between each

pile should not be less than the height of the buildings, DWELLINGS FOR THE WORKING-CLASSES.

it would be much better. As an improvement, however, The attention which is now being paid by the richer upon the cellar and cottage residences of the crowded classes to the physical wants, the social and domestic districts of this town, they are admirable. - Liverpool comforts, and consequently the moral and intellectual Mercury. advancement of the humbler and labouring portion of (We lately visited the Birkenhead Cottages, as they society, is one of the distinctive and most pleasing cha- are called, and can testify that this is a correct descrip. racteristics of the present day. The efforts making, in tion of them. Only one important circumstance is and out of parliament, by public bodies and private in- omitted—that the buildings are at such a distance from dividuals for the sanitary improvement of towns—the the mass of the town (upwards of a mile), that they working population in which, in their crowded and ill are not as yet convenient houses for working-men conventilated dwellings, are intluenced now by domestic nected with Birkenhead, and accordingly few of them annoyances, noxious odours, and demoralising circum are occupied. A gardener employed at his labour near stances, the evil tendencies of which cannot be over the wayside stated the case to us briefly and justly, estimated-are a very gratifying practical result of the when he said, 'A working-man must live near his spirit which now prevails. In Liverpool, much is doing, work.' As a necessary consequence of the paucity of or is about to be done, in the right direction; but if we inhabitants, no shops are yet opened at the place; and cross the Mersey, and take a walk through Birkenhead, thus the few people who do live in the cottages are we find that much has been done. The public parks, the exposed to some inconvenience in obtaining the neceswide streets, the attention to drainage and sewerage, all saries of life. Owing to these circumstances, we fear bespeak an attention and foresight much to be com- that the cottages are for the present a failure. They mended; but the cottages erected by the Birkenhead can serve the contemplated end only when the town Dock Company for the residences of the workmen, will and its works come out to this place; and even after long remain as monuments of the commencement of a all, the men engaged at the works which now exist will new era, which, we trust, will bring with it health, hap- remain unbenefited. piness, comfort, ay, and comparative wealth, to the in The plan of the houses is, however, excellent. Per. dustrious people of this country. These cottages are haps no other can rightly be adopted for the dwellings built near the foot of Bidston hill, overlooking Wallasey of working-men in large towns, this being the only one marsh, and adjoining the upper end of the great dock which admits of a multitude being healthily placed on at Birkenhead. At a distance, they have a strong and a comparatively small space. It is simply the floor plan, very imposing appearance. The buildings are erected so prevalent in Paris and Edinburgh, and exemplified on the plan of the houses in Scotland, each tenant occu in the Temple Chambers and Inns of Court in London. pying a 'fat;' and as they are four storeys in height, It has its inconveniences, but is also attended by some eight families are accommodated in each house. Of advantages even for the middle classes ; above all, onecourse there is a common staircase for the use of the that of requiring no ascent of stairs to pass from one eight families; but the stairs once ascended, each resi- apartment to another. Once in the house, you move dence is quite distinct. Most of the cottages consist of about it with an ease and facility unknown to the occuthree apartments-a kitchen and two bedrooms. The pants of those houses upon edge which constitute the kitchen is fitted up with a grate, oven, &c. There is bulk of the most modern streets and squares in London, also a small scullery, containing sink-stone, water-pipe, For females, who seldom go abroad above once a-day, with the water constantly on, bunker for coals, shelves, but who have occasion to pass from room to room every &c. Adjoining is a water-closet, through which, to now and then, the convenience of the floor system is prevent offensive effluvia, all water from the pipe and unspeakably great; and we should wonder that it had sink-stone passes ; and there is a dust-hole in each scul- not been adopted long ago in London, did we not know lery, into which sweepings, cinders, and all rubbish may how long it is before new habits are learned, or old pre

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