The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere Over the Past 300 Years
B. L. Turner, Higgins Professor of Environment and Society Graduate School of Geography and George Perkins Marsh Institute B L Turner, II, William C. Clark, Robert W. Kates, Jessica T. Mathews, John F. Richards, William B. Meyer
CUP Archive, 1990 - Nature - 713 pages
The Earth as Transformed by Human Action is the culmination of a mammoth undertaking involving the examination of the toll our continual strides forward, technical and social, take on our world. The purpose of such a study is to document the changes in the biosphere that have taken place over the last 300 years, to contrast global patterns of change to those appearing on a regional level, and to explain the major human forces that have driven these changes. The first section deals strictly with the major human forces of the past 300 years and the second is a detailed account of the transformations of the global environment wrought by human action. The final section examines a range of perspectives and theories that purport to explain human actions with regard to the biosphere.
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Editorial Introduction 21 LAND
LongTerm Population Change 25 John F Richards
Population 41 12 Soils
Technological Change 55 13 Sediment Transfer and Siltation
The Increasing Separation of Production and 14 Use and Transformation of Terrestrial Water
Urbanization 103 15 Water Quality and Flows
Borneo and the Malay Peninsula
Africa agricultural albedo Amazon Amazon Basin Amazonia annual anthropogenic areas Asia atmosphere average basin biosphere Cambridge Carbon Cycle carbon dioxide Caucasia chemical chernozems cities Clark University climatic change coastal concentrations consumption countries crops cultivation cycle decline deforestation drainage earth ecological economic ecosystems effects emissions energy environment environmental erosion estimates Europe European example extinction fertility Figure fish fishery flow flux forest fuel global Greater Caucasus human activities human impact ice core important increase industrial irrigation land London major ment metals million modern National natural nineteenth century nitrogen North America occurred oceans organic ozone past patterns period phosphorus plants pollution population density population growth processes production radionuclides regions reservoirs result rivers runoff scale Science sediment soil Source spatial species sulfur surface Table timber trade transformation trends tropical United University Press urban vegetation whales York zone