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fact was seized upon by the refrigeratists; and repeated peculiar duty of one domestic to cool beverages for the accounts of making artificial ice are extant, in which table by this means, who received the impregnated much stress is evidently laid upon the act of stirring solution for his perquisite. Where, however, snow or the fluid to be frozen rapidly round with a stick. The ice is procurable, the intensity of the freezing mixture experience of mankind also appears to have discovered rises to its higher points. Snow and salt produce a that water, after it has been boiled, freezes more rapidly mixture which was deemed by Fahrenheit to be of the than otherwise. It is a custom among many nations of greatest possible degree of cold. This was the temperawarm climates either to warm the water in the sun, or ture of his zero. Our confectioners are in the habit of to boil it, previous to attempting to reduce its tempera- using for their craft a mixture of pounded ice and salt. ture. Dr Black of Edinburgh published some experi. The substance known as chloride of calcium, mixed with ments undertaken to determine the question; and his snow, produces a most severe cold, sufficiently great to results were, that boiled water does freeze a little more freeze mercury. Mr Walker, to whose interesting exrapidly than unboiled. The act of boiling expels the periments upon this subject it stands much indebted, air; and as in freezing a similar expulsion takes place, was on one occasion able, by successive coolings, to ata step is gained in advance of the unboiled liquid. tain a depth of cold equal to 91 degrees below Fahren
The means in present use for artificial refrigeration heit's unhappy zero. In the laboratory of the chemist, are very various, some of them very interesting. great degrees of cold are procurable by the use of Among these, the employment of porous earthenware highly volatile liquids for evaporation. Every juvenile may receive an early place. The Moors introduced into chemist's ears have tingled with the startling enunciaSpain this article of luxury, in the shape of very ele- tion of the possibility of freezing a man to death in the gant vases, wonderfully light and porous. Water kept height of summer, by wetting him constantly with ether in these became rapidly deliciously cool, and, from which is, however, a fact hitherto undemonstrated. some peculiarity in the process of the manufacture The sulphuret of carbon, and, more recently, liquid sulof the vessels, it acquired, in addition, a very agreeable phurous acid, both of them exceedingly volatile fluids, flavour. In Egypt, and in India, and in most sultry create intense cold by their evaporation. The almost regions, this expedient is at the present time a very magical experiments of M. Boutigny, in which water prevalent one. It has also for some time been exten was frozen in a red-hot crucible, were effected by the sively employed amongst ourselves--porous wine, but assistance of sulphurous acid in the liquid form. The ter, and water coolers, of many elegant designs, being remarkable substance, liquid carbonic acid, takes the now produced at our potteries. But porous ware keeps highest rank as a frigorific agent known. Mr Addams water coolest where the clime is hottest, the very incre- of Kensington actually manufactures this curious liquid ment of heat being made to react in the production of as an article of commerce, and has occasionally as much cold by rapid evaporation. The Moorish name for their as nine gallons of it in store. In drawing it from its earthen jugs was Alcarrazos, or Bucarros. The Arabs, powerful reservoirs, it evaporates so rapidly, as to freeze burnt up with the eternal fire of their scorching coun- itself, and it is then a light porous mass, like snow. If a try, make use of goat - skins for their water - vessels, small quantity of this is drenched with ether, the dewhich suffer a little water slowly to exude, and thus gree of cold produced is even more intolerable to the keep the remainder comparatively cool. A common touch than boiling water! a drop or two of the mixture method of cooling wines in India, is one which will producing blisters, just as if the skin had been burned. almost appear a paradox: the bottle is wrapped in Mr Addams states, that in eight minutes he has frozen flannel wetted with water, and placed directly in the in this way a mass of mercury weighing ten pounds. rays of the sun: violent evaporation ensues, and the
There have been some mechanical contrivances for wine actually becomes very cold. It is a common plan, the manufacture of ice. Evaporation may be accelerated too, for sailors, in warm latitudes, to cover their wine mechanically to a degree so great, as to produce ice in with cloths constantly wetted. Apartments are cooled considerable quantities, and this is the principle of Sir on a similar principle, and an abundance of water is fre- John Leslie's celebrated freezing apparatus. In conquently dashed against the walls of the room with the ducting some experiments upon the rarefaction of air, most grateful effect. In India, also, the cold, so dan- he was led to conceive the idea of manufacturing ice on gerous and penetrating on a clear night, is applied in a the large scale from a little phenomenon observed in the peculiar manner for the purpose of freezing water. receiver of his air-pump. Introducing a watch-glass Near Calcutta, in an open plain, there are large shallow full of water, and in contact with sulphuric acid, into excavations made in the ground, and filled with straw; the receiver of his air-pump, and on making a few upon this many rows of small, shallow, porous pans, strokes with the piston, the water was converted into a filled with water, are placed at sunset. During the mass of solid ice! With a body of parched oatmeal innight ice forms in thin cakes upon the surface of these stead of the acid as the absorbent of moisture, he froze pans: it is carefully removed before sunrise, carried to a pound and a quarter of water into ice. Experiments a proper repository, and pounded into a mass there, and on the large scale followed ; powerful machines were then covered over with blankets. This manufacture constructed, and various improvements were adopted in can only be pursued during the months of December, the apparatus, all tending to facilitate its application to January, and February; and in the districts where the the wants or luxuries of mankind. Several of these ice is formed in this manner, it is never produced machines have been exported into hot climates. Dr naturally. This ingenious process must wholly disap- Ure suggested steam as the vacuising power ; and the pear before the new import of Wenham Lake ice. What idea has been conceived, that wherever a steam-engine a revolution has commerce effected in India, when we is employed, there an ice apparatus might be erected remember that early travellers in that country were and sustained at a trifling cost, with great prospect of looked upon as liars and impostors for asserting the productiveness. possibility of solidifying water into ice!
The most recent ice-machine is . Masters's Apparatus,' Where saline substances are cheap, the more power- the principal feature of which is, that a metallic cylinder ful mode of refrigeration has been the use of the frigo. is made to undergo rapid rotation in a freezing mixture, rific mixture. Some of these mixtures are capable of the motion appearing in a singular manner to expedite producing the most intense cold known to philosophy.* and facilitate the process. Dissolving saltpetre in water creates a very useful de Some account of the applications of artificial cold gree of cold; and where the salt is plentiful, as in India, may perhaps suitably conclude our paper. For some it has long been employed for this purpose. It was the time the ingenuity of men in this particular developed
itself no further than in simply cooling wine and other * It will be noticed, that throughout this article the term cold beverages; but a more refined and even elegant mode is made use of for convenience' sake, as if it indicated a positive of doing so was afterwards discovered. In Boyle's ‘Hisprinciple, and were not, as it is, a mere negation.
tory of Cold,' it is stated that he was accustomed to
make wine-cups of ice, by means of tin moulds, for use and that which we shall most commonly find-dislike. in hot weather: pleasant trifles, as he calls them, which For it will not be asserted, that to bring tired children imparted a delicious coolness to the wine poured into in from a long walk-where, if really desirous to improve, them. In an old romance, named the 'Argenis,' a dinner they are just beginning to arrange how to make the in summer is described, at which fresh apples half-in- best of their time—and summoning them all around crusted with ice, and a basin of ice filled with wine, were you, to read six consecutive chapters from the Bibleamong the curiosities upon the table. Then came the prophecy, history, genealogy, or doctrine, just as it may invention of water-ices by one Procope, an Italian, who happen-are the means best calculated to give a love for had an immense sale for them in Paris. Cream ices, the Scriptures. Or that, after prolonging lessons for and the iced juice of fruits, were then made, and found an hour and a-half before breakfast, to keep them kneela rapid consumption. More recently, the art of the con- ing a quarter of an hour or more on a cold morning, fectioner has applied this process to imitate many kinds whilst you are pouring forth prayers which, however of fruit and peaches-apricots and nectarines of ice- true of your individual soul, are without meaning to copying the originals with curious fidelity.
youthful hearers, is the most hopeful way of leading their hearts to God. And yet these are the established
usages of religious schools. One verse from the Bible, FEMALE EDUCATION.
chosen with reference to time and place—one heartfelt
aspiration, poured into the ear of a child whose heart THE POSITIVE-THE POSSIBLE.
was tuned to receive it-would do as much good as these GREAT as are the improvements the last twenty years well-meant but ill-judged attempts do harm. Nor are have seen in female education, and continually increas- they the only customs that appear injudicious. The ing as is the number of enlightened and faithful teachers habit of learning from the Bible as a lesson, of being who, having dedicated their lives to the work, carry it hurried to church twice in the heat of the summer day, on with renewed success from day to day, it is still a and reproved for the consequent bodily weariness, as if melancholy fact that, in the majority of our schools, we it were a moral crime; the dulness and gloom of Sun. find many of the old mistakes in full force, together days, the formal preachments made on the slightest with a general non-progressiveness of character which, occasions, and the unfortunate practice of meeting chil. to the thoughtful, becomes a subject for serious con- dren at every turn with no lighter argument than the sideration.
Day of Judgment—all these are mistakes more geneTo such as call to mind the days of back-boards and rally made, and more serious in their consequences, samplers, and knowing only the really good schools of than any who are unacquainted with the subject practito-day, rejoicingly draw a contrast between past and cally can well imagine. So little knowledge of the child's present, the assertion just made will probably appear nature is sometimes shown, that an Essay on Faith' both uncalled for and unjust. But that, unhappily, it has been required as a vacation lesson from a whole is neither the one nor the other, increasing acquaint- school, including at least two little girls under eleven. ance with facts will testify. So far from wishing to Now, if this had been imposed only on the advanced obtain credit for her statement through undue weight pupils, by whom the subject was understood and felt, attached to the facts on which it is based, the sole desire and the younger ones suffered to write on some other of the writer is to induce a more careful inquiry into subject within their comprehension, no fault could what schools are, and a more earnest consideration of have been found. But imagine unfortunate little bewhat they should be. Still, such facts as she may ings suddenly stopping in the midst of some game to adduce-not being selected to serve a purpose, but which they have given their whole heart, and vainly chosen from the general number as most characteristic striving to recollect some text, or fragment of a text, and expressive, and being all matter, not of hearsay, that may stand in place of original ideas, and fill a but of personal knowledge-deserve that degree of con- decent page in the theme book! Imagine the utter sideration which should be accorded to every contri- dislike they will feel to such subjects for years to come. bution, however humble, to the cause of truth. It may Teachers seldom fail to see this dislike, but for the most assist the better understanding of the subject, if we part attribute it to natural perversion and innate detake a particular class of schools, in order to indicate pravity. God knows, there is enough of both in every the traces of old errors still to be found in them; and heart, however comparatively innocent; but the ques perhaps those in which it will be most easy to demon- tion is—Is the right means taken for removing it? And strate our position are the religious.
to some of us the farther question arises - May not But before going farther, an attempt must be made the mistakes of the teacher help to confirm the wrong to guard, if possible, against misconstruction. It is feelings of the child? Again: in many schools deceit is the primary article of the writer's faith, that however effectually taught by the system of espionage maintained gifted or amiable an instructress may be, whatever her over letters. If children are told to say just what they native powers or acquired accomplishments, she is un- like, but know at the same time that every word they fitted for the charge of rational and immortal beings do say will be overlooked, they will, either consciously unless her heart, mind, and conscience be under the or unconsciously, be hypocrites in the writing. They influence of religion. In speaking, then, of religious cannot fail to say what is likely to give pleasure or gain schools,' it must be borne in mind that it is to such as favour; and going in time a step farther, when commuhave taken to themselves the name, not such as we nications of a contrary nature have to be made, a pisce should be disposed to give it to, that reference is always of paper will be slily slipped in after supervision of the made. These are sometimes farther characterised as original letter, * evangelical.' Now, in the use of this word, we are And yet, under these influences are brought up every influenced only by a desire of indicating to those who year a large number of children, whose parents, thinkare conversant with them the class of schools referred | ing they have secured for them the inestimable benefit to, and it is employed with as little of an invidious of a sound religious education, vainly hope to see springmeaning as the terms preparatory' or 'finishing' would ing up in their hearts that good seed which, for want be, if they suited our purpose. Ilowever designated, of due preparation of the soil, has never taken root perhaps the great mistake of the schools in question Happy is it if they do not find in its place indifference, consists in this, that religion, which they are undoubt- callousness, deceit. Now it seems impossible that inteledly right in making their first object, is so formally ligent parents, and honest but mistaken teachers, should and unattractively presented, so restlessly obtruded at meditate on these evils without feeling that they must all times and seasons, and so connected with pain and be removed, at whatever cost or effort. discomfort, that unless strong interest has been al It is to such I address myself in the following ready gained for it in the more genial atmosphere of attempt to determine how many of the errors that behome, the best result we can hope for is—indifference, long to our present school system are essentially inter
woven with it, and how many only make part of it by admitted, because the philosophy of it is rightly underaccidental association; in short, to set the positive in the stood. light of the possible.
II. The first point being established—that a school In doing this, we require one principle given ; namely, must resemble a family in extent—the second is natuthat schools are a substitute, and at best a poor one, for rally connected with it—that its mode of government home training, which, when attainable with few or none shall be the same ; namely, patriarchal. That all large of the inconveniences commonly attached to it, we hold schools are despotisms, is by no means asserted; but to be the perfect mode of education, the normal state that they have a natural tendency to become so, can appointed by God; and which, therefore, we may not scarcely be denied. In legislating for numbers, recourse change without weighty and sufficient reasons. must be had to rules, regulations, formulæ, and other
This principle granted, and the school admitted to be mechanical substitutes for personal direction ; whilst a substitute for the home, a good school is that in which every school not larger than a family might be governed, the best features of the home are copied, and its highest as all wisely-ordered families are, almost, if not altoadvantages secured. By this practical test the merits gether, by principles. Each member might feel herself of the system may be tried, and the causes of failure in the object of the watchful care and affectionate indicated, if failed it have.
terest of the head, and might partake as largely of 1. In the first place, if a school is to resemble a home, the infusion of her spirit. But this is only possible on some proportion must exist between the numbers con- the supposition that her heart is loving, her judgment tained in both. And here I should observe, that I am sound, and her energy unfailing. speaking altogether and entirely of female education, III. In the third place, every head of a school who and of education as apart from, and above, mere in- undertakes to supply the place of home education, struction. Large public schools for boys are, by common must have deeper views of what is required from her, consent, one of the many necessary evils with which and be more far-sighted with regard to the future, than the world abounds. With these, therefore, we have no the majority of our teachers at present are. A school desire to meddle. But desirable as public spirit and is too often a mere intellectual mill, employed in grindhardihood may be for boys, they are not the objects we ing out of unfortunate children a certain quantity of propose to ourselves in bringing up our daughters ; labour for present purposes. Lessons appear to be neither for them do we make the attainment of intel- learned in order to be said, and said to be speedily forlectual excellence our first desire. On the contrary, the gotten. Candour, however, requires us to admit that culture of the domestic affections, the formation of the the whole of this mistake is not to be charged to schoolcharacter, the strengthening of that heroic, self-denying mistresses ; parents often, by their ill-judged desire to element which is the basis of a woman's nature, and see their children advance rapidly, adding fuel to that which enables her to find in duty its own motive and flame by which the powers of young minds are wasted * reward, and to do right for the right's sake-these are and destroyed. On both sides there is a want of that the ends every thoughtful parent would seek to pursue wise economy by which the immediate results of inin the education of his daughters. As much intellectual tellectual efforts are made a part, and but a small part, attainment, as many external accomplishments as may of the advantages to be derived; the chief gain being be consistent with these, he will desire, and no more. the moral discipline involved, and the power this gives Now the home influences, where the moral atmosphere for future years ; or, to confine our attention to the is pure, will be found precisely adapted to secure these intellect, the sharpening and strengthening of the ends. The parental affection in which children live, faculties, rather than the immediate knowledge they move, and have their being, tends to develop the are the means of procuring. Now, the great intellectual feeling of love in their young hearts; whilst the deep mistake in many schools is, that there is no working interest of the parent must quicken his comprehension for the future. Young people are not shown practiof the individual character of the child, and teach him cally that all their studies and pursuits are mainly how to bring about that peculiar combination of quali- valuable for the promise they hold out, and the facities which he desires to see him possessed of.
lities they afford, for future attainments.
Could we These being some of the peculiar characteristics of show them in the present the germ of the future, and home education, it is at once evident that a large school make it clear to their minds how much their happiness can never supply its place; for the affection and interest here and hereafter depends on the faithful fulfilment of with which each child is regarded by the principal' those simple duties which they are accustomed to regard must be infinitesimal, even if, as too often happens, the as mere indifferent routine, how much more lifelike feeling of individuality is not lost sight of altogether. and earnest would be their daily employments ! ComIf a school, then, be intended to supply the place of the mon situations, and unromantic circumstances, would home, it must be sufficiently limited in extent to admit then content them; for into the meanest they would of the same close study of individual character, and will see the possibility of carrying all those great deeds and differ chiefly from the natural home in bringing to high thoughts which they have reverenced in others, gether companions nearer of an age than can possibly and perhaps sighed for in themselves. Their life would be found amongst brothers and sisters. In this respect, thus become a connected whole, instead of in its two and in this only, the school has necessarily the advan- periods offering the slavery of school, and the emancitage. Many children, studying single-handed, find a pation of leaving it, with nothing to show the oneness degree of dulness in their occupations which would be and reality of existence. There can be no doubt that, quickly removed by the presence of companions. Again: if judiciously attempted, it will be found possible, withunless two or three sisters are very nearly of an age, out making young persons prematurely thoughtful, to the consequence of teaching them together is, that the show them the close connection between those two elder is kept back, and grows idle; or, more probably, stages of education which they have been accustomed that the powers of the younger are overstrained. Now, to think so different—the school-teaching, and the lifeit is by no means asserted that many girls of twelve teaching. A wise teacher will do even more than this. are incapable of studying with sisters two or three years Foreseeing the end of all her efforts from the very beolder-for age is by no means synonymous with power, ginning, and gradually approximating towards it by there being greater capability in some at ten than in slow degrees, in proportion as she finds the power of others at fifteen. Still, the rule of course is, that fellow- self-guidance developed, she will remove external motive students of the same age are preferable. Moreover, all and stimulus, and so prepare the mind to depend on wise teachers know that children often gain from each itself, that, when the period arrives for losing sight of other, both mentally and morally, fully as much as it is authority altogether, the change shall be in many imin the instructor's power to bestow. Difficult as it is portant particulars imperceptible. to make this clear to any who have not studied educa Neither is it necessary that young women should tion practically, by those who have, it will be readily | leave school, as they often do, with little preparation
for the active duties of life. No other law but the ab- in the country; for health and happiness are both insurd one of fashion has laid down the cultivation of all volved in making the most not only of the hour, or kinds of useless and frivolous needlework, to the exclu- hour and a half, devoted to a walk, but of the fragsion, in many cases, of that particular branch in which ments of time which are constantly occurring between every woman should be well practised. The period of studies, and before and after meals. There is, moreover, life passed at school is that on which future happiness an invigorating influence in constantly breathing pure and usefulness mainly depend, it being during the air, the absence of which is poorly compensated by all course of this that habits are, to a certain extent, un- that a large town has to offer in the shape of lectures alterably formed. To accustom young people, there or exhibitions. But the advantages of both may be fore, exclusively to the use of Berlin wools and floss partially united by a situation in the country, in the silks, is to preclude the hope of their being, in one im- immediate neighbourhood of a town. And in cases portant particular, useful mistresses of families. where this is not attainable, which will form the majo
iv. Are schools and school-life necessarily and unavoid- rity, the loss of all town advantages is more than made ably the dull, formal, negative things we commonly find up to us by any picturesqueness the neighbourhood them? May not the cultivation of a loving spirit in the may afford. To teach a child to love nature, is far more young people, together with constant cheerfulness, in important than to make her a connoisseur in works of telligent conversation, and an animated manner in the art; though, unfortunately, it is less understood. It principal, help to make a school-life a happy and plea- can only be effected by living in the midst of fair scenes, sant one-inferior to home only in the one great par- and keeping the heart always open to their influence. ticular, of separation from relatives ?
If this advantage be once given, little positive teaching In the present administration of schools, one of the will be found necessary, there being a secret affinity principal mistakes arises from the fear of giving too free between the freshness of young hearts and the joyousa course to that natural reaction, that exuberance of ness of nature, by which all our attempts at formal spirits, which is found to follow close attention to study. introductions are felt to be wholly gratuitous. It is Now, as certainly as we must relax the bow before we because this is imperfectly, if at all, understood by can hope to see it firmly strung, so surely does earnest many teachers, that young people are often charged study require at intervals the most unbounded freedom, with being idle, when they are in reality full of thought the most unrestrained enjoyment of every rational and and feeling. A child lies down under a shady tree, and harmless amusement. Children who do not play with shuts his eyes to feel the sweet breath of summer; or all their heart, are seldom found to learn with all their looks up into the interwoven branches, and wonders might; whilst in those who do, the energy and vitality why they seem to be in the sky, and why the sky looks of the playground will accompany the mind to the like another sea, and wherein sky and sea differ from study, unless some chilling influence meet it on the each other, until he loses himself altogether in reverie. way. Of refreshing, inspiriting amusements, bodily as The teacher finds him thus engaged, and because he is well as mental, children at school have too small a neither conjugating, nor calculating, nor poring over share. They are for the most part characterised by a book or map, pronounces him idle. Now, it would be grave dulness of character, a dignified nonchalance of most absurd to dream of children's spending their time manner, which, painful as we feel it in all, is absolutely either entirely or principally in this desultory manner, hopeless in the young : for it is one of the surest indica- when the advantages of regular employments are known tions of that solemn listlessness which gives us the pecu- to be invaluable. Still, it is both unjust and unwise to liar specimen of animated nature so puzzling to many of confound together two things so utterly distinct as the our philosophers--the young lady from school. Under love of nature and the love of idleness. a more lifelike and enterprising government, this nega VI. With regard to the arrangement of time, a few tiveness of character would cease to exist. The pecu- practical hints will best explain what is meant. liarities of individuals would be cherished and rejoiced Work should be always close and earnest, but not too in; and school girls would no longer be distinguished long-continued. Two hours are, perhaps, the longest from their fellow-mortals by the habit, when dining in time children should ever be allowed to study without tolerably large numbers, of asking for the wing of a some interval of rest longer or shorter. For very young fowl all round the table. In all seriousness, we do de- children, even this is too much. They cannot give sire to see a less generic character in the young, who their best attention so long; or, if they can, that is the have years enough before them, with no lack of in- strongest of all reasons for never suffering them to do fluences, to wear them down to the customary degree it on any pretext whatever. Intellectual studies should of conventional commonplaceness. But this desirable occupy the hours of the morning; music and drawing change will not be effected so long as the formal walk those of the afternoon; and the evening should be given for an hour in the day, and the dance in which the to work, amusing reading, chess, and all games that posture-master's frown is feared, are held relaxation afford either exercise to the limbs or relaxation to the sufficient for young minds and limbs. Not merely mind. It is the time for establishing a cordial sympathy walking, running races, and every game that can be between all the members of a family, by leading each pursued out of doors, but gardening, botany, excursions, to employ his peculiar talent for the benefit of the rest. visits to manufactories, &c. will help to give a definite All attempts to make the day begin and end with work object to our exercise, and thereby preserve us from are, therefore, mistakes, and deserve to be as unsuclassitude; a state, by the by, so unnatural to the young, cessful as we invariably find them. We are not sent that we never see it-except in the single case of ill- into this world only to learn Greek, and Latin, and theohealth-without mentally laying the blame on the logies ;' but to comfort and be comforted, to bless and seniors in charge.
be blessed. The child whose last thoughts every night v. The chief points connected with the wellbeing of are of grammars and lexicons, will make but an unschools are, undoubtedly, the four we have been at- genial companion in after-life. In female education tempting to consider; namely, extent, government, more especially, where the moral and spiritual culture purpose, spirit. Many practical points will, however, is all-important, this truth must be carefully borne in be found to have great influence on their success; such mind. as choice of situation, arrangement of time, &c. With One word in conclusion, to explain the earlier pages regard to the former, I feel no hesitation in saying that of this paper. Religious schools were selected for every school should be, if not quite in the country, still notice as being more numerous, more influential, and so near it, as to admit of much time being spent every more generally believed in than any others. The folday in the fields and lanes, and without the annoyance lies of fashionable seminaries, and the sips of intellecof passing through crowded streets in order to reach tual hothouses, have already been so fully exposed, that them. Indeed, unless insurmountable difficulties are little faith can remain in them among the intelligent: in the way, every school should be not only near, but I whilst the existence in religious schools of the mis
takes we have attempted to point out, is wholly unsus One morning, however, when Mrs Allen proceeded pected by the majority of parents, and can never have as usual to her place of merchandise, she was startled been duly considered by the teachers themselves. to perceive the space around her fruit-stall filled with
And now, with a full conviction that the foregoing workmen conveying stones, mortar, and all the impleobservations, however crude in form, are true in sub- ments necessary for commencing a building. Some stance, the writer commits them to the earnest conside- were standing round the shed, evidently preparing to ration of all concerned in education. She is conscious demolish it. Come, old lady,' said one of the men, that many other particulars might have been brought move your things out of this as fast as you can, for forward, and many truths more clearly indicated. But we can do nothing until the shed is down.' this has happened intentionally, and not by accident. My shed !' she exclaimed ; 'and who has given you Her object is to suggest merely, to throw on the subject authority to touch it?' just as much light as will serve to guide those less • The Lord Chancellor,' was the reply ; “ he has chosen practically conversant with it; and to point out to any this spot for a palace that he is going to build, and who have been working without reflecting, the greatness which is intended to be somewhat grander than your of their responsibility for good or for evil.
fruit-stall. So look sharp about moving your property,
for the shed must come down.' A STORY OF APSLEY HOUSE.
Vain were the poor woman's tears and lamentations ;
her repeated assertions that the late king had given One fine autumn day, in the year 1750, as his majesty her the ground for her own, were treated with ridicule; George II. was taking a ride in Hyde Park, his eye and at length she returned home heart-sick and dewas attracted by the figure of an old soldier, who was sponding. resting on a bench placed at the foot of an oak-tree. Misfortunes, it is said, seldom come alone. That The king, whose memory of faces was remarkable, re- evening Edward Allen entered his mother's dwelling cognised him as a veteran who had fought bravely by wearing a countenance as dejected as her own. He his side in some of his continental battles; and kindly threw himself on a chair, and sighed deeply. Oh, accosting him, the old man, who was lame, hobbled mother!' he said, 'I fear we are ruined : Mr Elliot has towards him.
failed for an immense sum; there is an execution on • Well, my friend,' said the monarch, it is now some his house and goods, and I and all his clerks are turned years since we heard the bullets whistle at the battle of adrift. Every penny we possessed was lodged in his Dettingen: tell me what has befallen you since.' hands, and now we shall lose it all. Besides, there have
•I was wounded in the leg, please your majesty, and been lately so many failures in the city, that numbers received my discharge, and a pension, on which my of young men are seeking employment, and I'm sure I wife and I are living, and trying to bring up our only don't know where to turn to look for it. I suppose,' he son.'
added, trying to smile, we shall have nothing to de*Are you comfortable? Is there anything you parti- pend on but your little trade; and I must give up the cularly wish for?'
hope of marrying sweet Lucy Gray. It will be hard * Please your majesty, if I might make bold to speak, enough to see you suffering from poverty without there is one thing that would make my wife, poor bringing her to share it.' woman, as happy as a queen, if she could only get it. Oh, Edward,' said his mother, 'what you tell me is Our son is a clever boy, and as we are anxious to give bad enough; but, my poor boy, I have still worse news him a good education, we try every means in our power for you.' She then, with many tears, related the events to turn an honest penny; so my wife keeps an apple- of the morning, and concluded by asking him what stall outside the Park gate, and on fine days, when she they were to do. Edward paused. 'And so,' said he is able to be out, she often sells a good deal. But sun at length, the Lord Chancellor has taken a fancy to and dust spoil the fruit, and rainy weather keeps her my mother's ground, and her poor fruit-stall must come at home; so her profits are but little-not near enough down to make room for his stately palace. Well, we to keep our boy at school. Now, please your majesty, shall see. Thank God we live in free, happy England, if you would have the goodness to give her the bit of where the highest has no power to oppress the lowest. waste ground outside the Park gate, we could build a Let his lordship build on: he cannot seize that which shed for her fruit-stall, and it would be, I may say, like his sovereign bestowed on another. Let us rest quietly an estate to us.'
to-night, and I feel certain that all will yet be well.' The good-natured monarch smiled, and said, “You The following day Edward presented himself at the shall have it, my friend. I wish all my subjects were dwelling of the Lord Chancellor. • Can I see his lordas moderate in their requests as you. He then rode ship?' he inquired of the grave official who answered on, followed by the grateful blessings of his faithful his summons. veteran.
• My lord is engaged just now, and cannot be seen In a few days a formal conveyance of the bit of except on urgent business.' ground to James Allen, his wife, and their heirs for • My business is urgent,' replied the young man; ever, was forwarded to their humble dwelling. The but I will await his lordship's leisure.' desired shed was speedily erected, and the good woman's And a long waiting he had. At length, after sitting trade prospered beyond her expectations. Often, indeed, in an anteroom for several hours, he was invited to the king himself would stop at the Park gate to accost enter the audience chamber. There, at a table covered her, and taking an apple from her tempting store, de- with books and papers, sat Lord Apsley. He was a posit a golden token in its place. She was thus enabled dignified-looking man, still in the prime of life, with a to procure a good education for her son, who really pleasant countenance and quick penetrating eye. Well, possessed considerable talents.
my friend,' he said, 'what can I do for you? Years rolled on. George II. and the veteran were Your lordship can do much,' replied Edward; 'yet both gathered to their fathers; but Mrs Allen still car- all I seek is justice. You have chosen, as the site for ried on her trade, hoping to lay up some money for her your new palace, a piece of ground which his majesty son, who was become a fine young man, and had ob- King George II. bestowed on my parents and their tained a situation as head clerk in a large haberdashery heirs for ever; and since my father's death, my mother establishment. He lived with his mother in a neat, has remained in undisturbed possession. If your lordthough humble dwelling, a little way out of the city; ship will please to read this paper, you will see that and thither he hoped soon to bring a fair young bride, what I state is the fact.' the daughter of a Mr Gray, a music teacher, who re Lord Apsley took the document, and perused it atsided near them. “Sweet Lucy Gray!' as her lover was tentively." You are right, young man,' he said; "the wont to call her, had given her consent, and the happy ground is indeed secured to your family by the act of day was already fixed.
our late gracious sovereign. I took possession of it,