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ARCHBISHOP Usher, whose character for sagacity, learning, and piety, stands deservedly high in the scale of merit, should deliver it as his opinion, that the two witnesses were to be slain, not by the pope, but by the kings of France.' Another much earlier anonymous writer, the author of a dissertation shortly to be quoted, after observing that France was the country, where the witnesses bore their first testimony against the papal corruption; and that they principally suffered here,' says, “it seems highly probable to conclude, that it shall be likewise here, that these same witnesses shall ascend; and that they are to ascend by, or upon, the overthrow of those very enemies, from whom they have principally suffered : providence, by this method, coming home to the persecutors, and revenging the quarrel of his faithful witnesses on the spot32. Now who were their enemies? They were the very same classes of persons, who have actually been the greatest sufferers in the course of the French Revolution, and it was by means of their overthrow that it was accomplished.

But I am under an engagement to transcribe some extracts from Jurieu. With respect to the Street of the Great City, which St. John (v. 8), points out as the place, in which the witnesses of Civil and Religious Liberty shall be particularly silenced, Jurieu says, “I cannot hinder myself from believing, that this hath a particular regard to France, which at this day is certainly the most eminent country, which belongs to the popish Kingdom. It is the most flourishing state in Europe. It is in the middle of the popish empire, betwixt Italy, Spain, Germany, England, exactly as a street or place of concourse in the middle of a city33.' It may be added, that, when we regard the Great City as denoting the whole range of the different antichristian countries, the expression in the original (xi. 8), Ý TROTEIN TONEWS TOs pesyalans, the broad way of the great City, seems in a peculiar manner applicable to a

32 P. 21. This Dissertation was published in 1747. $3 Vol. II. p. 247.

country so much resorted to as France. It is said in the next verse (v. 9), and they of the people and kindreds, and tongues, and nations, shall see their dead bodies, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put into graves, i. e. says Jurieu, the Truth shall be slain, but it shall not be buried. Burial is a degree beyond death, and is always joined with a total corruption and destruction. Those who hinder their burial, are the tribes, languages, people, and nations, i. e. several neighbor nations34.' These nations, who shall be witnesses of the tyranny to which they fall victims, by continuing their intercourse with the people of France, shall not suffer the great truths of religious toleration and of civil freedom to become exstinct among them. Thus England, in particular, by the boldness and depth of its speculations on toleration and on government, excited a similar spirit of inquiry in the writers of France, Not to suffer a person to be put into the grave denotes,' says Dr. Lancaster, in his Symbolical Dictionary, - that he shall be remembered, and not suffered to be put into eternal silence.'

It is said in the Apocalypse, immediately previous to the account of the Great Earthquake, that they heard a great voice from Heaven, saying unto them, come up hither. In explaining these words, Jurieu gives the following account of that Revolution in France which he expected. * Heaven is the throne, it is the sovereign dignity, which in a state is exactly the same, that heaven is to the earth, in light, in lustre, in good or bad influences, in situation, and in elevation. From Heaven, i. e. from authority, and the prince who reigns; they heard a voice, they received an order; not a small clandestine silent voice, but a great voice, i. e. a public command, a solemn edict; and this voice said unto them, come up hither.' Many persons, on perusing this passage, have been inclined to exclaim, has not this prediction been completely verified ? Was it not

34 Vol. II. p. 248.

.

Vol. I,

from the prince who reigned, when led to it by an unforeseen pressure of circumstances and imperious necessity, that the Revolution derived its immediate origin? Was not a solemn edict published from authority, inviting the people to co-operate in the accomplishment of a Reformation? Did they not actually hear a voice, did they not actually receive an order, issuing from the throne, saying, come up hither? Did not the Tiers Etat, whose interposition in the government had so long been prohibited, receive a public command from Louis XVI, to assist in the national deliberations, and to devise means for correcting abuses, which could no longer be tolerated 35 ?

Jurieu, having related what he conceived would be the manner of commencing the Revolution in FRANCE, afterwards proceeds to point out its certainty, its progress, and its consequences. But previous to quoting from him, I shall again submit the words of St. John to the attention of the reader. And the same hour was there a Great Earthquake, and the Tenth Part of the City fell, and in

35 The circular letter or public command of Louis XVI. convoking the states general, and inviting the three estates to assume a share in the tegislature, in order to accomplish a Reform, has in particular been appealed to, as containing an exact fulfilment of the expectations of Jurieu. It was promulgated at Versailles the 24th of January 1789. For the subsequent passages in it see the New Ann. Reg. for 1789, p. 111. • We order and expressly enjoin you, therefore, soon after the receipt of the present letter, to convene and assemble in the town of the most proper of the three classes ( trois etats),---that they may confer and communicate together on subjects of complaints, grievances, and remonstrances, and the means and advice they may have to propose to the ge. neral assembly of the same states; and after having done thus much, they are to chuse and name such and such persons, &c. and so many and no more of EVERY class,---all of them worthy of this distinguished mark of trust, on account of their integrity, and the superior abilities they are endowed with. They shall be furnished with proper instructions and sufficient power to propose, remonstrate, advise, and consent to every thing, that may concern the present or future wants of the state, THE REFORM OF ABUSES, the establishment of steady and permanent order in every branch of the administration, the general prosperity of our kingsom, and the welfare of all and Each of our subjects.'

this Earthquake the titles of men being seven thousand were destroyed. It is known,' says Jurieu, by all who are versed in the prophets, that in the prophetic style an earthquake signifies a great Commotion of nations, that must change the face of the world36?

It being supposed and proved, that the city is the whole Babylonian and antichristian empire37 ; it must be remembered, that this empire of Antichrist is made up of Ten Kingdoms, and Ten Kings.-From which it is clear, that the Tenth Part of the City signifies here one of those Ten Kingdoms, under the authority of the antichristian kingdom. A Tenth Part of the city fell, i. e. one of these Ten Kingdoms, which make up the great city, the Babylonian empire, shall forsake it38.?

* Now what is this Tenth Part of the city ?.In my opinion, we cannot doubt, that it is France39! This kingdom

MUST BUILD ITS GREATNESS UPON THE RUINS OF THE PAPAL EMPIRE, AND ENRICH ITSELF WITH THE SPOILS

THOSE WHO SHALL TAKE PART WITH THE PAPACY. They, who at this day persecute the Protestants, know not whither God is leading them. This is not the way, by which he will lead FRANCE to the height of glory. If she comes thither, it is because she shall shortly change her road. Her greatning will be no damage to Protestant states ;

the
contrary,

the Protestant states shall be enriched with the spoils of others, and be strengthened by the fall of Antichrist's empire. This Tenth Part of the city shall fall, with respect to the papacy; it shall break with Rome and the Roman religion. But, says Jurieu, * some space of time shall pass, probably some years, before France shall wholly throw off the yoke of popery4o.?

OF

on

36 Vol. II. p. 261.

37 Long, indeed, has this been an approved interpretation. To the word city or civitas, occurring in this ch. of the Rev. a large signification was annexed, not only by those early commentators, Brightman and Goodwin, but also by Fox the martyrologist, in his Eikasmi, published in Latin in the year 1587, p.

124. 38 Vol. II. p. 264. 39 P. 265. 40 Vol. II. p. 260.

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It deserves to be mentioned, that bp. Newton, after stating three other opinions relevant to the Tenth Part of the city, introduces Jurieu as a famous4 divine of the French church at Rotterdam,' who has given an interpretation, which ought to be preferred to those he had already enumerated. Upon this passage the bishop himself grounds. the expectation, not only that there shall be great Commotions in the world, but that the Tenth Part of the city shall fall, as an omen and earnest of A STILL GREATER TALL42' With this declaration Jurieu completely harmo

· 41 On the general character of M. Jurieu I am not disposed myself to enter. I am aware that it was not without considerable blemishes. That he is a writer worthy of attention, some short testimonials of others respecting him will, however, evince. It may in particular be observed to be a strong presumption in his favor, that, for the apocalyptical writings of Mede, he entertained the highest respect, Accordingly his celebrated antagonist, Bossuet, styles him the disciple of Joseph Mede (L'Apoc. avec une Explication, Par. 1690, p. 389); and Whiston observes (p. 102), not only that he is a follower of Mede, but that he is certainly to be classed among our best commentators on this book.' From p. 727 of Daubuz it appears that he entertained a similar opinion of him; and Mr. Pyle (pref. p. 18), in his list of distinguished writers, who have most materially contributed to the right understanding of the Apocalypse, omits not to make particular mention of Jurieu, to whom also he often appeals as an authority in the body of his work. We learn from a treatise of the learned Dr. Cressener, which was printed in 1690 (Dem. of the Prot. App. of the Apoc. pref. p. 23), that by the generality of students in the prophecies, at that time, the system of Jurieu, which he denominates elegant, was regarded as unusually striking. Jurieu was the author of a great number of works; and an account of all, or most of them, may be found in the Acta Erulitorum of Leipsic. Their critique on his Accomplishment of the Prophecies I have not seen; but, in incidentally mentioning his confutation of Bossuet's Exposition, they entitle it celeberrimus tractatus, 1685, p. 522. Elsewhere they also style him celeberrimus auctor (1688, p. 625), and auctor multis scriptis clarissimus (1687, p. 143) I conclude with a tes. timony from Bayle. Though an open variance afterwards broke out be. tween him and Jurieu, they were, for a considerable time, united by the ties of the closest intimacy; and the former, in a letter written to Mr. Bạsnage in 1675, says, “I honor and admire M. Jurieu, and should de.: sire earnestly to be near him, that I may improve by his great and in. comparable talents.'

42 Vol. III. p. 126, 131.

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