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PROPAGATION OF THOUGHT.

light to be an evil. While it certainly makes the rooms ANTS IN PERU.

cooler, it cannot, by any possibility, interfere with the ocWho can describe the countless myriads of ants which cupations of those who do nothing; and even for the purswarm through the forests ? Every slirub is full of creep- poses of ventilation, windows are hardly needed, inasmuch ing life, and the decayed vegetation affords harbour for as the bedding, the only thing that requires fresh air, is some peculiar kinds of these insects. The large yellow daily exposed to the sun and wind. Among the Californian puca çiçi is seen in multitudes in the open air, and it even housewives, the bed is quite a show, enjoying, as it does, penetrates into the dwellings. This insect does not bite, the full benefit of contrast. While the other furniture conbut its crawling creates great irritation to the skin. The sists of a deal-table and some badly-made chairs, with prosinall black yana çiçi, on the contrary, inflicts most pain- bably a Dutch clock and an old looking-glass, the bed ful punctures. A very mischievous species of stinging ant ostentationsly challenges admiration, with its snowy sheets is the black sunchiron. This insect inflicts a puncture fringed with lace, its pile of soft pillows covered with the with a long sting, which he carries in the rear of his body. finest linen or the richest satin, and its well-arranged The wound is exceedingly painful, and is sometimes at- drapery of costly and tasteful curtains. Still, notwithtended by dangerous consequences. My travelling com-standing the washings and the airings, this bed is but a panion, c. Klee, being stung by one of these ants, suffered whited sepulchre, concealing in the interior a pestilential such severe pain and fever, that he was for a short while wool mattress, the impregnable stronghold of millions of delirious. A few nights afterwards, a similar attack was las pulgas.Sir George Simpson. made on myself during sleep. It suddenly awoke me, and caused me to start up with a convulsive spring. I must confess that I never, in my whole life, experienced such Who shall say at what point in the stream of time the severe pain as I did at that moment. A most remarkable personal character of any individual now on the earth shall phenomenon is exhibited by the swarms of the species cease to influence? A sentiment, a habit of feeling once called the great wandering ant. They appear suddenly communicated to another mind is gone; it is beyond recall; in trains of countless myriads, and proceed forward in a

it bore the stamp of virtue; it is blessing man, and owned straight direction, without stopping. The small, the weak, by Heaven : its character was evil; vain the remorse that and the neuters are placed in the centre, while the large would revoke it, vain the gawing anxiety that would and the strong flank the army, and look out for prey. compute its mischief; its immediate, and to us visible, These swarms, called by the natives chacus, sometimes

effect may soon be spent; its remote one, who shall calcuenter a hut and clear it of all insects, amphibia, and other late? The oak which waves in our forest to-day, owes its disagreeable guests. This work being accomplished, they form, its species, and its tint to the acorn which dropped again form themselves into a long train, and move onwards. from its remote ancestor, under whose shade Druids worThe united force of these small creatures is vast, and there shipped. “Human life extends beyond the threescore years is no approach to the fabulous, when it is related that not and ten which bound its visible existence here. The only snakes, but also large mammalia, such as agoutis, spirit is removed into another region, the body is crumbling armadillos, &c. on being surprised by them, are soon killed into dust, the very name is forgotten upon earth; but living On the light dry parts of the higher montanas we

find the and working still is the influence generated by the moral large conical dwellings of the Termes so firmly built, that features of him who has so long since passed away. The chathey are impenetrable even to rifle-shot. They sometimes

racters of the dead are inwrought into those of the living; stand singly, sometimes together, in long lines. In form the generation below the sod formed that which now they strongly resemble the simple, conical Puna hats.-Dr dwells and acts upon the earth, the existing generation is Von Tschudi.

moulding that which succeed it, and distant posterity shall

inherit the characteristics which we infuse into our chilCLOTHING FOR THE YOUNG.

dren to-day.--The Parent's High Commission. Are the little 'Highlanders' whom we meet during three out of the four quarters of the year under the guardianship of their nurserymaids, dawdling about the streets in our

All witnesses, and a knowledge of our common nature, public walks or squares, properly protected from the cold tell us that the continual recurrence of these scenes of Are the fantastically-attired children whom we see “taking sickness and death, instead of softening the heart, usually an airing’ in carriages in our parks, sufficiently and pro- hardens it. Read the accounts of all great plagues : the perly clad ? If these questions can be truly answered in plague at Athens--the plague at Milan, as described either the affirmative, then, and then only, my remarks are need in the historians of the day and the biographers of Cardinal less. There can enter into the parent mind no more bane- Borromeo, or in the more popular pages of the best Italian ful idea than that of rendering children hardy' by ex

novel, the ‘Promessi Sposi’-read the account of the plague posing them unnecessarily to cold, and by clothing them in London--and you will see that in all these cases the inefficiently. I have known instances wherein parents, bulk of the people become more reckless and profligate acting on this principle, have failed entirely in rearing their than ever.— Viscount Ebrington, offspring. Does nature treat her progeny thus? Does she not, first of all, insure the birth of her young only at a kindly season, and then provide them with downy cover

It is a sound dietetic observation, that bread, if wished ings, warm nests, and assiduous protectors? And we must

to be as easily digested as possible, should be baked in imitate nature, if we would give to Britain a race capable small loaves. The principal reason for this is, that the and worthy of maintaining her independence and honour. products of fermentation, which are obstructive to digesThe little denizens of a warm nursery inust not be sub- tion, escape more completely from a small loaf than from jected, without a carefully-assorted covering, to the pierc: the bread into a very hot oven, or for keeping it in the

There is, moreover, less necessity for putting ing and relentless east or north-east wind ; they must not be permitted to imbibe the seeds of that dreadful scourge nutritive qualities. Bread baked in small loaves is sweeter

oven so long a time as to deprive the outer part of its of this climate-consumption—in their walks for exercise and health ; they must be tended, as the future lords of to the taste than when baked in large loaves; and this is the earth, with jealous care and judicious zeal. One-sixth probably because it is more entirely freed from the proof the deaths of young children, it must be remembered, result ducts of fermentation.-Robertson on Diet and Regimen. from cold.- Erasmus Wilson.

It appears unaccountable that our teachers generally

have directed their instructions to the head, with very Externally, the habitations have a cheerless aspect, in little attention to the heart. From Aristotle down to consequence of the paucity of windows, which are almost Locke, books without number have been composed for unattainable luxuries. Glass is rendered ruinously dear cultivating and improving the understanding; but few, in by the exorbitant duties, while parchment, surely a better proportion, for cultivating and improving the affections. – substitute than a cubic yard of adobes, is clearly inadmis- Lord Kames. sible in California, on account of the trouble of its preparation; and, to increase the expense, carpenters are equally extravagant and saucy, charging three dollars for Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, High Street, Edinburgh. Also such a day's work as one is likely to get from fellows that

sold by D. CHAMBERS, 98 Miller Street, Glasgow; W. S. ORR, will not labour more than three days in the week.

147 Strand, and Amen Corner, London; and J. M'GLASHAN, After

21 D'Olier Street, Dublin.--Printed by W. and R. CHAMBERS, all, perhaps the Californians do not feel the privation of Edinburgh.

MORAL EFFECTS OF PESTILENCE.

SMALL LOAVES.

THE AFFECTIONS.

CALIFORNIAN HOUSES.

JOURNAL

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR

THE PEOPLE,' CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,' &c.

No. 186. NEW SERIES.

SATURDAY, JULY 24, 1847.

Price 14d.

and the two strangers vanished from Rochelle, the one THE PRINCE.

by sea, and the other by land, leaving behind them a EXACTLY one hundred years ago, there arrived in the grand enigma for the ingenuity of the townspeople. town of Rochelle in France a young man, apparently The youth's reputation in all probability had got on under twenty, of very elegant appearance, but simple board before him; although the elderly traveller, in reand unpretending manners. He was attended, rather commending him to the captain, could not be prevailed than accompanied by an elderly gray-headed man, who upon to say more than that he was a person of distincseemed to be neither a domestic nor a parent, but who tion, whose friends would one day show their gratitude regarded him with all the respect of the one, and all for any services that were rendered him. This, howthe careful fondness of the other. The youth, indeed, ever, was sufficient to insure his being treated with reappeared to require a certain watchful attendance, al- spect; and indeed the dignified manner of the youthful though surrounded, as one might have imagined, by voyager would have extorted respect of itself. In his some prestige which precluded familiarity; for, not-person he was neither handsome nor tall; his features withstanding the cool quiet air supposed to distinguish were common, though sufficiently agreeable; he was of the great, he was thoughtless and capricious in no or- the middle stature; and, in short, he had nothing whatdinary degree, giving way habitually, and without the ever to distinguish him, but a certain air of high life, slightest consideration, to the whim of the moment and a singularly white and delicate skin, as if he had Both were plainly dressed. They neither courted nor never, since his birth, been permitted to be visited too shunned observation ; and the only singularity which roughly even by the winds of heaven. distinguished them from ordinary travellers, was their An incident occurred during the voyage which declining to take up their abode in the inn, even for warmed the respect of the crew into affection. On an the short period they intended to remain. They at alarm of the approach of English cruisers, almost all once furnished an apartment for themselves at a private got into the shallop, to creep along the coast close inhouse, though by no means on an extravagant scale—the shore ; and so suddenly was the step taken, that no whole expense amounting only to L.20; and there they provisions were thought of. The result was extreme resided together, without making a single acquaintance, hunger in the boat; which was generously relieved by very rarely stirring abroad, and living chiefly on shell their passenger, who bought a stock of refreshments fish, but more especially fresh-water crabs—a circum- from one of the native craft, and distributed them, share stance that excited some notice, from these delicacies and share alike, to all on board. When they returned being scarce and dear at Rochelle.

to the ship, the youth was seized with an illness; and it It appeared to be their business here to find a pas- was remarked, with more of interest than displeasure, sage for the younger of the two to some foreign country; that a certain degree of haughtiness mingled with the but in consequence of the hot war with England, ves courtesy with which he received the anxious attentions sels did not sail so frequently as usual, and they were that were pressed upon him from all quarters. His sifor some time disappointed. At length an occasion tuation required care and tenderness, but he seemed to offered. A small merchantman was about to sail for shrink from familiarity ; till at length the necessities Martinique; and this appearing to be as good a theatre of his condition led him to select, as his attendant, a as any for the study of the world, it was determined young man only a few years older than himself. To that the youth should embrace the opportunity, and this person, whose name was Rhodez, and who was of sally forth on his course of adventures. The moment a respectable family and liberal education, he gradually of embarkation had nearly arrived, and he was in close became attached, and at length bestowed upon him even conversation with his elderly companion, when the lady some portion of his confidence. of the house inquired what he intended to do with his Rhodez reported that the stranger was the Count de furniture ?

Tarnaud, the son of a field-marshal; but this was by • What do you say?' said the young man absently. no means so lofty a dignity as to account for the respect "Oh, the furniture! Keep it,' continued he, with a cour of the confidant, which seemed to increase every day. teous smile, for a remembrance of me.' The lady In fact, the avowal of his rank only made the mystery looked at the other in surprise, but the transaction more dense ; till all speculations were at length ended appeared to make no impression upon him of any kind; for the time by the appearance of the port of Martinique, and when the interruption was over, he resumed the blocked up by English cruisers. Under these circumconversation without remark. This would not, per- stances, as it was impossible to save ship or cargo, the haps, have appeared extraordinary in very wealthy vessel was abandoned, and all on board took to their people; but the fact was certain, that the youth's funds, boats, and landed on the island in safety, but in total on embarking for the West Indies, hardly amounted to destitution. The count bore his misfortune very coolly, more than the value he thus hecdlessly gave away: perhaps merely regarding it as one of the adventures

he had come to seek; and, followed by Rhodez, went resided at Martinique, and the derangement of whose straight to the most respectable house he could find. private affairs had led to this contravention of his official Here he was received with much kindness by an officer duty. The discontent of the inhabitants became alarmcalled Duval Ferrol, whose attentions he accepted as a ing; and as famine approached nearer and nearer, it common matter of course ; replying slightly and vaguely assumed the aspect almost of insurrection. The preto his questions, and making himself as comfortable as sence of a reigning prince at this juncture was opporpossible. The host received but small enlightenment tune ; and the commandant, who hated the governor, from Rhodez, who told all the little the reader already intreated him to consecrate the cause of the people by knows, but appeared either unable to proceed farther, or becoming the head of the party. Our young paladin. terrified to do so; and the real mystery thus came to be we have seen, was humane, generous, thoughtless of thickened with all kinds of conjectures and exaggera- consequences; and he was not long, therefore, of suftions, each more absurd than the last.

fering himself to be prevailed upon to lend his counteThe commandant of the port at length thought it nance to the efforts of patriotism. He swore to put an high time for him to enter upon the scene, and, by way end to the villany of the monopolists; and declared that, of putting beyond all doubt the real rank of the stranger, in the event of the English landing, he would himself offered him the use of his house and table. This the lead on the inhabitants to repulse them. Such speeches count accepted with much satisfaction ; and, always had a great effect, for the name of prince is associated accompanied by Rhodez, as a sort of gentleman atten with ideas of loyalty; and the people of Martinique dant, or humble friend, removed at once to the residence came to think it their duty to be loyal to the Duke of of the commandant. It happened on the first day that, Modena, since that potentate happened, by whatever when all were sitting down to dinner, he found that he extraordinary chance it occurred, to find himself in the had forgotten his handkerchief, on which Rhodez im- West Indies. mediately got up and brought it to him. This incident The Marquis de Caylus now began to feel somewhat made the company stare at each other with unspeakable uneasy at Fort St Pierre, and despatched an order to perplexity; for at the time of which we write, a white the commandant to send him his unruly guest. The man waiting upon a white man, in the West Indies, was commandant, however, suggested that he could by no entirely unheard of. That Rhodez, who knew the cus means take such a liberty, since the individual in questoms of the place well, would submit to this dishonour tion was assuredly the hereditary Prince of Modena ; in any ordinary case, was not to be supposed; and again and the marquis therefore addressed a letter to the the question recurred, who was this pretended count? Count de Tarnaud, inviting him to repair to his resi

In the middle of dinner the commandant received a dence. "To him,' replied his highness, * I am Hercules note from Duval Ferrol, the count's former host, con- Renaud d'Est, although the Count de Tarnaud to the rest taining these words: You wish for information relative of the world. If he desires to see me, let him repair to to the French passenger who lodged with me some days: Fort Royal, which is half-way, and in four or five days his signature will furnish more than I am able to give. I I shall be there. The officers who brought the missive enclose you a letter I have just received from him. The reported the stranger's resemblance to the Duchess de letter contained merely some common words of thanks, Penthièvre, and the governor's doubts began to give written in a schoolboy hand, and in a very bad style; way. He set out for Fort Royal as commanded; but but it was signed 'Est,' not Tarnaud. What could this his heart failed him, and he turned back. The prince, mean? The commandant secretly despatched a friend not finding him there, proceeded to Fort St Pierre, acto consult some persons better acquainted with the aris- companied by a retinue of gentlemen, and was seen by tocracy than himself; and by the aid of an almanac, these the governor from his windows; upon which the latter, gentlemen at length appeared to master the difficulty. exclaiming that he was the very image of his mother The mysterious stranger could be no other than Her and sister, left the place in a panic, and retired to Fort cules Renaud d'Est, hereditary Prince of Modena, and Royal. brother of the Duchess de Penthièvre !

The Rubicon was now passed. It would be affectation Although this, for the present, was only a conjecture, to repudiate longer a rank which had been assigned to it so happened that they had the means of verifying it; him without any agency of his own, and the Prince of | for there were two persons among them (one a brother- Modena assumed his ancestral state, and appointed his in-law of the commandant) who knew the prince by household. The Marquis d'Eraguy had the honour of sight. In the evening, therefore--for they would not being nominated his grand equerry; Duval Ferrol, his intrude earlier upon the dinner party—they all repaired first host on the island, became one of his gentlemen to the commandant's house; and there his brother-in- attendants; and the faithful Rhodez exulted in the law had no sooner cast his eyes upon the illustrious office of page. He held a court, and gave formal guest, than he pronounced him to be the duke. Even audiences; and his levees were sedulously attended, not this, however, would not have been conclusive testi- only by all who had complaints to make against the mony, for the witness was reported to be so much existing government, but by many of the officers of the averse to speaking truth, that he never did so, even administration, who conceived it politic to seek the prowhen drunk; but he was supported by the other officer, tection of a hereditary prince. His palace was at first and the affair was decided. By and by a flourish of the convent of the Jesuits; but this excited so much bugles was heard without, and the brother-in-law and the jealousy of the Dominicans, that after a time he his friends, who had been pushing the decanters about removed to the establishment of the latter, where he the whole afternoon, while waiting till it should be time was treated, if possible, with still more distinction. A for the visit, drank, with loud cheers, to the health of table of thirty covers was laid for him and his guests Hercules Renaud d'Est, hereditary Prince of Modena. every day. His dinner was a great spectacle, which The stranger was confounded by this scene. He had passed on to the sound of trumpets; and as it was the probably signed "Est' inadvertently, and the unex custom to admit the people into the hall on the occasion, pected consequences filled him for a time with vexation it became necessary to have the table defended by strong and haughty displeasure.

rails from the pressure of the crowd. The blockade of the English became in the meantime Under this régime, St Peter's presented the aspect of more and more strict, till it threatened at length to a vast theatre. Serious business was no more thought produce actual starvation. Supplies could be obtained of; the wheels of government stood still ; money once only from Curaçoa and St Eustatia, and these, at the more came into active circulation ; provisions, liberated best, would have been scanty and expensive, even if from the chains of monopoly, arrived from all quarters; they had not to pass through the hands of men who eating, drinking, and dancing were the order of the took the opportunity of preying upon the public misery. day; and, as if fortune had determined to signalise the The chief of the monopolists was the governor of the reign, as it may be called, of the duke by her choicest Windward Islands himself, the Marquis de Caylus, who triumphs, the news of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle came

over the Atlantic to complete the general intoxica- was received by either. The political crisis in the tion.

meantime had gone by, and the inhabitants of MarIt may be supposed that the character of the royal tinique began to find the residence of their royal guest adventurer was severely tested during a period of more somewhat expensive. The prince himself, after having brilliant fortune than he could have enjoyed on the spent 50,000 crowns of the Penthièvre funds, at last ducal throne. We must remember, however, that he grew weary of his adventure; and in another month was a mere lad, exposed to temptation of every kind, he hoisted an admiral's flag in a merchant ship, and, and not condemn too severely the vagaries into which saluted by the cannon of the fort, took his departure for he was led by his wild and restless spirit. Accustomed Portugal, with all his household, an almoner, and the to indulgence, as it appeared, from his cradle, he never king's physician at the colony. knew what it was to repress a wish, or even feel a Immediately on his back being turned, the longdoubt; and he plunged madly into all the excesses of expected courier arrived, bringing an order to the gothe time and place, and led the way in dissipation as vernor for the arrest of the stranger! By the same zealously as he had offered to head the ranks of war. vessel the agent of the Duke de Penthièvre received a But the strange thing was, that even in his wildest mo. severe reprimand for his want of caution in allowing ments he never forgot his rank. Neither the madness himself to be fleeced of so large a sum; the duke, howof wine, nor the witcheries of beauty, ever betrayed him ever, in consideration of all the circumstances, retaininto laying aside, for an instant, the dignity of the ing him in his employment, and consenting to share prince; and thus it was, that even the companions of the loss. Both these communications were very exhis most unguarded hours continued to look upon him traordinary. The order for the arrest, after a delay of with a kind of awe.

six months, and presented only when the prince had The hospitality of the monks, it will be seen, was left the island, appeared to indicate that the whole highly convenient for the wandering sovereign, who affair had been nothing more than a youthful frolic; had landed in Martinique without a coin in his pocket; and this seemed so fully confirmed by the otherwise but soon he had abundance of money from a more unaccountable good-nature of the duke, that public legitimate source. It chanced that the Duke de Pen- opinion ran stronger than ever in favour of the young thièvre possessed considerable property in the island; knight-errant. and his agent was of course not the last to present This personage in due time arrived at Faro in Portugal, himself at the court of his constituent's brother-in- and was there received with a salute of artillery. On law. A gracious reception, and a half-hour's con- landing, he demanded to be provided with a courier, to versation in private, were sufficient to determine the send to his chargé d'affairs at Madrid, and likewise with honest man to do his duty to the family; and the the means of proceeding with his suite to Seville, where Penthièvre funds were freely placed at the disposal he intended to await the return of his messenger. All of the young prince. This circumstance completely was complied with ; and the prince, still living on borshut the mouths of the few malcontents who still af- rowed funds, was the gayest of the gay, drinking, dancfected to doubt his rank; for the agent was a prudenting, and making love so vehemently, that he became and cautious man, well acquainted with the affairs the envy of all the men, and the admiration of all the and connexions of the house, and would never have women. His entrance into Seville was like a triumph. taken such a step except from absolute conviction. The windows were crowded as he passed ; the principal The malcontents, besides, could not fail to see that the inhabitants waited upon him to pay their respects; and money was not intrusted to unworthy hands. An im- sumptuous entertainments were prepared for him; all postor would either have squandered the treasure in of which he returned with a magnificence conformable mad extravagance, or have hoarded it against the time to his rank. In the midst of this there came a new when he might think it necessary to decamp; but the order for his arrest. Duke of Modena was neither careful of money nor pro The prince was astonished, the people indignant, and fuse, spending just what was proper and liberal in his the women, more especially, furious. He had taken up station, but nothing more. The doubters could not have his abode at the convent of the Dominicans, who probeen strengthened in their unbelief even by the con- tected him for some time, but at length, on the fermensideration that on so remote a stage it was possible for tation becoming serious, consented to deliver him up an impostor to strut his little hour undiscovered, for he to the authorities, provided this could be done without was always most anxious to meet everybody who came bloodshed. One attempt to take him was defeated by from Europe ; and independently of the two gentlemen the courage of the youth, who defended himself with who had already recognised his person, a third, more his sword; but at length a burly monk, who was acrecently arrived, recollected having seen him the year customed to wait upon him at table, clasped his arms before at Venice. And the occasion was somewhat round him one day as he sat at dinner, and held him remarkable ; for his highness, in a frolic, had broken in till the alguazils, rushing into the room, took him pria shop glass articles to the amount of L.1500, which he soner. afterwards paid for. Was it wonderful that so wild a He was at first thrown into a dungeon, and strongly youth had taken the fancy to come to Martinique ? ironed; but the next day, for no reason that could be

Wildnesses of this kind, however, were now over, for imagined-for he had haughtily refused to answer all he was here in the school of the world. His European interrogations- he was released from his irons, and education had only been begun, though begun on a lodged in the best apartment in the prison. The perprincely scale. He possessed a smattering of half-a- sons composing his retinue, however, were treated with dozen different sciences; he spoke, though indifferently, less ceremony; they were examined regarding a supseveral languages besides his own, and understood a posed conspiracy to seize the island of Martinique, and very little Latin. His drawing was better than his banished from the dominions of Spain. The prince writing; he was a capital horseman; and, more than himself was ultimately condemned to the galleys. all, notwithstanding his flightiness, he had a great fund When the time came for his removal to Cadiz, it apof natural good sense and precision of thought. If to pears that apprehensions were entertained of a commothis we add the most absolute self-possession, and a tion in his favour. The whole garrison of Seville was serene tranquillity of manner which nothing could dis- under arms, and the prince, supported by the captain turb, it will be felt that, both in his merits and defects, and lieutenant, entered a carriage drawn by six mules, Hercules Renaud d'Est was every inch a prince. and proceeded through the town between two ranks of

The prince wrote to his family; and the governor, on infantry which lined the streets. Opinions were still his part, despatched a messenger to Europe to relate the divided as to his pretensions to the ducal throne, and extraordinary circumstances that had occurred, and de- bets to the amount of 60,000 piastres depended upon mand instructions as to how the Duke of Modena slould the question. The extraordinary thing was, that there be treated. Six months had flowed past, and no answer came an order from the court to prohibit the laying of

wagers; and, more extraordinary still, the messengers rious monarchs to have several servants for this office sent off by those who had money at stake, to decide the alone, whose duties were to expose the water to cool whole matter by finding him whom they supposed to be on the summit of the palace, and constantly supply the real duke, were unsuccessful. No Duke of Modena the royal table with the beverage. Cooling pits were was to be found in Italy !

also dug in the earth, into which the water - vessels Arrived at Cadiz, the prince was conducted to the were placed during the daytime; the exterior being well fort of La Caragna, the commandant of which was in- soaked with water, and then surrounded with the fresh structed to treat him with politeness; and here he lived leaves of a vine or other plant, evaporation rapidly very comfortably for a time, busying himself in making went on, and the liquid became most agreeably cool. such presents as the sale of his effects enabled him to Another method is said to be mentioned by Plutarch, afford, to those from whom he had received kindness in which was by casting into the water a number of small the course of his strange adventures. But the romance stones, the agitation and consequent evaporation prowas at an end: the real Duke of Modena had been at duced by which would probably exercise a slightly frilength found; and our paladin, growing tired of a life gorific power over the water. It was probably an acci. without notoriety and without excitement, made his dental observation of what could not have failed to escape.

have been an everyday occurrence, that led to the next Soon after this, the captain of a merchantman which improvement in this method of refrigeration. Many had come to anchor in the roads of Gibraltar went on of the earthen vessels of the Egyptians are made of shore, and reported to the governor that he had on unglazed ware: water placed in one of these was found board the individual who was so well known by the to be considerably cooler than when kept in other vestitle of the Prince of Modena. “Let him beware of sels ; and the more open and porous the material, the landing then,' replied the governor, 'or I shall appre- more rapid the transudation of the water, and its evahend him immediately!' The captain looked perplexed. poration from the surface of the jars, and the greater He returned slowly to his ship, weighed anchor, and set the degree of cold obtained. Water-vases were then sail; and with him disappeared for ever this singular formed for that purpose solely; and the invention, uuyoung man, as completely as a bubble vanishes from altered in principle, has come down with increasing the face of the sea.

usefulness to the present time. Illustrations of the There are few of the monstrosities of romance which second great chemical law-that liquefaction produces equal in wildness and improbability the above transcript cold-next followed. For ages in India, it had been the from real life. The series of coincidences which fa- practice to cool beverages in that burning climate by voured the imposture, and the numerous mistakes as to dissolving saltpetre in water. From India the practice the personal identity of the hero, committed by persons made its way into Europe; and Beckmann states that a who knew, or affected to know, the real prince, seem Spanish physician, Blarius Villa Franca, practising at little less than miraculous ; while the moderation of Rome, first introduced this method of producing cold in the Duke de Penthièvre, and the tenderness exhibited Italy about the middle of the sixteenth century. It is by the court towards a convicted felon, throw around related that wine, placed in this mixture, was cooled to the whole story a romantic mystery, which, at this a degree making it almost intolerable to the teeth; and distance of time, it would be vain to attempt to pene- this was a considerable step in the history of artificial trate.

cold. Other saline substances came into use, and pits

were formed, into which, on the large scale, the water ARTIFICIAL COLD.

to be cooled was put in vessels, surrounded by the cool

ing mixture. Finally came the important discovery, SINCE the days of that dissipated heathen who, in that an intensely-freezing mixture was capable of being order to cool the air during an oppressive summer, formed by mixing snow or ice, and salt, together. A caused mountains of snow to be piled up, and suffered celebrated physician electrified a large audience by exthem to melt away, down to the present era, in which hibiting its effects upon a bottle of wine, which he acthere prevails a rage for the thing, mankind has been tually froze into ice; and this new method of freezing incessantly in quest of refrigeratives. In those regions water' is also mentioned by Lord Bacon. Such are the where ice and snow are found during winter, it became conditions under which this subject has been handed an easy expedient to store up such treasures of cold down to existing posterity. for use in warmer seasons ; but where, if formed at A little consideration of the processes described in all, they could only be of a momentary existence, it is this cursory sketch, of the chemical progress of the luxmanifest that some other means must be devised to ury, will show us that they are all reducible to the two supply the luxury of coldness to the noble and wealthy; axioms——that evaporation and liquefaction create cold. and thus the art of artificial refrigeration—an art which The philosophy of which facts is simply, that in the has to boast of the elaborate researches of the ingenious change of condition from a fluid to a vapour, and from Robert Boyle, and has occupied much of the considera- a solid to a fluid, there is a change in the capacity for tion of other philosophers before and since-took its caloric. If a certain measure of water is to beconie origin. We have already taken notice* of the now vaporised, or if a certain weight of salt is to become a prevalent use and means of procuring beautiful ice for solution, these changes cannot occur without the water the table : we shall here present a brief sketch of the and the salt receiving an additional supply of heat, history, and a short notice of the methods, of producing which is of course abstracted from all surrounding bocold artificially.

dies; and the abstraction of heat being an equivalent Cold, as a luxury, was far from being unknown to the expression to the production of cold, we are brought ancients. The winter's snow or ice was rudely gathered back to the truths with which we commenced, and have up in heaps, or buried in pits, and covered with straw seen how evaporation and liquefaction produce cold. or chaff. But this was a wasteful, and grew to be an Caloric disappears in both cases, and, burying itself expensive method; and it became desirable to have among the particles of the new product, is said to have ready means at every season, and independently of become latent. There are some facts connected with the accidents of the skies, for obtaining the same the production of artificial ice which deserve mention end. The simplest of these proceeded on the prin- here. The congelation of water is materially promoted ciple of loss of temperature, as a result of rapid evapo- by rapid motion. Water has, in fact, been cooled, and ration. The Egyptians were accustomed to cool their yet remained quite fluid, many degrees below the temwater by placing it in earthen pitchers, the exterior of perature at which it generally becomes ice; but the which was kept constantly wet by being sprinkled with moment a little movement was communicated to the water by slaves. It was the habit of one of their luxu- liquid, instantly the temperature rose to 32 degrees,

and the mass became ice, needle-like crystals flying through its substance in a most curious manner. This

* No. 173 of our current series.

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