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observed a very dense fog resting in patches on certain pollen and odoriferous dust from flowers, they are, as - parts of the island ; at times it was so defined, that he Dr Graham says, “highly-organised particles of fixed could point out the exact measure of ground over which matter, which find their way into the atmosphere, and it rested. It hung low over the ground, and had the remain for a time suspended in it," and when so susappearance of a light powdering of snow. In passing, pended, they can be dissolved and neutralised by gases it fell down on his small farm, and he smelt it very of the nature before described.' unpleasant; exactly like, he says, the bilge water of a Should additional investigation settle the question in ship, a sulphurous sort of stench. After the wind rose this manner, may we not hope to see, among the arand cleared off those clouds or lumps of fog, there re- rangements of agriculture, apparatus for neutralising mained on the grass over which they had hung, as well such infusions of noxious matter, when they happen as on the potato shaws, an appearance of gray dew or to arise ? hoar-frost. The next morning he noticed the leaves of his potatoes slightly spotted. In two days the shaws

THE STRANGER OF THE BALL. began to droop and wither, turning pale- yellowish. He now observed that the tubers in the ground, under A BALL was about to take place in a small country the diseased plants, were covered by minute white town on the west coast of Scotland, and as the town specks, which soon became small maggots; and before boasted only one barber of any eminence, it may be supten days, not a shaw was in his potato patch, more posed that his hands were full. Indeed Duncan could than if it had been a bare fallow, while the stench of not by any possibility have got through his business, the rotten potatoes was very bad. This was one of had it not luckily happened that he had just provided the spots where the fog bank had rested most palpably. himself with an assistant. The assistant was from But everywhere through the island, the disease, after London; though only from an establishment'in a lane the fog, began in spots and corners of fields, and spread leading out of Goswell Street. No matter : he was from more slowly over all.'

London; and the fact was a tower of strength to the After quoting other observers of the fogs, Mr Milne concern. The young man was a smart, vain, ignorant, remarks that there was something extraordinary in impudent Cockney; and on finding himself all on a them. 'In the first place, they appeared at an ano- sudden in such wonderful demand, he gave himself a malous season of the year—that is, at a period when the thousand ridiculous airs, at which even the anxious and temperature of the air generally exceeds that of the expectant fair ones could not refrain from laughing. earth and water. In the second place, they continued At the period referred to, it must be told—the time for longer periods than they usually do, even in when our respected grandmothers were young ladiesspring. In the third place, some persons were sen a ball could not by any possibility be got up without sible of a peculiar odour or smell accompanying them.' the assistance of the hairdresser. He was the primum He adds—* In regard to the connection of these fogs mobile of the whole affair. The toes in those days were with the potato disease, it certainly does not follow, be as nothing compared with the head; and the preparacause two extraordinary things happen simultaneously, tion of the latter for the scene was a task which could or closely in succession, that they are connected. But only be intrusted to the hands of a professional artist. the probability of their being so, is enhanced by the We might wonder how it was possible for one pair of considerations formerly submitted, as to the existence hands, even when assisted by another pair, to dress the of some extraordinary substance in the air which must hair of a whole townful of ladies--if we were not aware have produced the disease; and the presumption is of the heroic endurance of the fair sex in extraordinary further strengthened by the fact, that in 1845, when exigencies. The fact is, the labours of the barber began there was no failure of potato crops in the Highlands at daybreak on the morning of the day before that of and the Orkneys, there were no fogs; whilst in 1846 the ball; and those who were obliged to submit to the there was a universal failure, and simultaneously with operation on that day, rather than put in jeopardy, by the disease, the prevalence of peculiar fogs in the High- lying down, the edifice he had constructed of dust, lands.'

grease, and hair, sat up all night in a chair. In the latter part of his pamphlet, Mr Milne shows In the town in question, a certain young lady-not how small an infusion of deleterious matter in the at our grandmother, we beg to say-was on the present mosphere is sufficient to injure vegetation. He also occasion one of these victims : but a very unwilling one. remarks the unusual mortality of both man and beast | On the first intelligence reaching her of the day for the during the last two years as probably connected with ball being fixed, she had hastened to the spot from a the same cause. While, he says, it is for experienced place at some distance where she had been on a visit; chemists to ascertain the nature of the substance which but railways, unluckily, not having as yet been invented, seems to have produced the potato failure, he may ob- she did not arrive till Duncan was engaged, body and serve that the gases which apparently neutralise it, or soul, for every minute of the actual day, up to the very counteract its noxious effects, are all those which are tuning of the fiddles. Now Miss Bella, though an angel remarkable for their antiseptic properties, and some of in beauty, was the very opposite in temper. She was which are commonly used to stop contagion. Dr Ure proud, arrogant, and imperious; and this unfortunate observes, that “malaria, or morbific and putrescent mi- casualty, though charged in the first instance upon the asmata, consist chiefly of hydrogenous matter as their barber exclusively, seemed at length to be the effect of basis, and are best counteracted by chlorine.Liebig, nothing less than a conspiracy of the whole population. in his “Chemistry and Physics in Relation to Physio- But it was needless to fret or fume. The barber could logy," p. 53, says, that “free or combined ammonia, the not, and the other young ladies would not, give way; almost invariable product of putrefactive processes, is and at length Miss Bella was constrained to take her found, during many contagious diseases—as, for instance, place among the penultimates. typhus—in the surrounding atmosphere;” and we know This was an unhappy occurrence for the Cockney, that ammonia may be decomposed by chlorine (Ure's who, for his sins, was doomed to dress the spoiled “ Dictionary of Arts "). In like manner it is known that beauty's hair. She was not at any time very conde. sulphurous and arsenious acids are pre-eminently useful scending to her inferiors in station; but on the present in counteracting putrefaction (Liebig, do. p. 50). It occasion she discharged all the vials of her pride upon may, therefore, be inferred, that the substance in the the unfortunate young man, till she nearly set him air which these several gases neutralised was similar crazy, vanity and all. Her temper, it may be supposed, to what, under the convenient name of miasm, is found was not improved by her being obliged to sit up the to be injurious to the vitality of plants and animals. whole of the night as motionless as a wax doll : but, The true nature of miasmata, though guessed at by sustained by the heroism of her sex, she did come chemists, has never been ascertained. But it is be through the trial; and as on the next day the hours lieved that, like the exhalations from marshes, and the wore on towards the evening, a wild and feverish gaiety

gradually took the place of her ill-humour. She at •Where is he?' echoed the rest of the company. The length found herself in the ball-room, blazing with gentleman had disappeared. beauty, with a pyramid of hair such as Goswell Street This is a simple statement of the affair as it really had never seen in this world, and her sufferings were happened; but it is hardly necessary to say that a thouentirely forgotten. It was remarked that Miss Bella sand circumstances were added to it by runiour, till at never looked so handsome, and never moved so grace- length it was reported and believed that Bella, in des. fully: but some of her own sex discovered a dash of pair of a partner, had summoned a certain very old scorn in her gaiety, which detracted, they said, from the young gentleman to dance with her, who had come at effect of her beauty; and others declared that there was her bidding, and at length vanished in smoke. Even something strangely flighty in the movements both of without these adjuncts, however, the thing was mysteher limbs and eyes. Perhaps all this arose from envy. rious enough; and the proud girl found herself subjected

But, unluckily, the grand element in the success of a to so many taunts, that she hardly stirred out of her ball was wanting : there was no adequate number of house for some time after the ball. dancing men. The few as yet present were her dis At length another wonder occurred, to arouse anew carded swains—for she had refused half the bachelors the attention of the town. This was the sudden disin the town ; and these, either in spleen or mortification, appearance of the Cockney barber. Duncan, when queskept out of her way. By and by all her own party had tioned on the subject, was very close and mysterious ; been led out; and Miss Bella was exposed to the fre- and he was likewise averse to holding frank communiquent interrogatories of her affectionate friends—Why cation touching the absence, discovered at the same don't you dance?' Still she was not cast down. Her moment, of the plantation of jet-black curls and whischeeks glowed, her eyes blazed, and she met such im- kers of a waxen bust in his shop-window. These were pertinent questions with a haughty smile.

now currently said to bear an astonishing resemblance Why don't you dance, Bella? Don't you mean to to the decorations of the stranger of the ball !-and, prodance to-night?' said her good-natured companions, ceeding from one impertinence to another, Miss Bella gathering round her.

was at length complimented with the title of “The BarYes,' replied Bella, turning to them with a gay ber's Bride.' Some old ladies, however, were still disfierceness- I will dance to-night, if my partner should posed to adhere to the supernatural theory; for how be the

otherwise was it possible to account for the change How she meant to have finished the sentence, no one which took place in the haughty beauty ? Miss Bella can exactly tell: but there was a gleam in her eye while became, from that day, an absolute personification of she spoke which frightened her audience, and they meekness and gentleness; and acquiring a perfect horror drew back with a faint scream. In drawing back, some of the vanities of fashion, ever afterwards appeared in of them nearly trod on the toes of a gentleman who had a plain crop of curls ! just entered the room : at least no one had observed him till that instant. He was a young and handsome man, with the most exuberant curls and whiskers in the

THE INTERIOR OF AUSTRALIA. world, of a jetty blackness, and contrasting strangely The old and new worlds are almost tired of this newer with the waxen colour of his cheek. The eyes of the world of the Pacific, where only the sea-coasts, we have stranger, for no one in the room knew him, were fixed been told, are fit for human settlement, while the inteadmiringly upon the beautiful Bella; and walking rior, for a space of at least thirty degrees of longitude, straight up to her, he asked her to dance. He had not is a series of deserts, watered by lakes that turn periobeen presented to her ; she did not know his name ; dically into swamps, and rivers that lessen as they run, and yet - with an obliviousness of conventional rule till they finally sink in the earth, and disappear. Such, quite foreign to her character --she at once accepted at least, has been the experience of Captain Sturt, who, his arm, and in another moment they were whirling in the midst of unparalleled difficulties, endeavoured, together through the dance.

and is still endeavouring, to intersect the vast country This incident occasioned much conversation. Miss from south to north, from Adelaide to the Gulf of CarBella and her partner were decidedly the handsomest pentaria. The mighty river, or inland sea, which was couple in the room ; and they continued dancing to the object of his quest, and in the existence of which gether half the evening. Who was he? From appear he entertained a firm belief, receded as he advanced ; ances, military seemed most likely ; yet not one of and when last heard of, he had accomplished two-thirds the officers of the neighbouring garrison knew him. of his journey, arriving at some degrees beyond the He was not a resident in the town: it was ascertained tropic of Capricorn, with still nothing more than Hope that he had not bespoken a bed at either of the inns: in the distance. he had no horse nor equipage. How did he come? But while this is the case in the very middle of the How did he mean to go ? The mystery appeared un new continent, great discoveries are taking place to the fathomable ; and when at length Bella's uncle made his eastward, midway between Captain Sturt's line of route appearance, at a late hour in the evening, many of the and the distant shores of the South Pacific. There Sir company gathered round him, to tell eagerly how his Thomas Mitchell, it appears, has wandered by the banks niece had been dancing so long with an utter stranger, of noble rivers--one of which he believes to have its and to advise him at least to ascertain the gentleman's estuary in the Gulf of Carpentaria—and in the midst of

plains as rich, and hills as picturesque and romantic, as The uncle thought the proud and high-spirited Bella any that are to be found on the most beautiful part of might very well be left to herself in a case of the kind; the coast. The world has been too impatient." Ausbut still he could hardly avoid taking some notice of tralia will yet realise its earlier dreams, and become the the aflair. The couple were at this time standing near site of great empires. Even the central wastes may the door, with several others, to enjoy the cool air; yield to human industry, as population closes in upon and as they saw the eyes of so many of the company them from all sides of the compass. directed towards them, Bella, with perhaps some feel But pleasant as such anticipations may be, they are ing of awkwardness, as she recollected her imprudence, somewhat vague and shadowy. This is truly affirmed turned away from her partner.

to be a practical age; which means that we work much, • Niece,' said the old gentleman, going up to her, 'I and speculate little. Progress, progress, is our grand shall request the pleasure of being introduced to the object. Another generation will perhaps ascend the gentleman you have danced with.'

hill-tops, to observe the course of the country through "I did not catch his name,' replied Bella ; 'the master which they are journeying, but it is our genius to push of the ceremonies will doubtless do what is necessary, blindly, untiringly on. Let us in the meantime, there. unless the gentleman himself—where is he?'

fore, follow Sir Thomas Mitchell, without burthening * Where is he?' repeated the uncle.

ourselves with the task of posterity.

name.

The letters of the surveyor-general, as given in sub- Mantua Downs and Plains. I returned to the party on stance in the . Launceston Examiner,' are not so pre- the Salvator, crossed that river with it in latitude 24° cise as could be wished; indeed it is hardly possible to 31' 47" south, and conducted it, cutting our way through obtain from them any distinct idea of the system of ten miles of scrub, to the banks of the Claude. These rivers he attempts to describe. After the junction of two rivers join at a considerable distance lower down, the Macquarrie with the Darling, he visited the Narran and form the Negoa; a river which, according to the Swamp, . a wonderful provision of nature for the supply natives, pursues a north-east course to the sea, and and retention of water in a dry and parched country.' therefore probably has its estuary on the shores of It appears to be fed chiefly by the Narran River, but Broad Sound or its vicinity. also by minor branches of the Balonne, which discharges . We were obliged to make a bridge for the passage of its main waters into the Darling. This division of so our carts across the Claude, and then we crossed a important a river as the latter is likewise advantageous, plain upon which_grass grew almost as thickly as it as it serves to irrigate · from one principal channel ex- grew in Australia Felix; then another stream, also full tensive regions of rich earth beyond the Darling, while of water, was crossed, and we ascended undulating the surplus or overflow, instead of passing, as in com downs, on which fragments of fossil wood were abunmon cases, to the sea, is received in the deep channel of dant in a very rich soil

. Beyond these--the Mantua the Narran, and thereby conducted to that extensive Downs--a range of broken summits appeared, and was reservoir, where, on rock or stiff clay, and under ever- certainly ornamental, but which we found to be only verdant polygonum, it furnishes an inexhaustible supply the upper part of a very intricate and difficult sandfor the support of animal life.'

stone country, wherein the beds of the gullies were at Proceeding beyond the farthest point marked in the a much lower level than the downs and plains. I enmaps, he traced the Balonne flowing in broad, deep, and deavoured to penetrate to the westward of these, but extensive reaches. “From Mount Abundance,' he says, found the country on that side quite impervious. We ' in longitude 148° 40' east, latitude 26° 39' 30" south, found a very favourable outlet from that difficult counI again perceived that the fine open country in which I try by a pass, in the gorge of which stood a rock so then was extended eastward as far as the eye or tele- much resembling a tower, that at first sight few would scope could reach, and that it was watered by a river believe it the work of nature only. The glen we then from the northward, distinctly marked by the smoke of entered (named from the tower at its entrance, Glen the natives' fires. That river was still the Balonne, Turret) was very extensive, and contained abundance according to the natives; and from Mount Bindango of good grass.' I was able to intersect the summits of the isolated All this, however, was of little consequence to the range in the centre of that splendid region, placing it in object of the surveyor—the discovery of a great river longitude about 149° 2' east, and in latitude 26° 23' 32" flowing towards the Gulf of Carpentaria ; but in a south. To mark the epoch of this discovery, I named letter from the Balonne, dated November 9, 1846, we it on niy map the Fitzroy Downs, and the range in have at length some hint of the consummation so much the midst of them I distinguish as the Grafton Range.' desired. His first view of what he fondly imagines to

He next came upon the river Maranoa; which was be the river, was in longitude 146° 42' 25' east, latitude subsequently discovered by Mr Kennedy to join the 24° 50' 35" south. Balonne. Its banks were of rich pastoral land, of the On ascending the range early next morning, I saw nature of open downs.

open downs and plains with a line of river in the midst, • Continuing my ride north-west, I again found a the whole extending to the north-north-west as far as the chain of volcanic summits connected with a mass of horizon. Following the little stream from the valley in table-land, which I named-finding none of the abori. which I had passed the night, I soon reached the open gines there-Hope's Table-Land. Mount P. P. King, country, and during ten successive days I pursued the à pointed volcanic cone, longitude 147° 37' 40" east, course of that river, through the same sort of country, latitude 25° 9' 10", is near the head of that river, which each day as far as my horse could carry me, and in the we followed down until it turned, as all the others had same direction, again approaching the Tropic of Capridone, to the south-west. I reached an extensive grassy corn. In some parts the river formed splendid reaches, valley, which terminated on a reedy lake in a more as broad and important as the river Murray; in others, open country. The lake was supplied by springs, arising it spread into four or five channels, some of them sevein a swamp at the gorge of the valley, which supported ral miles apart; but the whole country is better wa. a flowing stream of the purest water. The country is tered than any other portion of Australia I have seen, adorned by hills of the most romantic form, presenting by numerous tributaries arising in the downs. The outlines which surpass in picturesque beauty the fairest soil consists of rich clay, and the hollows give birth to creations of the painter. Several pyramids mark the water-courses, in the most of which water was abunspot where the springs were first discovered, and dant. I found at length that I might travel in any whence I now write. Lower down appear over the direction, and find water at hand, without having to woods isolated rocks, resembling ruined castles, temples, seek the river, except when I wished to ascertain its and Gothic cathedrals. Others have apertures through general course, and observe its character. The grass them; and the trees being also very varied and graceful consists of panicum and several new sorts, one of which in form, and rich in colour, contribute so much to the springs green from the old stem. The plains were beauty of the scenery, that I have been induced to dis- verdant; indeed the luxuriant pasturage surpassed in tinguish river and lake by the name of a painter. We quality, as it did in extent, anything of the kind I had lost two days in vainly endeavouring to pass to the ever seen. The myall-tree and salt bush (Acacia penwestward, through dense brigalow scrub; but on a ride dula and salsola), so essential to a good run, are also I took north-westward, I was more successful, for after there. New birds and new plants marked this out as forcing my way through ten miles of scrub, I came to an essentially different region from any I had previously what seemed to me the finest region on earth : plains explored ; and although I could not follow the river and downs of rich black mould, on which grew in pro- throughout its long course at that advanced season, I fusion the Panicum lævinode grass, and which were was convinced that its estuary was in the Gulf of Carfinely interspersed with lines of wood, which grew in pentaria; at all events, the country is open and wellthe hollows, and marked the courses of streams : co. watered for a direct route thereto. That the river is lumns of smoke showed that the country was too good the most important of Australia, increasing as it does to be left uninhabited ; and, in fact, on approaching the by successive tributaries, and not a mere product of nearest river channel

, I found it full of water. This distant ranges, admits of no dispute ; and the downs river I named Claude, in honour of the painter of quiet and plains of Central Australia, through which it flows, pastoral scenery; and to the downs and plains, so seem sufficient to supply the whole world with animal favourable to flocks and herds, I gave the name of the food. I crossed the river at the lowest point I reached,

PUBLIC CHARITIES.

in a great southern bend, in longitude 144° 34' east, is the most salutary of all the bodily movements; for it latitude 24° 14' south, and from rising ground beyond agitates both the body and the soul at the same time; the left bank, I could trace its downward course far to promotes digestion, circulation, and perspiration, and enthe northward. I saw no callitris (pine of the colonists) livens the vital power in every organ.Hufeland. in all that country ; but a range showing sandstone

BUSINESS AND LEARNING. cliffs appeared to the southward, in longitude about 145o east, latitude 24° 30' south. The country to the time, which might otherwise be better employed, I answer,

If any man maintaineth that learning takes up too much northward of the river is, upon the whole, the best; yet that'no man can be so straitened and oppressed with busiin riding ninety miles due east from where I crossed the

ness, and an active course of life, but may have many vasouthern bend, I found plenty of water and excellent cant times of leisure, while he expects the returns and grass.'

tides of business, except he be either of a very dull temper, The other rivers surveyed-in number, seven-were and no despatch, or ambitious (little to his credit and repuall of considerable importance; and Sir Thomas believed tation) to meddle and engage himself in employment of all that an investigation of the mountain-ranges in which natures and matters above his reach. It remaineth, therethey originate would enable hin to construct .such a fore, to be inquired, in what matter and how those spaces map of those parts of Australia, as may greatly facili- and times of leisure should be filled up and spent ; whether tate the immediate and permanent occupation of the in pleasures or study, sensuality or contemplation ; as was country, and the extension through it of a thoroughfare to pleasure, when he told him, by way of reproach, that his

well answered by Demosthenes to Æschines, a man given to the Gulf of Carpentaria, to which the direct way is orations did smell of the lamp. Indeed,' said Demosthenes, thus laid open.' He named the great river, 'watering there is a great difference between the things that you the best portion of the largest island in the world, the and I do by lamplight.' Wherefore, let no man fear lest Victoria.

learning should expulse business ; nay, rather, it will keep To the Gulf of Carpentaria we must look for the and defend the possessions of the mind against idleness solution of the mystery of Australia. This mighty and pleasure, which otherwise, at unawares, may enter basin, at the extreme north of the new continent, is the to the prejudice both of business and learning.–Bacon. receptacle of so vast a body of water, that the Indian voyagers are said to be able to fill their casks with fresh water when as yet the low land is barely visible from The general principles by which men are actuated who the deck. The head of the gulf consists of an expanse bequeath fortunes to public charities are fear and vanity of alluvial soil, covered with luxuriant herbage, and more than benevolence, or the love of doing good, which stretching inland to an unascertained extent, which has

will appear from the following considerations : -Ist, If a been appropriately named by Captain Stokes · Plains must then have) a delight in doing good, he would no

man were possessed of real benevolence, and had (as he of Promise.' • Whether the rivers, or rather water

more defer the enjoyment of this satisfaction to his deathcourses, discovered here by the Beagle,' says Mr Earl, bed, than the ambitious, the luxurious, or the vain, would are independent channels, or the embouchures of one wait till that period for the gratification of their several large river which carries off the waters of a great extent passions. 2dly, If the legacy be, as it often is, the first chaof country, and which, like the mouths of the Indus, ritable donation of any consequence, it is scarcely possible become partially closed during the dry season, is a point to arise from benevolence ; for he who hath no compassion of the deepest interest, and which will probably not for the distresses of his neighbours whom he hath seen, long remain undetermined.' The same acute observer how should he have any pity for the wants of posterity. adds, as a proof of the rapidity with which the land is 3dly, If the legacy be, as is likewise very common, to the gaining on the sea, that it has outstripped in its ad- friends in want, this is a certain proof that his motive is

injury of his family, or to the disappointment of his own vance even the progress of tropical Australian vegeta- not benevolence ; for he who loves not his own friends and tion, the period that has elapsed since its elevation relations, most certainly loves no other person. Lastly, if above the level of the waters not having been sufficient

a man hath lived any time in the world, he must obserre to allow the forest-trees to overspread the face of the such horrid and notorious abuses of all public charity, that country.'

he must be convinced (with a very few exceptions) that Whether the Victoria River, the discovery of which he will do no manner of good by contributing to them.is reported above, will prove to be the grand Australian Fielding. stream or not, it is as yet impossible to say; but it is at least satisfactory to know that we have advanced so far in the question as to render much longer delay in

The virtue of the ancient Athenians is very remarkable its solution improbable.

in the case of Euripides. This great tragic poet, thongh famous for the morality of his plays, had introduced a person who, being reminded of an oath he had taken, replied, I swore with my mouth, but not with my heart. The

impiety of this sentiment set the audience in an uproar, We have been favoured by Mr S. Brown, of Finedon, made Socrates (though an intimate friend of the poet) go near Higham Ferrers, with a sample of bread, which he

out of the theatre with indignation, and gave so great states is in constant use on his farm. It is made of flour offence, that Euripides was publicly accused, and brought and mangel wurzel, in equal quantities, by weight. The upon his trial, as one who had suggested an evasion of mangel wurzel is pared, cut into slices, and boiled so as to

what they thought the most holy and indissoluble bond of mash well. The usual quantity of yeast must be used, and human society. So jealous were these virtuous heathens little or no water is required. It must stand some time of even the smallest Nint that might open a way to perjury. after mixing, and then be baked as other bread. If the -Addison. loaf sent to us be a fair sample, we should call it good household bread. The saving to families would be very great, the price of mangel wurzel being only a farthing a

I never loved those salamanders that are never well but pound. Fifty per cent. at least would be saved by the use of this bread. - Newspaper paragraph.

when they are in the fire of contention. I will rather suffer a thousand wrongs than offer one: I will suffer a hundred

rather than return one; I will suffer many ere I will comJoy is one of the greatest panaceas of life. No joy is have ever found, that to strive with my superior, is furious;

plain of one, and endeavour to right it by contending. I more healthful or better calculated to prolong life than with my equal, doubtful; with my inferior, sordid and that which is to be found in domestic happiness, in the base ; with any, full of unquietness.Bishop Hall. company of cheerful and good men, and in contemplating with delight the beauties nature. A day spent in the country, under a serene sky, amidst a circle of agreeable Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also friends, is certainly a more positive means of prolonging

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, life than all the vital clixirs in the world.

147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London ; and J. M'GLASHAN, Laughter, that

21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.-Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, external expression of joy, must not here be omitted. It Edinburgh.

REVERENCE FOR TRUTH.

THE CHEAPEST BREAD YET.

CONTROVERSY.

THE TRUE ELIXIR VITE.

EDINBURG/)

JOURNAL

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CIAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' •CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 184. NEW SERIES.

SATURDAY, JULY 10, 1847.

PRICE 11d.

SCENE THE FIRST.

It was late in the evening. The full unclouded moon THE DICTATOR; OR TWO SCENES

shone on the scene here described, lighting up the white IN PARAGUAY.

walls of the humble cottage and the verdant masses of

the orange grove. The tall sugar-cane and the rustling In the vicinity of the city of Assumption, the capital maize-stalks waved their tasselled heads and slender of Paraguay (that irregular country, which, from the leaves in the soft night-wind. Now and then might be policy of seclusion so long pursued by its government, heard the sullen hooting of a distant owl, or the harsh has been termed the Japan of South America), are scream of a paroquet disturbed in its uneasy slumbers. scattered many country-houses belonging to the more All other sounds were hushed. The cattle were asleep wealthy citizens, who retire thither when their busi- in the corral, the fowls at roost on their accustomed ness is over, to escape from the scorching heat and trees. From the darkness and silence which prevailed, stilling dust of the open, unpaved streets. To many of it appeared that all the inhabitants of the cottage were these villas farms or plantations of considerable extent at rest, except in one room, which was lighted up, and are attached, which, cultivated by servants, supply the into which we will make bold to enter. It was very market of the capital, and thus afford a revenue to simply furnished, as is usual throughout Spanish Amethe proprietors. It is to one of these mansions that we rica. The brick floor was covered with fine straw would transport the imagination of our readers; and as matting. To the whitewashed walls were fastened a this power-namely, the imagination—is lord of time few ordinary pictures and engravings. Some light cane as well as of space, we shall expect it to bear us com- chairs were placed around the room, and at the farther pany as far back as a period of forty years ago, when end was an elevated dais or estrada, covered with the Paraguay was under the sway of a Spanish governor skins of the jaguar and puma, and serving as a lounge appointed by the viceroy of Buenos Ayres. At that for visitors, or a couch for the siesta or afternoon nap. time there stood, about a league north of the little In the centre of the room was a table, made of the wood city of Assumption, a dwelling of small dimensions— of the urandig-pitai, a native tree equal to the finest in fact a mere cottage — but beautifully situated, and rosewood. Two candles stood upon it, and numerous surrounded by fields of sugar-cane, maize, tobacco, and papers-some folded, and tied with tape, others opencotton, all in full cultivation. The house was built, were scattered over it. after the fashion of the country, of sun-dried bricks, A young man sat beside the table, deeply engaged in covered with plaster, and whitewashed. Along the the perusal of one of the documents. He was dressed front was a deep veranda, the pillars of which were like a wealthy haciendado, or gentleman farmer. His slender stems of forest trees, stripped of their branches jacket of blue cloth was adorned with silver buttons, and bark, and whitewashed, but with many rough knots hanging by little chains of an inch in length. His vest and inequalities where the boughs had been hewn off. of white satin, elegantly tamboured, was open so as to These served to sustain the vines which, planted at show the embroidered front of his cambric shirt. His their feet, ascended with many a winding clasp, and green velvet small-clothes, tied round the waist by a covered them with their luxuriant leaves. Then, reach- blue satin sash, were loose at the knee, allowing the ing the roof of the veranda, the vides spread and inter- ruffled ends of his muslin drawers to appear beneath laced, until the whole was buried in a mass of verdant them. They were met by white cotton stockings, and foliage, which contrasted beautifully with the snow- buskin boots of untanned horse-skin. The age of the white walls of the cottage and the ruddy tiles of the wearer was apparently about twenty-five. He had the sloping eaves. In the rear of the cottage was a long, brown complexion, the dark eyes, the black, glossy low building, appropriated to the servants and the hair, the thick beard and mustaches, which were prooffices, and extending to a corral, or enclosure, in which per to bis Spanish descent.

His handsome features the cattle and horses were kept. Directly in front of wore an expression of deep sadness, and his brow was the porch were two tall trees, of the tatayiba, or wild occasionally knit, as with indignation, while his eye mulberry, with slender stems and a profusion of light, glanced over the paper which he held. Just behind glossy leaves ; while before, and on each side of the him, in another chair, but leaning on the back of his, house, was an orchard, or it might rather be called a with her eyes fixed earnestly on his face, sat a young thicket, of fruit-trees. The broad dark leaf of the fig woman of extreme beauty both of form and feature. hardly allowed its abundant fruit, in all stages of It was a style of beauty, too, which is commonly thought growth, to meet the eye, but the sunny orange and peculiar to northern, or rather to cold climates, but yellow lime gleamed from the depths of their verdant which is, in fact, frequently seen in the interior of canopy, like — to use the odd but striking simile of South America. Her chestnut hair clustered in natural honest Andrew Marvell

ringlets round her fair face, and her dark blue eyes • Like golden lamps in a green night.'

looked out with changeable lustre from beneath their

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