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PREFACE

TO THE FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCIAL

CALCULATOR.

PRE FACE

TO THE TIN-PLATE AND SHEET-IRON WORKERS' MONITOR.

CONTENTS.

.

SECTION A.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

PAGE

PAGE

Foreign Moneys of Account ...a 1 LONG OR LINEAR MEASURE.. 25.

Foreign Linear and Surface Meas.

Cloth Measure

25

ures.

. a 14 Land Measure

25

Foreign Weights

... a 23 Engineer's Chain

25

Foreign Liquid Measures . . a 35 Shoemaker's Measure

26

Foreign Dry Measures .

. a 44 Miscellaneous Measures

26

Custom House Allowances on Du-

tiable Goods, &c.

. a 51 SQUARE OR SUPERFICIAL MEAS-

Table of Established Tares

URE

26

...a 52

Measure for Land

26

Circular Measure

27

CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE ... 27

GENERAL MEASURE OF WEIGHT, 28

SECTION I.

Gross Weight .

28

Troy Weight

28

Apothecaries' Weight,

28

MONEYS OF ACCOUNT, COINS, Diamonds, Measure of Value, &c., 28

WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF LIQUID MEASURE

28

THE UNITED STATES; FOREIGN Imperial Liquid Measure.

29

GOLD COINS, &c.

Ale Measure

29

DRY MEASURE.

29

EXPLANATIONS OF SIGNS : 12

Imperial Dry Measure

30

Moneys of Account of the United

States

13

Comparative Value of Gold and

Silver.

13

SECTION II.

Gold, pure; value of, by weight. . 15

Mint Gold, Standard of, &c. 15

Gold Coins, their weights and val. MISCELLANEOUS FACTS, CALCU-

ues :

15

LATIONS, AND MATHEMATICAL

Silver, pure; value of, by weight. 16

DATA.

Mint Silver, Standard of, &c. . 16

Silver Coins, their weights and

values

16

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, TABLES OF, 31

Copper Coins, &c.

16 Weight per Bushel of Articles 35

Present Par Value of Silver Coins

Weight per Barrel of Articles 35

issued prior to June, 1853. : 17

Weights of different Measures of

Currencies of the different States various Articles .

35

of the Union.

17 Weight of Coals, &c., TABLES. 35, 55

The Metrical System of Weights Practical Approximate Weight in

and Measures

18

Pounds of various Articles 36

Foreign Gold Coins, TABLE8 of, &c. 19

Foreign Silver Coins, Values of, 25 ROPES AND CABLES.

36

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PAGE

Weight and Strength of Iron To find the Dimensions of Vessels

Chains

37

Comparative Weight' of Metals,

of different Forms, for holding

Given Quantities .

62

TABLE

38

Weight of Rolled Iron, Square Bar,

CASK GAUGING, all Forms of

Casks.

63

TABLES

38

Weight of Various Metals, differ. To find the Contents of a Cask, the

ent Forms of Bar.

39 same as would be given by the

Weight of Round-rolled Iron, TA-

Gauging Rod..

66

40 To find the Diagonal and Length

Weight of Cast-iron Prisms of dif-

of a Cask.

66

ferent forms, &c

40 ULLAGE

67

Weight of Flat-rolled Iron, TABLE, 42 To find the Ullage of a Standing

Weight of Different Metals in Plate, 44

Cask

67

THE AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE. 45 To find the Ullage when the Cask is

upon its Bilge.

67

The Values of the Nos. American To find the Quantity of Liquor in a

Wire Gauge and Birmingham Cask by its Weight.

68

Wire Gauge, in the United States, Customary Rule by Freighting Mer-

inch, TABLES of

45 chants. for finding the Cubic

The Number of Linear Feet in a Measurement of Casks .. 68

Pound of different kinds of Wire

of different sizes, TABLE of, &c., 46

TONNAGE OF VESSELS, to Calcu.

69

Characteristics, &c., of Alloys of

Copper and Zinc,- BRASS. 47

OF CONDUITS, OR PIPES

70

The Weight per Square Foot of dif To find the requisite thickness of a

ferent Rolled Metals of different Pipe to support a Given Head of

thicknesses by the Wire Gauge,

Water

70

TABLE

48 To find the Velocity of Water pass.

TIN PLATES, Sizes, &c., TABLE. 49

ing through a Pipe

71

Sheet Iron, Sheet Zinc, Copper

To find the Head of Water requi.

Sheathing, Yellow Metal, Weight

site to a Required Velocity

of, &c.

through a Pipe

71

Capacity in Gallons of Cylindrical To find the Quantity of Water Dis-

Cans, &c., TABLE.

50 charged by a Pipe in a Given

Weight of Pipes

52

Time

71

Weight of Pipes, TABLE. 53 To find the Specific Gravity of a

Weight of Cast-iron and Lead Body heavier than Water . 72

Balls

54 To find the Specific Gravity of a

Weight of Hollow Balls or Shells, 54

Body, lighter than Water . 72

Analysis of Coals.

55

To find the Specific Gravity of a

Weight, Heating Power, &c., of

Fluid

72

Coals and other kinds of Fuel,

To find the Quantity of each of the

TABLE

55 several Metals composing an Al-

loy

72

MENSURATION OF LUMBER 56 To find the Lifting-power of a Bal-

loon..

73

Board Measure

56

To Measure Square Timber. ..

To find the Diameter of a Balloon

56

To Measure Round Timber.

56

equal to the Raising of a Given

TABLE relative to the Measurement

Weight

73

To find the Thickness of a Hollow

of Round Timber ..

57

Metallic Globe that shall have a

To find the Solidity of the greatest Given Buoyancy in a Given

Rectangular Stick that can be cut

from a Log of Given Dimensions, 58 To Cut a Square Sheet of Metal so

Liquid.

73

To find the Solidity of the greatest

as to form a Vessel of the Great-

Square Stick that can be cut from

a Round Stick of Given Dimen-

est Capacity the Sheet admits of. 73

sions

Comparative Cohesive Forces of

59

To find the Contents of a Log in

Substances, TABLE.

74

Board Measure

Alloys having a Tenacity greater

59

than the Sum of their Con-

GAUGING.

60 stituents

74

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Alloys having a Density greater Chemical and other Properties of

than the Mean of their Con. Various Substances .

90

stituents

75

Alloys having a Density less than

the Mean of their Constituents. 75

Relative Powers of different Metals

SECTION III.

to Conduct Electricity .

75

Dilations of Solids by Heat, TABLE 75

Melting Points of Metals and other

PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC.

Substances, TABLE:

76

Relative Powers of Substances to

Radiate Heat, TABLE.

76

95

VULGAR FRACTIONS . .

Boiling Points of Fluids

76 Reduction of Vulgar Fractions. 95

Freezing Points of Fluids

77 Addition of Vulgar Fractions . 09

Expansion of Fluids by Heat. 77 Subtraction of Vulgar Fractions 99

Relative Powers of Substances to Division of Vulgar Fractions

Conduct Heat

77 Multiplication of Vulgar Fractions 100

Ductility and Maleability of Metals, 77 Multiplication and Division of

Quantity per cent. of Nutritious Fractions Combined ......

101

Matter contained in different Ar CANCELLATION

. 96, 97, 102
ticles of Food.

78

Standard, &c., of Alcohol.

To Reduce a Fraction in a higher,

Quantity per cent. of Absolute Al. to an equivalent in a given low:

cohol contained in different Pure

er denomination

102

Liquors, Wines, &c., TABLE. 78

To Reduce a Fraction in a lower,

Proof of Spirituous Liquors 78 to an equivalent in a given high-

Comparative Weight of Timber in

er denomination

102

a Green and Seasoned State, TA-

To Reduce a Fraction to Whole
BLE, &c.

79

Numbers in lower given denom-
Relative Power of different kinds of

inations
Fuel to Produce Heat, TABLE, 79

To Reduce Fractions in lower de-
Relative Illuminating Power of dif.

nominations to given higher de.

ferent Materials, Table and Re-

nominations

103

marks,

80

To work Vulgar Fractions by the

Rule of Three, or Proportion . . 104

THERMOMETERS, different kinds,

to Reduce one to another, &c., • 82

DECIMAL FRACTIONS

HORSE-POWER.

83

Addition of Decimals.

Animal Power ...

Subtraction of Decimals

83

Multiplication of Decimals . . . 106

STEAM, TABLES in relation to, Division of Decimals.

&c., :

83, 308 Reduction of Decimals

107

Velocity and Force of Wind, TA-

To work Decimals by the Rule of

BLE

81 Three.

108

Curvature of the Earth

84, 213 | Proportion, or Rule of Three 109

Degrees of Longitude, Lengths of, Compound Proportion

110

&c.,

84 Conjoined Proportion, or Chain

TIME, with respect to Longitude, 81 Rule

Velocity of Sound

81

PERCENTAGE

Velocity of Light

85

INTEREST

120

GRAVITATION

85, 302

Area of the Earth, its Density, &c., 85 Bank Interest, or Bank Discount . 127

Compound Interest.

122

Chemical Elements .

86

Elementary Constituents of Bodies,

DISCOUNT

129

TABLE :

87 Compound Discount

Combinations by Weight of the Profit and Loss.

Gases in forming Compounds, Equation of Payments

TABLE

87 | General Average

Combinations by Volume of the Assessment of Taxes .

Gases, their Condensation, &c., Insurance

in forming Compounds.

89 | Life Insurance.

. 136

Atomic Weight.

89 | Fellowship

138

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188, 189

PAGE

PADE

Alligation

. . 139 To draw a Triangle equal in Area

Involution

141 to two given Triangles.

183

Evolution

. 141 To describe a Circle equal in Area

To Extract the Square Root

to two given Circles

183

To Extract the Cube Root .... 143 To construct a Tothed, or Cog.
To Extract any Root .

Wheel ..

183

Arithmetical Progression .

146

184

Geometrical Progression

OF THE CONIC SECTIONS

150

ANNUITIES. ...

154

MENSURATION OF LINES AND SUPER-

Of Installments generally

FICIES,

PERMUTATION

166

TRIANGLES

185

COMBINATION

167

Of Right-Angled Triangles 186

PROBLEMS

169 Of Oblique-Angled Triangles 187

To find the Area of a Triangle 188
To find the Hypotenuse of a Tri.
angle

189
SECTION IV.

To find the Base, or Perpendicu-

lar, of a Triangle

To find the Height of an inacces-
GEOMETRY.
sible Object

189

To find the Distance of an inac-

DEFINITIONS, CONSTRUCTION OF cessible Object.

190

FIGURES, &c.

172 To find the Area of a Square,

To Bisect a Line

Rectangle, Rhombus, or Rhom-

To Erect a Perpendicular

boid

190

To Let Fall a Perpendicular 176

To find the Area of a Trapezoid . 191
To Erect a Perpendicular on the

To find the Area of a Trapezium . 191
end of a Line :

177 OF POLYGONS, TABLE, &c. ... 194
To draw a Circle through any three

To find the perpendieular of a

points not in a straight line, and

to find the Centre of a Circle, or

Rhombus, Rhomboid, or Trape-

zoid

192

Arc.

177 To find the Diagonal of a Rhom.
To find the Length of an Arc of a

bus, Rhomboid, or Trapezoid 192

a Circle approximately by Me To find the Area of a regular or

chanics

177

irregular Polygon

195

From a given Point to draw a
Tangent to a Circle

196
To draw from or to the Circumfer The Circle and its Sections

* 197
ence of a Circle, lines tending To find the Diameter, Circumfer-
to the Centre, when the latter is ence, and Area of a Circle . 198
inaccessible

. 177 To find the Length of an Arc of a
To describe an Oval Arch on a

Circle

199
given Conjugate Diameter 178 To find the Area of a Sector of a
To describe an Oval of a given Circle

201
Length and Breadth

178 To find the Area of a Segment of
To describe an Arc or Segment of a Circle

201

a Circle of Large Radius

179 To find the Area of a Zone

202

To describe an Oval Arch, the To find the Diameter of a Circle of

Span and Rise being given 179 which a given Zone is a part.

202

Gothic Arches, to draw

. 180 To find the Area of a Crescent 202

Polygons, to construct

. 181 To find the Side of a Square that

Polygons, to inscribe in a given shall contain an Area equal to

Circle .

181 that of a given Circle .

202

Polygons, to circumscribe about a To find the Diameter of a Circle

given Circle.

181 that shall have an Area equal to

To produce a Square of the same that of a given Square.

202

Area as a given Triangle

181 To find the Diameters of three

To construct a Parabola

182, 355

equal circles the greatest that

To Construct a Hyperbola

can be inscribed in a given Cir-

To bisect any given Triangle 182

202

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