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ling boy, had induced him to forego all thoughts of manner; and at that part of it when the body is commitremaining in India, and at once to give up an honourable ted to the dust, the coffin was gently raised, then slowly and a lucrative situation for the sake of those with whose lowered over the vessel's side, and the rope by which it existence his own might be said to have been identified. was held being detached, it, with its little occupant, sunk

Though no uncommon circumstance during an India at once into the fathomless abyss. Two pieces of iron voyage, the death of a child, who had become an object of kentledge were fastened to the bottom of the coffin, so deep interest to all, caused a general gloom to prevail on that it, with its light contents—for the poor child had board; and it was curious to remark how, even among been sadly wasted by suffering—were soon and for ever the kind but light-hearted seamen, the striking event hid from sight. subdued for a time spirits prone to be merry rather than That spectacle I shall not easily forget ; it was a truly wise into a settled calm, contrasting strangely with the impressive and affecting one. Many an eye, 'albeit natural dispositions of the men. Our noble ship was an unused to the melting mood,' was bathed in tears, while Indiaman of the largest class, and every convenience and the father, stout-hearted and manly as he had proved luxury, everything that could minister to the comfort of himself on many a trying occasion, was carried rather the poor invalids, on whose shattered frames an eastern than led to his cabin. That noble heart strove with clime had done its work, were to be found within her. emotions which were ready to burst it: he wept not, he She was wending her way through the waste of waters, spoke not; but the sorrow, the heart-lacerating sorrow full of passengers, for 'merry England,' from the shores of within, was too big for utterance. which not a few of my companions had for many years I have watched over the bed of the dying, and beheld been absent. The gallow faces and emaciated forms of disease in its most appalling forms—I have seen it comsonie told of toil and suffering under a tropical sun; and mit its ravages on the old, the young, and the lovely. I as I gazed on one wretched invalid, whose once manly have gazed on the pallid cheek and the wasted form of frame was now in the last state of exhaustion and atrophy, consumption's victim-been present when, maddened by and saw him carried up from his cot by half-a-dozen of raging fever, reason had lost its sway—seen the sufferer black servants, in order that he might enjoy the renovat- in the last stage of that scourge of the East, Asiatic ing influence of the cool evening breeze, I could not help cholera, and beheld death doing its work promptly when thinking that the land to which his affections were hope beat high and fortune was most lavish of her giftsturned would never see him alive. Nor was I wrong; have witnessed interments in many countries, and under he died on our entering the Channel, when within sight many circumstances, but few occurrences have struck me of his native county, the lovely Devonshire.

more forcibly than the funeral of that poor infant. It It was the day after that on which the child had ex was committed to the dark and deep blue ocean,' and pired, and at two o'clock, that was fixed on for its funeral. sleeps well,' far from parents and from friends. The sea The necessary preparations had been completed during has entombed it, and the surge alone sings its requiem. the night, and the mortal remains, shrouded in the gar. No tears can bedew its graveno tombstone nor inscripments of death, deposited in a plain but neatly-finished tion marks its resting-place. Its dust mingles not with coffin, made by the ship's carpenter. This man had, for that of its relations; it is apart from them-solitarya number of years, been employed in India traders, and alone. The sea-bird screams, the wild wave roars, and the manner in which he had executed the task assigned the tempest howls its funeral dirge; and in lieu of the him, afforded melancholy proof of his experience in a sweet flowers, emblems of its innocence, which, under calling which, properly speaking, was none of his. The other circumstances, would have bedecked its little grave, faint breeze, which the officer on watch had whistled for nought but the furious and the dashing billow is there. during the night, and which had sprung up towards There is something particularly striking and inposing morning, died away almost altogether by twelve o'clock; in a funeral at sea. Those who have never witnessed can and so clear was the firmament, in which a scorching and form no adequate idea of the sentiments it calls forth, almost vertical sun blazed, and so limpid and still were and of the solemn associations it is so well calculated to the mighty waters, that, as I gazed on the scene, it re- awaken. There is something fearfully sublime in comquired no great strength of fancy to believe that the sky mitting the body to the deep--something which makes and ocean were united, and that our huge and magni- the most inconsiderate reflect, and calls the attention of ficent vessel had been, by some unknown agency, dragged the most thoughtless. Funerals on land we are too apt from her natural position, and now hung midway between to regard thoughtlessly, as every-day occurrences. We the heavens and the ocean.

pass them heedlessly, as things of course, or follow the The last sad ceremony--the committing of the body to hearse, the nodding black plumes, and the other trappings the deep--was conducted with becoming solemnity. As of wo, as a form which the usages of society, and a proper is frequently the case on such occasions, letters of invita- respect for the departed, require of us. At sea it is diffe. tion to the funeral from the captain of the ship were sent rent: there, away from everything that familiarises and to all the passengers, and, in consequence, every one too often sears the feelings to those sentiments which capable of coming upon deck was present, dressed of ought to affect, the melancholy ceremony strikes with course in the manner which such a ceremony required. irresistible force. Surrounded by the heaving billow, and The sailors, too, had received their instructions; and, in the midst of ocean's roar, the committing of a body to equipped in their best clothes, and all clean and neat, the deep is strikingly imposing and impressive, and cannot arranged themselves on the deck according to their re- fail to remind us of our own insignificance, and the power spective stations. The large watch-bell had continued of Him who can still its thunders and arrest its waves. to toll for about half an hour previous, a flag was hoisted half-mast high, and exactly at two o'clock the little

PUBLIC HEALTH. coffin, across which the ship's colours were thrown, was carried out of the cabin by two of the seamen, who, fol- It gives us pleasure to perceive that the subject of lowed by the captain and the passengers, slowly advanced Public Health, to which we have frequently directed to that part of the vessel at which the sad ceremony was attention, is not losing any of its interest with the inhato take place. One of the cannonades to leeward had bitants of our larger towns—that section of the popubeen detached from its fastenings, and removed midships ; lation to whom it is most immediately important. The and the top slip of the bulwark, immediately over the members of the Liverpool Mechanics’ Institution, it port-hole, being also removed, a considerable space was appears, have recently been favoured with a course of thus left open, near to which the coffin was placed. A lectures on the subject by Dr Guy of King's College, commodious awning had been erected across a portion of London-a gentleman already well known by his efforts the deck, and on the captain opening the prayer-book of to improve the sanitary condition of the English methe church of England for the purpose of reading the tropolis. His remarks . On the influence of trades and funeral service, every head became uncovered, while the professions on the duration of life,' as given in the news. most perfect silence prevailed. That beautiful and im- paper abstracts, contain some statistical information depressive service was delivered in a solemn and affecting serving of the widest circulation.

CONSUMPTION.

LONGEVITY.

for his part, he was not displeased with this result, for

it might induce the middle classes to bring their influForming a sanitary scale for the higher classes, we have ence to bear on the legislature to adopt sanitary measures to place at the bottom of it, as having the shortest lives, for the good of themselves, their dependants, their workthe very class which, in every other respect, is raised so high men, and the nation at large. It was also satisfactory to abore the common run of mankind-kings. Their lives are observe that the lives of the higher classes were shortened, even shorter than the average of the great mass of their and their health impaired, in all those towns in which the subjects. The average age at death of all the several classes other orders of the community are placed in unfavourable dying, of 31 years and upwards, is as follows:-Kings of circumstances. The tradesman occupies an intermediate England, 59 years; members of royal houses, not being place, in a sanitary point of view, between those of the crowned heads, 64; members of the families of the peerage working-class who are employed out of doors and those and baronetage, 67 ; English gentry, 70. The general opi- who work in. In Leeds, the gentry live 44 years, the nion which prevailed of the longevity of the peerage and tradesmen 27, and operatives 19; in Preston, the gentry baronetage is decidedly erroneous. If we compare the live 47 years, the tradesmen 32, and operatives 18; in aristocracy with the members of the several professions, Bolton, the ages for the three classes are 34 years, 23 years, we find thein shorter-lived than the clergy, than physicians and 18 years ; in Manchester, the average age for the gentry and surgeons, than barristers; they are also shorter-lived is 38 years, for tradesmen 20 years, and for operatives 17 than literary and scientific men, than men engaged in the years. This was bad enough, but Liverpool was worse. pursuits of trade and commerce, than officers in the navy; Its gentry live on an average 35 years, its tradesmen 22, but they have a slight advantage over the officers of the and its operatives (it scarcely seemed credible) 15 years! army-a class which is largely recruited from the ranks of The average for the whole town is only 17 years, which is the aristocracy. Amongst the professions, the clergy rank precisely the average for the operative class alone in the first as being most healthy, next physicians and surgeons, most unhealthy parish in London ! and lastly lawyers; but the last two are nearly on a par. Are the aristocracy longer-lived than the working classes ? Ninety-nine out of a hundred would answer yes; but this,

The three classes of society-gentry, tradesmen, and however, is very far from being the case. At 30 years of operatives — were then contrasted in reference to their age, the aristocracy have an expectation of 31 years. The liability to consumption. While 1 death out of every 6 expectation for all England is upwards of 34 years, while occurring in the gentry, 15 years of age and upwards, was that for the agricultural labourer is nearly 41 years. It is due to consumption, l' out of every 3.4 occurring among true there are many members of the aristocracy who live to tradesmen of the same ages, and l out of every 3; occurring a great age-so there are of all other classes ; but the aver- in the labouring class, is traceable to that cause. It was age, and not extremes, should be our guide. These results not uninteresting to observe also that consumption, when show that bodily labour is in the highest degree conducive it does occur, takes place later in life among the gentry to health. There are honourable exceptions, but the ma than among tradesmen, and later among tradesmen than jority of the aristocracy of all countries yield to the temp among the operative and labouring class. Persons employed tations to bodily and mental inactivity, to sloth and luxury, in-doors die earlier, attain a lower average age, are more which are so thickly scattered in their path, and the con- | liable to consumption (and those who die of it, die at an sequences are feeble health and short life. It is the chase, earlier age), than persons working in the open air. Some the struggle, the contest, the labour, which is the whole might perhaps be inclined to attribute this superior wholesome and the pleasant thing. Though possession is nine- someness of out-door occupations not to the purer air, but tenths of the law, it is not a tithe of the pleasure or the to the exercise which often accompanied them; but that profit of the effort by which it is obtained. Labour, then this was not the case, might be inferred from the circum-the labour of the body in the greatest degree, mental stance, that the hawker, who sits or stands about in our exertion to a less extent—is one of the chief elements, in- streets and markets, and certainly uses quite as little exerdeed the chief element, of health and long life. Bodily tion as the majority of persons employed within doors, labour in pure air is the combination which carries health enjoys the same comparative immunity from consumption, and physical development to its highest pitch of perfec- and this in spite of his constant exposure to one of its most tion; and this is the fountain from which the community exciting causes-cold. He had found, from experience, that at large draw a perennial supply of strength and vigour. the liability to consumption was inversely as to the amount It is from the rural districts that the large towns draw of exertion ; that consumption occurs earlier in sedentary their recruits to fill up the wide gaps which disease is employments than in those requiring more exertion; and always making in their ranks; and it was from the warriors in the latter, again, than in those requiring great exertion; of old that our noble families derived the vigour which has that the deaths from all causes follow the same rule ; and enabled them to continue through successive generations that the average age at death is lowest in the sedentary the possessors of hereditary rank and fortune. So, too, the class. There was then abundant proof that in employrude health and vigour which exercise alone can produce ments carried on in-doors, exercise has a most beneficial is constantly forcing its way upwards from the lowest to effect. This was illustrated by the case of the compositor the highest places in the social scale, to supply the waste and pressman. They both breathe the same kind of air, in of life which luxury is constantly making among the higher rooms similarly constructed, warmed, and lighted; they reelasses of the community.

sembled each other, in fact, in everything but the amount of

exertion which they employ. A comparison gave the strikTOWNS'-PEOPLE.

ing result, that while the compositor suffers from attacks of De Guy next compares the three classes which may be said consumption in about 3., of all other diseases, the pressman to make up the sum-total of our towns'-population-namely, is liable to only 1 in 5. Then the question suggested itself, the gentry, including professional persons; the trading and was exercise in all its degrees conducive to health? Could mercantile class; and the operatives. Some time since, he a man not use too much exertion? Undoubtedly he might. had been at some pains to extract from the mortuary Too much exertion, like too little, tended to shorten life. registers of the metropolis for the year 1839, the ages at The result of an accurate comparison which he had made death of the three classes of society-gentry, tradesmen, was, that the average age of pressmen is 34 years, that of and operatives--dying aged 15 years and upwards ; and he compositors 28. It was a fair inference, then, that the pressfoand, taking the average, that the gentry lived 59 years, man lives on an average six years longer than the compothe tradesmen lived only 49, and the labouring class 48: sitor; and yet it was a curious fact that the compositor that was to say, the gentry live 11 years longer than the attains, in rare instances, a much greater age than the presslabouring population, and 10 years longer than tradesmen ; man. Thus, while the oldest pressman whom he had found and this, it should be recollected, in spite of the circum- at work was 60, the oldest compositor was 72. This appastance that the labouring classes, when favourably placed, rent anomaly was easily explained. Men who work hard, live much longer than the higher classes. How unfavour- begin, towards 50 years of age, to suffer from diseases proable, then, to health and life must be the circumstances duced by over-exertion, which diseases, if they continue by which they are surrounded in our large towns, to give their employment, are sure to prove fatal before many rise to so very great a disparity! Tables, carefully com- years have passed but, on the other hand, those who lead piled, went to prove that the tradesman himself is shorter à sedentary life, having resisted the unwholesome influlived than the working man by one or two years, and ences to which they are exposed, continue to live on in the much shorter-lived than the members of the higher classes; use of a degree of exertion quite compatible with dimibut the families of tradesmen have some advantage over nished strength, and may attain a good old age. In conthose of the working-classes. The lecturer confessed that, clusion, Dr Guy alluded to the relative amount of injury

GAS-BURNING.

CAUSES OF DISEASE IN LARGE TOWN8.

from want of exercise and foul air. It was an acknow- manifested in the getting up of news — an activity ledged fact, that consumption could be produced in ani- which, in many cases, is restrained by no consideramals by confining them in a hot and foul atmosphere; tions of outlay or risk. With all these admissions, which was equivalent to consigning human beings, and however, we can yet feel that the newspaper press, especially the young, to sedentary occupations in ill-venti- generally, is guilty of a delinquency which tarnishes its lated workshops. The labourer at 30 years of age has an fair and honourable fame. expectation of 404 years ; the clerk of only 27.) yearsa difference of no less than 13 years: and does not this speak

It will immediately occur to every one that we volumes in favour of air and exercise ? and does it not force allude to the unscrupulous admission of advertisements upon us the duty of striving, with all our might and means, of quack medicines and quack-medical books into the to secure for the poorer inhabitants of large towns facili- columns of our newspapers. The gross deception and ties for exercise and pure air, of which a long course of falsehood, the scandalous impurity, not to say the renegligence has deprived them?

volting indecency, of these advertisements, ought assuredly, and at whatever pecuniary sacrifice, to prevent

their circulation. In the state in which it is commonly used, the gas con

Some newspapers there are which sumed in our large towns is very far from pureits dis- systematically, and on principle, repudiate this class of agreeable odour is evidence of this. But in its purest state, announcements; but these are intrepid and honourable it creates a poisonous gas, which diffuses itself into the exceptions to what would seem a universal rule. The apartment where it is burned. This poisonous gas-car- Lancet the other day took occasion to allude to the bonic acid-is the same that issues from the lungs of ani- subject, and disclosed some of the statistics, as well as mals, and renders the air they have breathed unfit for the injurious results, of these infamous advertisements. support of life. The carbonic acid gas thrown off by one * For the purpose of scrutiny, we took five of these gas-light of the ordinary size, is equal to the products of quack names [in London), and found that, on an averthe respiration of three or four human beings. The use of age, three advertisements per diem appear in each of gas within doors, without making any provision for carry: the seven daily papers; this makes twenty-one per day, those barbarisms with which, in these days of semi-civi- or one hundred and twenty-six per week. The weekly lisation, we are surrounded. Respiration being merely a

journals of various kinds number nearly one hundred, process of combustion, and the human body a furnace of and in one week these five advertisements appeared Hesh, the products of respiration are the same as those of upwards of two hundred and fifty times. This was combustion, and the human body has the same effect on exclusive of magazines, monthlies, and quarterlies, with the air of an apartment as a gas-light or a furnace, and em- miscellaneous publications, and exclusive of the country ploying men in over-crowded apartments, without making newspapers, in nearly all of which the whole of these provision for ventilation, is like filling a room with gas-light advertisements appear. Taking the advertisements from or charcoal choffers.

these sources altogether, they may be fairly computed

at another two hundred and fifty. This would make for Having stated that England is naturally the most healthy the five six hundred and twenty-six per week, or thirtykingdom in Europe, the lecturer went on to show that the two thousand six hundred and fifty per annum! The amount of disease which prevailed in large towns was not advertisements are known to be lengthy, and a respectnatural ; and that it was to be attributed mainly, if not able news-agent whom we applied to, assured us they entirely, to the impurity of the air, caused by the dense could not cost less than 10s. each. This calculation gives clouds of smoke from chimneys, and the exhalations arising upwards of L.16,000 a-year as the expenditure of these from refuse matter, slaughter-houses, gas-works, cess-pools, five quacks in advertising alone!* These persons live &c. &c. It could not be said that the habits of the popu- in expensive houses, and it is not unusual to see them lation of large towns are not as good as those of the inhabitants of rural districts. Some part of the evil had been calling in their carriages with advertisements at the attributed to intemperance, but the large amount of mor- newspaper offices, so that their entire incomes must be tality among children, who certainly are not the victims enormous, and all filched from the profession in cases of intemperance, showed that this cause had little to do of real illness, or extorted from the public where disease with it. Again, the excess of mortality in towns could is only fancied ! not be attributed to low wages, or scanty food, or deficient *These quacks greatly affect religious and well-reclothing, or want of shelter from the weather. In all these puted publications ; it gives them, as it were, character respects the agricultural labourers were in a much worse to appear constantly in these pages. With a keen eye position. All comparisons led to the same conclusion—that to business, they are also delighted at having a dextthe excess of disease was mainly attributable to impure door advertisement to a respectable book. They are, it air. A large city, as things now were, was a huge manufactory of foul air, where disease was always busy, and is true, generally consigned to the bottom of the page ; but pestilence never absent. What with the over-crowding of as newspapers cannot draw a quarantine quite round the inhabitants, the absence of efficient sewerage, the almost them, some one or other must daily see their works total want of ventilation of houses and workshops, the too advertised in contact with these abominations. This is prevalent use of stoves, added to the national horror of a point worth the notice of those papers who will condraughts, the air was rendered a subtle and deadly poison, tinue to circulate the pestilent humbug. They should, of which the labouring-classes, and persons following seden- at least, place blocks of non-conducting puffs between tary occupations, were the first and most numerous victims. them and the better sort of advertisements. The remedies necessary for the removal of this evil were “We have said they greatly value the religious pubbroad, straight thoroughfares, with here and there large lications ; they are now kicked out of nearly all the open spaces ; in other words, wide streets, and large squares weekly newspapers of this

class. Some, however, there pure water, efficient sewerage for the removal of dirty are where Mammon prevails over decency. water and other refuse ; and last, but not least, clean and

* Enormous as are the sums spent in advertising, well-aired habitations.

they would be much greater but for a system which obtains in the provinces of compounding for payment.

These people are permitted to send down to country QUACK ADVERTISEMENTS.

papers a quantity of their books and medicines with In a late number of Blackwood's Magazine, appears a their advertisements; the books and medicines are sold eulogy on the newspaper press of Great Britain not less at the newspaper office, or by some druggist or stationer eloquent than just. It is very true that this press is in the neighbourhood, and the puffs are paid for out of an honour to the country, if only for its abstinence the proceeds. In this way it is, or by direct payment, from slander, ribaldry, and other ministrations to the that in almost every provincial journal in the kingdom, meaner part of our nature; we can also prize its ceaseless vigilance in denouncing corruption, oppression,

* As we observe that the same quack advertisements regularly wickedness, and fraud, wheresoever they exist; nor can

appear in the colonial papers, this suin must be considerably unwe withhold our admiration and wonder at the activity derstated.Ed. C. E. J.

the physical results of human iniquity are blazoned usual quantity from two to three ounces. Inveterate cigar forth with all that prominency of type-setting of which smokers will consume from four to five dozen per week. George Robins was the proud inventor. This will | The first morbid result is an inflammatory condition of the scarcely be believed of such a class of men as provincial mucous membrane of the lips and tongue'; then the tonsils newspaper editors, publishers, and proprietors. But the and congested. If the thorax be examined well, it will

and pharynx suffer--the mucous membrane becoming dry fact is so.

"One might pursue these creatures through the de- be found slightly swollen, with congested veins meandering ceptions of their disgusting traffic, but the task is irk- Action ascends upwards into the posterior nares. The eye

over the surface, and here and there a streak of muous. some, and we will add but one or two more glaring in- becomes affected with heat, slight redness, lachrymation, stances. Doubtless respectable readers are startled to and a peculiar spasmodic action of the orbicularis muscle, see critiques of books of this class advertised, purport- experienced with intolerance of light on awaking in the ing to come from respectable papers. But often the morning. The frontal sinuses do not escape, but there is a names of fictitious newspapers are employed; and so heavy dull ache in their region. Descending down the likewise are the names of respectable medical men alimentary canal, we come to the stomach, where the results simulated, as guaranteeing cures. Somewhat remains in extreme cases are symptoms of gastritis. Pain, tenderto be said about the more immediate depredations of ness, and a constant sensation of sickliness, and desire to these wretches upon the poor flies who become en heart and lungs is impaired by the influence of the nar

expectorate, belong to this affection. The action of the tangled in their webs. Like Peter Schlemihl's fiend, cotic on the nervous system ; but a morbid state of the they hold him firmly if they have but his shadow in larynx, trachea, and lungs results from the direct action of their grasp, and in most instances the price of silence the smoke. The voice is observed to be rendered hoarser, is paid. We have known them reduce their dupes to and with a deeper tone. Sometimes a short cough results, beggary and to the madhouse.

and a case of ulceration in the cartilages of the larynx The whole question has its bearing on the medical came under the doctor's notice. The patient was such a profession, and forcibly urges the necessity of defending slave to the habit, that he hardly ever had the pipe out of the faculty and the public from quackery by legal his mouth. Similar sufferings have been caused by simienactments; but it has, too, a still more important re- lar practices in other instances. Another form is a slight lation to public and social morality. It can scarcely be tickling, low down in the pharynx or trachea, and the pawondered at, when the young and the ignorant are ex

tient coughs, or rather hawks up, a grumous-looking blood. posed to the continual taint of these prurient advertise - It is so alarming, as to be mistaken for pulmonary hæmopments—when the disgusting anatomy of vice is every depressing ; and some individuals who feel it in this

tysis. The action of tobacco-smoking on the heart is where paraded with but the flimsiest covering—and the organ more than others, complain of an uneasy sensation very debris of the grossest of our animal passions are about the left nipple—a distressing feeling, not amounting thrust before the pure and the impure alike, irrespec- to faintness, but allied to it. The action of the heart is tive of either sex or age. It is impossible that the con observed to be feeble and irregular. An uneasy feeling is tinued exposure of such things to the curiosity of young also experienced in or beneath the pectoral muscles, and people can be without a baleful effect. We are per- oftener on the right side than on the left. On the brain suaded that they are a prolific source of the evils they the use of tobacco appears to diminish the rapidity of falsely profess to remedy. The fabric we have at cerebral action, and check the flow of ideas through the tempted to expose, based as it is on lying, fraud, and mind. It differs from opium and henbane, and rather

excites to wakefulness, like green tea, than composes to every imaginable form of deceit, must be brought to sleep; induces a dreaminess which leaves no impression the ground. We commend the subject to all those who on the memory, leaving a great susceptibility, indicated desire to act as conservators of public morals; but, by a trembling of the hands and irritability of temper. above all, the bringing public opinion to bear upon its such are secondary results of smoking ; so are blackness indirect supporters is what we would aim at. "Public of teeth and gum-boils. There is also a sallow paleness of opinion is the great lictor, and never were the axe and the complexion, an irresoluteness of disposition, a want of the fasces more imperatively required.'

life and energy, and, in constant smokers who do not drink, Cordially uniting in these strictures, we would re a tendency to pulmonary phthisis. Dr Wright of Birspectfully represent to our fellow-labourers of the press, mingham, in a communication to the author, fully corrothat in giving publicity to such advertisements, they borates his opinions ; and both agree that smoking produces not only do a positive injury to society, but neutralise the larynx and pharynx; diseases of the heart, and lowness

gastric disorders, coughs, and inflammatory affections of the good they then but attempt to effect. Virtue in one of the spirits ; and, in short, is very injurious to the rescolumn is balanced by vice in another. Their generous piratory, circulating, alimentary, and nervous systems.diatribes against political venality and private profli- Literary Gazette. gacy, can have little effect when placed in such odious juxtaposition. Even their law and police reports, which

A HINDOO GENIUS. so frequently hold up dishonesty and indecency to repro A native of Calcutta, by hereditary profession a blackbation, can hardly be expected to deter those who see smith, who was employed for many years in cutting punches dishonesty and indecency countenanced and abetted in for this press, having now little occupation, has adopted the next page. That proprietors and editors are gene the following ingenious mode of obtaining a livelihood :rally men of honour, is perfectly true; and that is just He has manufactured an iron press upon the

model of one the reason why we think a kindly-meant remonstrance of those in use here, and set up a printing-office, at which such as this will have due effect with the really respect he has commenced printing for the country at large. Last able journals, and induce them to leave such 'nauseous year he printed a native almanac of a superior character,

which had a remarkable run. Soon after this he began to advertisements to others—if such be-which even they engrave on lead pictures of the gods and goddesses of the will not contaminate.

Hindoo Pantheon, of which hundreds of thousands were

struck off on inferior paper, and obtained a ready sale. THE CONSEQUENCES OF SMOKING.

Some of them were afterwards adorned by the art of the

limner, and being set in frames, sold of course for a higher The wide-spread habit of smoking has not yet had due price.' Hawkers were employed in traversing the country medical attention paid to it and its consequences. It is with packs of these mythological prints, both on account only by two or three years' observations that Dr Laycock of our Serampore printer, and others who soon found it had become fully aware of the great changes induced in advantageous to imitate his example in Calcutta. Hence the system by the abuse of tobacco, and of the varied and there are few villages to be found in a circle of many obscure forms of disease to which especially excessive smok- miles round the country in which the cottages of perhaps ing gave origin. He proceeded to state some of them as the poorest individual is not supplied with the veritable they were met with in the pharyngical mucous membrane, ettigy of some one of the popular gods. The supply, the stomach, the lungs, the heart, the brain, and the ner- however, soon became too great for the demand, and vous system. The tobacco consumed by habitual smokers his competitors relinquished the trade, which has since varied from half an ounce to twelve ounces per week, the languished, and is now confined to a very limited extent.

Indian paper.

· But his ingenuity was not exhausted. He determined ivory-black; and also occasionally serve as fuel for melting to print English books for the numerous youths of the the fat, and for manure. The sinews and tendons are sold poorer classes, who are now endeavouring to obtain a to gluemakers; the small intestines are made into coarse smattering of our tongue, and for whom even the low- strings for lathes, &c. or serve as manure. priced elementary works of the Calcutta School-Book Society are too high. Of these works, thousands of pirated copies have been printed in Calcutta, and disseminated

SONNET through the country. But the individual we allude to, finding English type, at second-hand, too dear for his pur

I DREAMED-I saw a little rosy child, pose, has cut a set of punches for himself, and cast the

With flaxen ringlets, in a garden playing; types which he employs for this work. They are entirely

Now stopping here, and then afar off straying, wanting in that beauty and exquisite accuracy which

As flower or butterfly his feet beguiled. characterise our English types, but to an inexperienced

'Twas changed-one summer's day I stepped asido, eye the difference between them and letters cast in Europe

To let him pass : his face had manhood's seeming; or America would scarcely be apparent ; and to a native,

And that full eye of blue was fondly beaming the inferiority would be altogether imperceptible. Thus On a fair maiden, whom he called ' his bride!' furnished by his own ingenuity with the whole apparatus Once more—'twas evening, and the cheerful fire of a typographical establishment, he is enabled to produce I saw a group of youthful forms surrounding; works at so cheap a rate, as completely to undersell the The room with harmless pleasantry resounding ; presses in Calcutta. The native booksellers in that city, And in the midst I marked the smiling sire. a rising race, though at present of little note, are happy The heavens were clouded! and I heard the tone to avail themselves of his labours, and purchase edition Of a slow-moving bell: the white-haired man was gone ! after edition of his Cheap Books. As soon as education -Old Journal. in the vernacular language becomes the order of the day, it is by such men and such means that books will be multiplied. Capital will be poured in upon the enterprise ;

STRENGTHENING PROPERTIES OF TEA. the natives who are acquainted both with English and Bengalee will find it to their advantage to cater for the

At the public meeting in this town, to promote a press, and the means of improvement will be placed within reduction of the duty on tea, Mr Martyn J. Roberts the reach of the middling and lower classes of society. referred to the physical condition of the inhabitants of

the Channel Islands, whose consumption of this article

exceeds that of the people of England in about the proRICHTER'S PLAN OF SELF-EDUCATION.

portion of 3 to 1, and to the published opinion of Pro

fessor Liebig, in proof that tea is a strengthening rather The rules he laid down for himself in the work of self-than a debilitating beverage, if used with moderation. education are worthy of special notice. First, since life is During the week, we have learned from an eminent linshort in comparison with the work to be accomplished, he guist and professor of the United States, that the most aimed at introducing a just economy through all his em- | able medical men of that country entirely concur in the ployments, resolving that, as far as possible, neither his opinion. This gentleman also stated a fact from his own time nor his labour should be without its use. The pre- knowledge which is worth being recorded.

A literary sent was so to be managed, that he might fairly look to the friend of his, under the conviction produced by certain future for payment of interest, increasing after a compound statements which he had read and heard, that tea was inratio. He sought for mental food in four principal fields-, jurious, resolved to abstain from it. He continued this human life; the works of nature; the substantial, pure, and abstinence for a year, during which time, instead of finding good' world of books; and last, but before all the rest, pa- benefit from the change, he experienced a want of tone tient reflection. One-half of the day was given to writing ; which surprised and mortified him. At the end of the the other half was devoted to exercise in the open air, and year he resolved to try whether this arose from his abto thinking. Like our own Wordsworth, he loved the fair stinence from tea; he resumed its use, and soon had the face of Nature, and spent many hours daily in the contempla- gratification to feel a return of the healthful sensations tion of her charms, feeling, as he stepped into the free air, as which he had enjoyed previous to the abandonment of this if he were entering some mighty temple. In prosecuting his cheering beverage.-- Leeds Mercury. plan of noting, he formed a series of handbooks of various branches of science; and in one of these-indorsed ‘Nature'

TOO MUCH ANXIETY. -he entered all the examples that fell within his notice of Of the causes of disease, anxiety of mind is one of the a superior contriving mind ; in short, he made a handbook most frequent and important. When we walk the streets of natural theology. As he conceived the scheme of any of large commercial towns, we can scarcely fail to remark new work, he sketched an outline of the story and the the hurried gait and careworn features of the well-dressed characters, with some of the thoughts to be worked out, passengers. Some young men, indeed, we may see with just in the way that a painter makes studies for any great countenances possessing natural cheerfulness and colour; design. Such a book was marked Quarry.' His Quarry but these appearances rarely survive the age of manhood. for Titan' was found to occupy seventy closely-printed Cuvier closes an eloquent description of animal existence pages. Perceiving, as all great artists must do, the value and change with the conclusion that 'life is a state of force.' of a command over language, he was at great pains to What he would urge in a physical view, we may more mark the various meanings of which words are susceptible. strongly urge in a moral. Čivilisation has changed our He commenced a dictionary of synonymes, to which he character of mind as well as of body. We live in a state of never afterwards ceased adding. Of one word he actually unnatural excitement; because it is partial, irregular, and discovered two hundred nice shades of signification.— excessive. Our muscles waste for want of action; our Monthly Prize Essays.

nervous system is worn out by excess of action. Vital

energy is drawn from the operations for which nature THE VALUE OF A DEAD HORSE IN PARIS.

designed it, and devoted to operations which it never conAfter the horses are deposited, the hair of the mane and templated.—Thackeray. tail is cut off, which amounts to about a quarter of a

EFFECT OF LIGHT UPON HEALTH. pound; the skin is then taken away, which is disposed of to tanners, and used for various purposes; the shoes are There is a marked difference in the healthiness of houses, sold as old iron; the feet are cut off, dried, and beaten, in according to their aspect in regard to the sun. Those are order to make the hoofs come away, or are left to putrefy decidedly the healthiest, other things being equal, in which till they separate of themselves, when they are sold to all rooms are, during some part of the day, fully exposed to turners, combmakers, manufacturers of ammonia and direct light. It is well known that epidemics attack the Prussian blue. Every morsel of fat is picked out and inhabitants of the shady side of a street, and totally exempt melted, and used for burning by makers of enamel and those of the other side. -Dr Moore. glass-toys, greasing shoe-leather and harness, and manufacturing soap and gas. The workmen choose the best pieces of the flesh to eat, preferring those about the head, and sell Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, the rest for dogs, cats, hogs, and poultry. It is also much

147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, used for manure and making Prussian blue. The bones are 21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, disposed of to cutlers, fan-makers, &c. and often made into Edinburgh.

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