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larly strong, is at least healthy. Its characters, taking solemnity. “They are going to send a deputation to them generally, are natural as conceptions, though in the Pope, to interest his holiness to put down bulladequately wrought out; and the idea is suggested baiting in Spain. You would be the second personage throughout the whole book that the author has in him, in the embassy."! to a respectable extent, the stuff of which a good novel The drift of the story, as the skilful novel reader will at writer is made. In the meantime he has merely once observe, is to break through the habits of the fierce sketched in his persons, but, with one exception, left bachelor, and to break down his system. It was the them unfinished. Mr Spread, for instance, as the beau glory of Mr Barker that he had neither wife nor child, ideal of a wealthy British merchant, is admirable as a neither a house, an office, nor a vote ; he was dependent literary portrait, but quite useless as a character in the on nobody, and nobody was dependent on him ; it was novel. The author describes what he is, but does not impossible to be more unattached than he was-imposput him in action, to let him show his own paces and sible to have fewer ties, without entirely forsaking the tell his own story. And this is generally characteristic haunts of men.' And just so it is the glory of our of the book, which exhibits a remarkably clear con- author to fling the shackles of circumstance over this ception, but as remarkable a poverty in execution. The haughty freedom ; to bind Mr Barker hand and foot in exception we have alluded to is the Bachelor of the the sympathies and relationship of society; to drive him Albany.' 'Imagine a small, well-made man, with a forth of his beloved Albany; to compel him into the smart, compact figure, excessively erect, his action business of life, which he abominates; into parliament, somewhat martial, his eye gray, cold, peevish, critical, which enrages him; and finally, into matrimony itself. and contemptuous; a mouth small and sarcastic; a nose Mr Barker sets out to visit his friend at Liverpool, long and vulpine; complexion a pale dry red; hair stiff and in the railway train he meets a youth who is desand silvery, and evidently under the severest discipline tined to haunt the old bachelor like a spectre throughout to which brush and comb could subject it, with a view the volume. The youth is as solitary in the world as a to its impartial distribution on each side of a head bachelor can be, and is going about trying to hunt up' which was carried so high, and with such an air, that an uncle, whom Mr Barker supposes, from his conversait was clear the organs of firmness, combativeness, and tion, to be himself. The feelings with which he makes self-esteem were superbly developed. With the excep- this discovery may be conjectured from the portrait of tion of a plain, but rich robe-de-chambre, his morning the young gentleman. 'His vis-a-vis was a raw youth, toilette was complete: trousers of shepherd's plaid, of eighteen or twenty, with a round rosy face, and a seemingly made by a military tailor, and tightly simple, good-humoured physiognomy; he was immersed strapped down over a pair of manifest Hoby's; a in an immense rough coat, like a bear's skin, with enordouble-breasted cashmere waistcoat, of what mercers mous mother-of-pearl buttons, and a dozen pockets of call the shawl pattern; the shirt-collar severely starched, all sizes and in all positions. In fact he looked someand a little too exalted above a cravat of dark-blue silk, thing like a brown bear, or a great water-dog, sitting on carefully folded, and tied with a simple, but an exact its hind-legs; and he kept his neighbours in constant knot.'
alarm, by sometimes pulling out a cigar-case, as if he The habitat of this fine animal is well described. meant to commence smoking ; sometimes producing a His chambers in the Albany (as all London readers three-barrelled pocket-pistol, and examining the primknow, a secluded and covered-in street of apartments ing; sometimes displaying a wonderful knife with a for wealthy bachelors and fugitive married men in hundred blades; and every now and then giving a blast the neighbourhood of Piccadilly); his rigid and pe- with a hunting-horn, which he had bought, he informed culiar habits; the awful care of his servant, and the an elderly lady beside him, at a shop in High Holborn, man's anxious and frightened glance round the room, adding that it was a great bargain, and that if she ever to see finally that everything is in its place before the wanted a thing of the kind, he would recommend her to appearance of his master to breakfast-all this is in a go to the same place. “Have a care, sir. I hope your high style of art. The visitor is his old friend Mr pistol is not loaded,” Mr Barker at length broke out in Spread, the wealthy merchant, and in this conversation à surly tone, with a look still surlier, at the formidable is brought.out the germ of the story. The following simpleton in the enormous rough coat, who, in exhilittle incident occurring in the midst, illustrates amus- biting the pistol to the plump maid, had repeatedly ingly the feverish impatience of the bachelor's cha- pointed it right at his head. The old lady had already, racter. •The bell of the outer door rang, and Reynolds in her capacity of protectress-general, cautioned the came in to receive his master's pleasure as to the per- youth twenty times against shooting himself, which was sons who were to be honoured with, or be refused, an the least part of the danger to be apprehended. None audience.
of these remonstrances, however, proving successful, the “ Should it be Mr Smith, sir”.
cool man took a different course. He expressed a curio“ I'll see Mr Smith. You know him-a tall man?" sity to examine the pistol; and the moment it was Yes, sir," said the valet.
placed in his hands, he extended it out of the window, And it was Mr Smith. Barker proceeded to the and a couple of sharp reports instantly proved that two antechamber to receive him, and presently Spread of the barrels had been loaded. The innocent youth, heard the bachelor speaking in his gruffest manner, far from taking offence, laughed loud, said it was funny, obviously much exasperated by something that his and called the cool man a famously sensible fellow-a visitor had either done or said. Then doors were compliment which that gentleman could not have reopened abruptly and shut violently, after which succes. turned with the slightest respect for truth. What sion of noises Barker returned in a sultry chafe, and it a relief it was when, as the train approached the next was some time before Spread could divine the cause of station, the nephew in search of an uncle informed his his agitation.
companions that he was under the necessity of depriv“ Animals' friends - stupidity of servants ---asses — ing them of his attractive society! He took leave in the rascals-animals' friends-vagabonds—vice-president, most troublesome and obstreperous manner possible, me-imagine".
elbowing everybody, then insisting on shaking their • Spread looked as if he would like some more lucid hands, then kicking their shins, then begging their parexplanation of what had occurred.
dons, then pressing his cigars on the gentlemen (Mr " A scoundrel !-not the Mr Smith I wanted to see Barker particularly), and looking very much disposed agent to a confounded society called the Animals' to kiss the fat lady's-maid, who looked equally wellFriends."
inclined to submit to his impudence. At length, after “ Wanted you to subscribe ?"
nearly crushing the quiet little girl in the corner into a “Wanted me to accept the office of vice-president. mummy, and poking out the old lady's eye with the Imagine, vice-president of the Animals' Friends!” mouthpiece of the hunting-horn, he jumped out of the
“A very responsible office !” said Spread with mock carriage with a whoop like a Cherokee Indian; and
after committing twenty more outrages, while looking to look silvery-what could albata and argentine do after his luggage, clambered, alternately shouting and more? Then there was a splendid epergne, borrowed winding his horn, on the top of an omnibus, which stood from the Prouts; it was stocked with evergreens—the hard by waiting for passengers.'
ivy, the arbutus, and the holly; they looked wintry: In the same conveyance he meets with a solitary certainly, but then they were fresh and healthy, adi neglected little girl, who turns out at the end of the for Mr Barker they produced the very desirable effect volume to be the daughter of an early friend; and of interposing between him and the polar Mrs Narrowmuch to his surprise and annoyance, he finds himself smith's hideous head-gear. Barker was very cold; and acting as the escort of this wandering damsel, and car as he sat with his back to the fireplace, he turned rying a carpet-bag (imagining it to be his own) for around to see how it was that no heat reached him. good old lady, a certain Mrs Briscoe, and her fat maid There was a fire in the grate, but it had evidently been Letty. A mistake of the old lady, who is one of the lighted not an hour before. It yielded a great deal of guests at Mr Spread's, gives the first hint of his matri- smoke, but no warmth whatever. While he was monial fate. “But Mab was not Barker's only female directing Mrs Spread's attention to these agreeable visitor that night. Mrs Briscoe having dosed her maid incidents of a house-warming, the page put a finishing (who had no other fever than that which she might touch to the piece, by running up and asking the well have caught from the pile of blankets over bachelor—“ Would he like to have a fire-screen?" her) with a bottle which was to be taken every third * The miser asked Barker to take wine-sherry. hour, had promised to return in due time to administer Mrs Spread could evidently see that Barker would have the second draught; and had arranged that, should given the wine another appellation. In fact it was a Mistress Letty be asleep, she would leave a light in her mixture of the grapes of Cadiz and the Cape. Mr room, and also her own watch, so as to enable the poor Narrowsmith was as roguish about wine, and as practhing (whose only complaint was laziness) to help her- tised a garbler of the grape, as the most disingenuous self to the contents of the bottle during the rest of the vintner in Liverpool. night. Proceeding about two o'clock in the morning Now the fish came-a magnificent turbot, to do the to carry this design into execution, she found her watch miser justice, but it was a little overdone, and the out of order, and it immediately occurred to her to bor- sauce was execrable. row a watch from one of the Smyly girls. The old lady • Mr Spread had been separated by some accident trotted off with the watch, and, mistaking doors, en- from the fair East Indian, and sat between Mrs Cracktered Mr Barker's room instead of Letty's. The rooms enthorpe and Mrs Marable. The one was a dissyllabic, were similar in size and furniture; and by the dim the other a monosyllabic lady. light which the taper gave (only, in fact, making dark “ You find this frosty weather agreeable, I hope?" to ness visible), there was no very striking difference be Mrs Marable. tween the bachelor and the maid, buried as both were “Very." under huge mountains of bedclothes. The old lady “I should think there must be skating in some accordingly, having listened to Barker's breathing, and places ? " carefully tucked him in, deposited the light (with a
“Do you?" bottle and a spoon) on a small table which stood at the “I was very fond of skating in my young days." side of the bed, shrouded by the curtains; and having
“ Were you?" placed the watch in a convenient position (not observ • Then he tried Mrs Crackenthorpe. ing Barker's watch, which was lying there too), retired Have you been lately in London ?" noiselessly, highly satisfied with herself for all her be No." nevolent arrangements. But several hours afterwards, Your sister lives in London, if I remember right?" growing fidgetty again, and thinking that the watch Yes.” would be of more use to herself than to Letty, she re “You know my friend Upton, I think?" turned, tucked Barker in again with the utmost tender · No." ness, and carried off his watch instead of Miss Smyly's, " Don't you think this room a little cool ?" which it resembled extremely. The man-servant, who
* Yes." came to the bachelor's room at eight o'clock the next “ You find your new house comfortable, I hope, Nar. morning (and a thoroughly English winter's morning it rowsmith ?” said Mr Spread, giving the ladies up, and was, not very distinguishable from night), removed the making one of those remarks indispensable at housecandlestick, with the bottle and spoon; and when Mr warmings. Barker rose, and had completed his toilette, he took “ Very,” squeeled the host in his wiry, gibbering up the watch which he found on the table, placed it in voice; ** warm and comfortable-very. Don't you think his waistcoat pocket, and went down to breakfast. Mrs the atmosphere of this room agreeable? Well, I assure Briscoe, on her part, before she went down, was very you, it's the coldest room in the house." particular in returning Miss Laura Smyly her property, Except the kitchen," muttered Barker to his fair or what she believed to be such. The result may be neighbour. conceived, when an explanation takes place the next * We found it not easy to warm the house we lived morning
in before," said Mrs Narrowsmith. Mr Barker is exhibited in various adventures of this “ Did she ever try coals ?" growled Barker again. kind, to his no small irritation and discomfiture, but Mrs Spread was wretched about her husband, and always drawing on by degrees to the overthrow of his was continually saying to Mr Barker, “I fear he will Albany peculiarities, and the consummation of his fate. get his death of cold. Do you think the window behind The incidents, however, as might be expected from the him can be open? How happy I am Augusta is not author's want of artistical skill
, are not well managed: here." it is in the conversations, and there alone, in which he * Barker made no reply; he was paying critical attenshines ; and for this reason it is hardly possible for the tion to something on his plate, which Mrs Narrowsmith reviewer, when so much restricted in space as we are, | had just recommended to him as “one of Madame to give a fair specimen of the book. Let us try, how- | Maintenon's cutlets." Having removed the envelope ever, to present at least the anatomy of a scene at a with his fork, he turned to Mrs Spread, and with the wealthy miser's dinner-table.
oddest conceivable mixture of disgust and enjoyment in • Mrs Spread, drawing her shawl well about her, took his countenance directed her attention to the unfolded the interest of a curious observer of social phenomena paper. in reviewing the array upon the table; and she thought, ** What! I protest there is writing on it! In the upon the whole, that it looked surprisingly well: the name of all that is comical try to make out what it is!" cloth was whiter than she had anticipated, the glass • Thus adjured, Mr Barker looked narrowly at the brighter, and the argentine and albata did their best scrap of paper in which the cutlet had been dressed,
and had no great difficulty in reading nearly the whole thought of publishing a gazette, or weekly collection of of the Crackenthorpes's answer to the Narrowsmiths's news, domestic as well as foreign. But the memory of invitation. The cutlets just at that moment taking man is too weak to be trusted with all the marvels with their round again, Mrs Spread resolved to have one, to which your majesty is going to fill the north, and all the try her chance of a literary document, where nobody continent. Hereafter it must be assisted by writings could have dreamed of meeting a thing of the kind. It which fly, as in an instant, from north to south; ay, was a very diverting occupation this for a dinner-table. marry, to all the corners of the earth. This is, sire, the "Well, what have you got? Is it mine ?”
journal of the kings and powers of the earth; all is Ours,” said Mrs Spread, recognising the hand of here by them and for them; they are the capital; all her daughter Elizabeth upon the wrapper of the ex. other personages are only accessory to them.' quisite morceau before her.' To this we may append a He gives besides a long preface, addressed to the few lines containing a capital hit at the author himself public, in which he relates the vexations and slanders —a complete illustration of the supposed necessity which to which he is exposed in the discharge of his duties. exists in these last days for a joke, and the heavy strain- On the one hand, he is accused of publishing false reing that is often required to produce it. But it was a ports; and on the other, blamed for suppressing news tedious, heavy, chilly affair altogether, and Mrs Spread which had been sent to him. He finds support, howthought that Mrs Narrowsmith would never give the ever, in his desire to content the one and the other; and signal for the rising of the ladies. The truth was, that intreats the princes of foreign states not to lose time Mrs Narrowsmith was uncertain whether she ought to uselessly in attempting to close the passage to his news, look at Mrs Marable, or Mrs Spread, or even at Miss seeing that the traffic in this merchandise cannot be Guydickens. At length it was over: the ladies went, the prevented, and which, after the nature of torrents, engentlemen remained. A bottle of claret was produced larges by resistance.' The 'Gazette, however, under
-Mr Spread said it was corked : another-Mr Spread royal favour, was in a position, at the end of a year or made the same remark: a third-it was a wonder it two, to look down in calm dignity on its detractors. It escaped the same criticism, for there was very little appeared once a week, in the form of eight small quarto wine uncorked, in any sense of the word, in Mr Nar- pages, with the addition of a supplementary number rowsmith's establishment.'
monthly. The contents were of the most commonplace description: no money articles, no political discussions,
no advertisements; nothing but a dry, monotonous colNEWSPAPERS IN FRANCE.
lection of details respecting war and courts, with a few The activity which now prevails in all social affairs, lines, dated from Paris, as domestic news. commercial, political, literary, by creating a demand for In 1650, a competitor appeared in ‘The Burlesque prompt and trustworthy intelligence, has helped to give Gazette, of which all the matter was versified. The to newspapers their present great importance. They editor was a courtier named Loret, who pleased himhave become almost a necessity of existence, a species self naturally in poesy ;' but after a time found the of daily food, of which we should be exceedingly un- demands on his inventive powers more than he could willing to be deprived. It is so natural to refer to a well supply, as he tells usnewspaper for information, that it is scarcely possible to imagine a time when the broad sheets had no exist
• Ilis pen would soon have been worn out,
His poor vein spent, there's ne'er a doubt; ence. Two centuries ago, however, the world contrived
Not knowing Latin, neither Greek, to transact its business without their aid, and by some
Dried up he must have been, and weakmeans or other a nation managed to learn what was
Without some high celestial aid,
Without some angel's inspiration.' doing among the powerful few who claimed the privilege of making war and levying taxes.*
Mazarin, the Fronde, or any other party obnoxious to In common with many other valuable inventions, the editor, were pilloried in his facile rhymes. Colbert newspapers started in a very humble way: a little sheet was so irritated at his audacity, as to strike his name of coarse gray paper, published at uncertain intervals. off the pension list. Illustrious births, deaths, and marAccording to the historians, newspapers were first riages, the thousand little events of the court and city, printed in England to announce the defeat of the Spanish humorous and scandalous anecdotes, were all made to Armada: in France they originated in the correspond- do duty in verse, and sometimes in language far from ence of the celebrated genealogist D'Hozier. In the polite. For two years and a half The Burlesque exercise of his functions, he was obliged to keep up an Gazette' was issued in manuscript. Its popularity, active correspondence with different parts of the king- however, became so great during the stirring period of dom, and with foreign countries, which brought him the Fronde, as to induce the proprietor to print it. It many scraps of news. These he communicated to his lived fifteen years. friend Theophrastus Renaudot, physician to Louis XIII., A second rival to Renaudot's ‘Gazette'made its apwho transcribed them for the amusement of his patients. pearance in 1672, under the title of ‘Mercure Galant,' The hand news, as they were called, grew, however, so by Danneau de Vize. In style and variety of intellimuch into vogue, that the physician was unable to gence, it partook somewhat of the character of modern supply the demand; when the idea of printing them newspapers. During the first six years it came out occurred to him, and he petitioned Richelieu for the very irregularly ; but afterwards, at stated monthly innecessary authority. The minister at once foresaw the tervals, as a duodecimo volume of three or four hundred importance and utility of a sheet relating events under pages, which sold for three livres (francs). It was conthe dictation and in accordance with the supreme power, ducted with great talent, and survived, as the · Mercure and unhesitatingly granted the privilege. The first de France,' until the year 1815, having numbered among number appeared on the 1st of April 1631, under the its friends and contributors Marmontel, La Harpe, simple title of • Gazette;' a word borrowed from Venice, Lacretelle, Chateaubriand, and many others of literary in which city a journal had been published for several celebrity. During this period, the .Gazette' first pubyears, and sold for a gazetta — something less than a lished by Renaudot had undergone various changes. halfpenny. According to some authorities, the deriva- To chronicle the great exploits of the reign of Louis tion is gazza, a magpie; as indicative of the chattering XIV., and the magnificence of Versailles, the number style of newspapers. Renaudot addressed a portion of of pages was increased from eight to twelve. In 1762, his preface to the king. Sire,' he says, “it is a remark it was published twice a week, four pages with double worthy of history, that during the reigns of sixty-three columns, and the price fixed at fifteen livres a year, post kings, France, so curious in novelties, should not have paid. Advertisements for the first time make their
appearance, the earliest examples consisting of an an* The substance of the above article is taken from a small work nouncement of a new book or a map. Gradually the published last year at Paris.
number increased; and they were inserted altogether
in a budget, without any attempt at classification. An again to 95; in 1798, it fell to 17; 26 in 1799 ; and in advertisement of six lines was charged thirty sous, and 1800, 7 only: making a total in the twelve years d seven sous for each additional line. The fluctuations 750 publications. The number was probably greater, as and transactions in the money market were first re- it is scarcely possible to determine it with accuracy, corded in 1765. The “Gazette' maintained its ground Every party had its organ-royalist, republican, through the reigns of Louis XIV., XV., and XVI., Jacobin. Robespierre brought out, “The Defender di meeting in the progress of events with numerous com- the Constitution :' «The Old Cordelier' was edited by petitors. In 1792, it was published daily; and the Camille-Desmoulins : The Journal of the Mountain same year became the. Gazette Nationale de France,' had numerous conductors. There were more than 10 headed with the words • Liberty and equality,' while the with the prefix of 'Journal;' and as in an uproar sæi price rose to thirty-six livres. In this year, also, thea- as the Revolution created it is difficult to gain a hearing
, trical amusements were first advertised. In 1793, the every one tried to cry louder than his neighbour ; et,
Gazette,' which, at its origin, almost worshipped Louis when this means failed, to sell cheaper, or to assume : XIII., announced of his descendant, . The tyrant is no more extraordinary title. There were. The Journal d
the Men of the 14th July, and of the Faubourg St Ar• The Journal de Paris,' the first daily paper in toine:' . The Journal of the Sans-Culottes,' inscribedFrance, made its appearance in 1777. An article upon • The souls of emperors and those of cobblers are cast in the the Almanac of the Muses, a letter from Voltaire, a same mould:' The Journal of Louis XVI., and of his bookseller's advertisement, three or four facts relating People :' * Poor Richard's Journal :' The Devil's, to the government and the justiciary, two accidents, a Journal :' "The Journal of the Good and Bad :'• The bon-mot, and the announcement of the play, make up Journal of Idlers,' which told everything in few words: the contents of the first number, which concludes with The Journal of Incurables :' and The Journal of a notice from the editor to the effect that, instead of Laughers.' The title of fifteen others commenced wito four pages octavo, the Journal,' for the better service Bulletin ; seven were Gazettes; half-a-dozen each of of the public, would consist of four pages quarto. Even Annals, Sheets, and Chronicles ; eight Courriers, and as with this addition, a whole number of The Journal de many Postilions; twenty Correspondence; from farty Paris' would find room, and to spare, in a single column to fifty Friends and Defenders ; besides an endless cataof the Times.' The annual subscription for Paris was logue of Mirrors, Lanterns, and Enemies. twenty-four francs, and thirty-one francs four sous for Among the more grotesque or pointed titles wen!! the provinces. So successful was the speculation, that • The National Whip:' 'For and Against :' "The Listthe profits amounted to 100,000 francs yearly. With ener at the Door,' motto— Walls have ears: ' The Tucsia few exceptions, these papers constituted the whole of Fearless Richard :' • The French Democritus,' motto periodical press of France down to the period of the — At everything to laugh is folly: he laughs best toko Revolution : the existence of those which originated in laughs the last :' The Evangelists of the Day:' "The the conflict of opinions was but short. Among these, Breakfast :' *Mustard after Dinner:'• To-morrow :' • The Spirit of the Gazettes' (monthly), The Ecclesias • All the World's Cousin :' • Hang Me, but Listen to tical Journal,' 'The Sentinel of the People,' • The Herald Me:' Stop Thief-Stop Thief:' "I Don't Care a Rap; of the Nation,' were the principal. The severity of the Liberté, Libertas, the Deuce. Many others might be censorship gave rise to several manuscript journals, enumerated. This short list will, however
, sufice to chiefly of a scandalous character, issued whenever it convey an idea of the press in France during the Revosuited the humour of the editors. The most redoubted lution; years of liberty, as Malouet observes
, speedily of this class were those concocted by the writers who degenerated into libertinage. It was, in fact, not only met at the house of Madame Doublet, including Piron, the national assemblies, the parties into which they Sainte-Palaye, Mirabeau, Falconet, and others. Not were divided, and the thousand clubs opened in every withstanding the non-political character of the sheets, quarter of Paris, that maintained their organs; every they were often the cause of much uneasiness to the ragamuffin believed he had a right to express his opiauthorities.
nion upon men and things, in virtue of the people's soveThe Revolution, which gave liberty and license to reignty principle, of which the immediate consequence thought, speech, and action, no matter of what cha- was, that every individual
, every fraction of society, had racter, was not without its effect upon the press. The the right to interfere in the management of public whole kingdom was inundated with newspapers repre- affairs. With the exception of the Moniteur,' the form senting every passion that agitated the popular mind. of which was from the first such as it retains at present, No sooner had the States-General assembled in 1789, and of two or three other double-columned quarto than Mirabeau commenced the publication of his famous journals, all the newspapers of the Revolution were
Letters to his Constituents ;' and a host of others published in octavo, sometimes duodecimo. Each nun started up to record or discuss the acts of the legislators. ber contained from eight to twelve pages ; the price Whole volumes would be required to give a faithful from nine to twelve francs a quarter. sketch of the revolutionary press : we give some of the The greater portion of these papers, however, pro; more prominent titles. The Peep of Day, or Collection duced in a moment of excitement, had but an ephemeral of what Passed the Night before in the National As-existence. Some died a natural death, others fell be sembly," by Barrère: • The Evangelists of the Day:' "The neath the blows of the Commune or Directory
. Eren Revolutions
of Paris,' by the triumvirate Prudhomme, at the period when it seemed that everything could be Loustalot, and Tournon, with its famous epigraph— dared, the license of the press was often forced to * The great only uppear great to us because we are on submit to authority; opinions were, in common with our knees : let us rise.' The Journal des Débats et human lives, at the mercy of the dominators of the day Décrets : The Parisian Publicist, Free and Impartial The Commune of Paris decreed, " that the poisoners of Journal,' by Marat, the friend of the people : The public opinion should be arrested, and that their present Acts of the Apostles," a medley in verse and prose : types, and instruments
should be distributed among the • The National Gazette, or Moniteur Universel, date patriot printers ;' and appointed commissioners to seiza of the first number, November 24, 1789: in short, papers at the post-office. On the 18th Fructidor of the during the first year of liberty, more than 150 journals year 5, the editors and printers of thirty journals per started into existence. The following year, 1790, the incarcerated in the prison of La Force, by orders of the number was 140: among the latter we may quote - Directory, for conspiracy against the safety of the most * The Iron Mouth,' by the Abbé Fauchet : * The
Friend public. In January 1800, the consular government, but of the King: The Friend of the Citizens : The an edict, reduced the number of political journals to Village Sheet. A gradual diminution appears to have thirteen, among which were several yet in existente taken place : in 1791, the number of new journals
was in the words of the edict, « The minister of police stai 95; then 60, 50, 40, 35, 35, until 1797, when it went
up permit, during the whole of the war, the underto
tioned journals only to be printed, published, and dis- 1843, 61,000,000; and in 1845, more than 65,000,000. tributed “ The Moniteur Universel,” “ Journal des Paris alone supports 26 daily papers, besides 400 other Débats," Journal de Paris," " Gazette de France," and periodicals on all sorts of subjects--science, art, literanine others.' Journals devoted exclusively to science, ture, industry, &c. The provinces maintain about 300 art, literature, commerce, &c. were exempted from political papers, of which 125 are ministerial, 70 opposithis sweeping proscription ; the press had, however, tion, 35 opposition dynastique, 25 legitimist, the resunk into such a state of barbarism, that when the First mainder of no party. The 26 Parisian papers muster Consul put his heel upon the hydra, scarcely a voice was about 180,000 subscribers, distributed in the following raised in complaint.
proportions :-Four papers count from 500 to 2000 subUnder the Consulate and the Empire, the press was scribers ; eight from 2000 to 3000; nine, among which remarkably tame: the politics of the day was a tabooed are the Charivari,' • Le Quotidienne,' « Le National,' subject, not meant for public discussion, and the only 3000 to 5000; two, Les Débats' and 'L'Epoque' (since writer of leaders' was Bonaparte. Journalists grew defunct), 10,000 to 15,000; two, 'La Presse' and · Le tired of echoing the · Moniteur;' and feeling the neces- Constitutionnel,' 20,000 to 25,000; and one, 'Le Siècle,' sity of free speech on some topic, began to turn their more than 30,000. The Moniteur' is distributed graattention to non-proscribed subjects—literature, and the tuitously to all the government functionaries, and has theatres. From this arose the feuilleton, which remains but very few paying subscribers. to the present day an eminent characteristic of French The development of the feuilleton has kept pace with newspapers; and liberty, banished from the top of the the increase in the number of newspapers, and French page, took refuge at the bottom. In the feuilletons, editors at the present day depend more perhaps on liteunder the disguise of a bad tragedy or a literary ephe- rary than on political readers. The feuilleton consists meris, the highest political questions were discussed in of about a fourth of each page, reserved for the publicaspite of the authorities. • The Journal des Débats' tion of novels, romances, &c. by the first writers of the changed its title to Journal de l'Empire;' and such day. It is no longer · a few timid lines stealing mowas the success of its feuilleton, that the paper at one destly along under the formidable political columns of time numbered 32,000 subscribers. This journal re- which they are the futile accompaniment, the elegant sumed its original title in 1814, gave it up again during embroidery ;' on the contrary, it is the feuilleton which the hundred days,' to take it once more at the second now bears the politics on its powerful shoulders. entry of Louis XVIII.
This brief sketch of the history of French newspapers • The Constitutionnel' was commenced in the brief may be appropriately concluded by the opinion of a period following Napoleon's escape from Elba in 1815, French writer on the claim which society has on liteunder the name of The Independent:' three other rature. Society,' he says, ' demands from treatises, names were adopted befor that by which it is now science; from books, ideas; from re ws, profound known was decided on. From 1815 to 1830, the cen- study of the questions discussed, from special collections, sorship, the severity of the laws against the press, and to justify their title ; from daily journals, the speediest the excessive rate at which securities were fixed, left publicity, the most impartial views on all debates, docuthe press but little more free than it had been under ments, and facts the most rapid and dispassionate the imperial despotism. The number of newspapers, judgment on events, institutions, men, and things.' however, gradually increased. In 1824, a comparative statement was drawn up privately for the use of the ministry: the six government journals had a total of 14,344 subscribers, while the six opposition papers | under our notice : IMPROVEMENT.-In the cornyard of the
The following paragraph in a newspaper lately came numbered 41,330. In the following year, the opposition farm at Petty, Morayshire, there are 101 stacks of corn, had increased to 44,000, and the government diminished each stack averaging 13 quarters of grain. Last year there to 12,580. On the part of the opposition, The Consti- were only 88 stacks in this yard, and of a much smaller tutionnel' counted the largest number of subscribers. size. About thirty years ago, the farm was tenanted by a Previously to 1830, their ranks were further strength- number of small cotters, and their whole produce would ened by the appearance of Le Globe,' 'La Revue scarcely average 10 small stacks.' This piece of informaFrançaise,' ' Le Temps,' and 'Le National.'
tion should not be suffered to pass without comment. It The revolution of July 1830 gave a new shock to the furnishes, in a few words, a thorough explanation of the periodical press, and for a short time a whole avalanche advantages of large over small farming. A piece of land of papers threatened to overwhelm Paris; but when ing, produced only ten small stacks, now when in one farm,
which, thirty years ago, under the cotter system of farmorder was again re-established, the greater portion conducted on improved principles, produces 101 large stacks. perished. We give the titles of some of each of the It is evident that there is a gain of at least 91 stacks by parties into which society was divided. The demo- the change. Who is it that makes this gain? First, the cratic party was represented by · La Tribune,' 'Le Re- landowner, who receives a larger rent; second, the farformateur, Le Bon Sens le Monde.' The last was an mer, who has a larger proportion of the return for his unsuccessful speculation of the celebrated Lamennais, trouble and outlay of capital; third, the public, who have who had already failed to carry on L'Avenir,' notwith- ten times the quantity of food brought to market. But standing the assistance of two such writers as George probably six families have been expelled in order to make Sand and Montalembert. The Bonapartists expressed room for one great capitalist farmer. . Quite true; yet it and · Le Commerce;' the legitimists in Le Renova- the former state of things, what are we to do for lack of the their opinions in ‘La Revolution de 1830,'Le Capitole, is to be observed that all the grain which the six families
could furnish was ten stacks. Suppose, then, we go back to teur,' Le Courrier de l'Europe,' and 'La Nation;' the additional ninety-one stacks ? If the subsistence of cotter opposition, now called Conservatives, in La Paix,'| families were alone concerned, we might be contented to · La Charte de 1830,' and 'Le Globe ;' and last, the see no more than ten stacks sent to market. But this tiers-parti in ‘L'Impartial,' 'La Renommée,' and · Le meagre condition of things will, unfortunately, not answer Temps ;' the latter was most ably conducted, but even the demands now made for food. Twenty-eight millions tually failed, at a loss to the proprietors of more than of people require to have daily bread, and they must be a million of francs.
thought of as well as the tillers of the soil. Mechanics, During the past ten years, a great reduction has tradesmen, merchants, and all other dwellers in towns, been made in the price of newspapers in France, in although not owning a scrap of land, have a right to see many instances to half the original charge. The Jour- / that the territory of our island is not abused, and brought nal des Débats,' however, still maintains its high rate material of subsistence. Thus small farming, with its want
back to that condition which would defraud them of the of subscription-eighty francs a-year. The effect of the of capital to improve and make the very most of the land, reduction on the aggregate sale is seen in the stamp- is adverse to the general well-being ; and from all that we office returns. In 1828, the number of stamped sheets have heard of old times, is not even advantageous to the issued was 28,000,000; in 1836, it was 42,000,000; in parties who conduct it.