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PRODUCTS.

Bituminous Coal,
Blue Grass Seed,...
Castor Beans,--
Buckwheat,
Beans,..
Clover Seed,...
Dried Apples,
Dried Peaches,
Barley,
Flax Seed, -
Ilemp Seed,
Indian Corn in Ear,
Indian Corn,---
Oats,--.
Onions,

Potatoes,
21 Timothy Seed,

Rye,
Wheat Bran,
Wheat,-

Salt,
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Additional Table of Weights of Products,
As usually given, but varied by the laws of different States :
Apples, green,.......56 lb. per bushel. Mineral Coal, - 80 lb.

per

bushel. Charcoal, -22 lb. per bushel. Peas,

--60 lb. per bushel. Hungarian Grass Seed, 45 lb. per bushel. Potatoes, sweet, ------55 lb. per

bushel. Malt,

38 lb. per bushel. Red Top Grass Seed, -.14 lb. per bushel. Millet, ..45 lb. per bushel. Turnips,..

.56 lb. per bushel.

Table of Gross Weights for Freighting. Ale and Beer, ..330 lb. per barrel. Highwines, -400 lb. per barrel. Apples, -150 lb. per barrel. Lime,

230 lb. per barrel. Beef ( 200 lb. net ),-330 lb. per barrel. Oil,

--400 lb. per barrel. Cider,

-400 lb. per barrel. Pork (200 lb, net),-330 lb. per barrel. Corn Meal, -200 lb. per barrel. Potatoes,

180 lb. per barrel Eggs, 180 lb. per barrel. Salt,

.300 lb. per barrel. Fish, 300 lb. per barrel. Vinegar,

-400 lb. per barrel. Flour (196 lb. net ), 200 lb. per barrel. Whiskey,

-400 lb. per barrel.

Estimates on Lumber, Wood, Etc., for Freighting.
Pine, Hemlock, and Poplar, seasoned, per M,----- 3000 lb.
Black Walnut, Ash, Maple, and Cherry, per M,--- 4000 lb.
Oak and Hickory, per M,-----

5000 lb.
Soft wood, dry, per cord,

3000 lb. Hard wood, dry, per cord,

3500 lb.

REMARK. -For unseasoned lumber, add one-third.

Brick, common, each, -
-4 lb. Sand, cubic yard,

--3000 lb. Brick, fire, each,--

-6 lb. I Gravel, cubic yard, --- 3200 lb.

Stone, cubic yard, ----4000 lb. REMARK.–For assistance in the solution of the following examples, the pupil is referred to the explanations and rules under TROY WEIGHT.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

395. 1. How many pounds Avoirdupois in 17 T. 6 cwt. 69 lb. ? 2. Reduce 31275 lb. Avoirdupois to higher denominations. 3. of a ton Avoirdupois equals how many pounds ? 4. Reduce of a cwt. Avoirdupois to ounces. 5. Reduce .3842 of a ton Avoirdupois to lower denominations. 6. How many Avoirdupois pounds in .625 of a ton ? 7. 17 cwt. 72 lb. 4 oz. Avoirdupois is what fraction of a ton ? 8. Reduce 51 lb. 12 oz. Avoirdupois to the fraction of a hundred-weight. 9. What decimal part of a hundred-weight is 24 lb. 2 oz. Avoirdupois ? 10. Reduce 19 cwt. 99 15. 15 oz. Avoirdupois to the decimal of a ton.

11. What is the sum of 7 T. 4 cwt. 78 lb. 5 oz., 3 T. 17 cwt. 19 lb. 11 oz., 5 T. 18 cwt. 96 lb., 13 T. 1 cwt. 11 oz.? 12.

A farmer sold 4 loads of hay, weighing respectively 1 T. 2 cwt. 14 lb., 19 cwt. 90 lb., 1 T. 3 cwt. 97 lb., 1 T. 5 cwt., and received for it $16 per ton. How much did he receive?

13. Six loads of lime weighed 13 T. 15 cwt. 4 lb. What was their average weight?

1

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.

396. Apothecaries' Weight is used by druggists in retailing, and by apothecaries in mixing medicines.

Table.

SC.

OZ.

20 grains = 1 scruple
3 scruples = 1 dram ..

dr.
8 drams

1 ounce 12 ounces = 1 pound

lb. Scale, descending, 12, 8, 3, 20; ascending, 20, 3, 8, 12. REMARKS.—1. The pound, ounce, and grain are the same as in Troy weight. The only difference between these weights is in the subdivisions of the ounce.

2. Drugs and medicines are sold at wholesale by Avoirdupois weight.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

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REMARK.–For assistance, refer to rules and explanations under TROY WEIGHT. 397. 1. Reduce 5128 sc. to higher denominations. 2. How many drams in 61 lb. 5 oz. ? 3. 10 oz. 1 dr. 1 sc. 15 gr. equal what fraction of a pound ? 4. Reduce .955 of a pound to lower denominations. 5. How many scruples in 3% of a pound ? 6. Add 6 lb., 7OZ., 3z dr. and 21 sc. 7. Find the sum of 31 lb., 7 oz., 7 dr., 1 sc. and 16 gr. 8. From 21 lb. 5 oz. 3 dr. 1 sc. 11 gr., take 14 lb. 1 oz. 7 dr. 19 gr. 9. What is the difference between 16 lb. 1 oz. 4 dr. 2 sc. 12 gr., and 9% lb.? 10. In compounding six cases of medicine, an apothecary used for each 2 lb. ✓ oz. 6 dr. 18 gr. What was the aggregate weight ?

11. If 19 lb. 4 oz. 7 dr. 1 sc. 5 gr. be divided into 21 packages of equal weight, what will be the weight of each ?

Comparative Table of Weights.
Troy.

Apothecaries.' Avoirdupois.
1 pound = 5760 grains = 5760 grains = 7000 grains.
1 ounce 480 grains = 480 grains

437.5 grains. 175 pounds = 175 pounds = 144 pounds. QUESTIONS.-1.

-1. Which is heavier, a pound Troy or a pound Avoirdupois ? 2. Which is heavier, an ounce Troy or an ounce Avoirdupois ?

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REMARKS.—1. A cubic foot of water weighs 621 lb. or 1000 oz. Avoirdupois.

2. in weighing diamonds and gems, the unit generally employed is the carat, which is about 3.3 Troy grains.

3. The term carat is also used to express the fineness of gold, 24 carats fine being pure; thus 18 carat gold

pure

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

313. 1. A dealer bought 131 lb. 5 oz. of drugs by Avoirdupois weight, at $6.25 per pound, and retailed them at 5¢ per scruple. What was his gain ?

2. IIow much is gained or lost by buying 23 lb. 4 oz. of medicine by Avoirdupois weight, at 50$ per oz., and selling by Apothecaries weight, at 1}$ per grain?

3. Reduce 53 lb., Avoirdupois, to Troy units.

4. What is the remainder after subtracting 5116 lb. Troy from 60 lb. 10 oz. Avoirdupois ?

5. I bought by Avoirdupois weight 45 lb. 6 oz. of drugs, and from the stock sold by Apothecaries weight 29 lb. 4 oz. 3 dr. 1 sc. 10 gr. What is the remainder worth, at 754 per Avoirdupois ounce ?

6. Ilaving bought 1} of a pound of roots by Avoirdupois weight, I sold 1 of a pound by Apothecaries weight. What was the remainder worth, at 10¢ per scruple ?

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.

399. Dry Measure is used for measuring grains, seeds, fruit, vegetables, etc.—all articles not liquid.

The units are pints, quarts, pecks, and bushels.

Table.

2 pints (pt.) = 1 quart.

qt.
8 quarts = 1 peck.

pk.
4 pecks
=1 bushel

bu. Scale, descending, 4, 8, 2; ascending, 2, 8, 4. REMARKS.—1. The United States Standard Unit of Dry Measure is the bushel, which, as a circular mcasure, is 184 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep, contains 2150.42 cubic inches, and is in uniform use for measuring shelled grains; wbile the heaped bushel of 2747.71 cubic inches is used for measuring apples, roots, and corn unshelled.

2. The British Imperial bushel contains 2218.19 cubic inches. The English Quarter men. tioned in prices current 8 bu, of 70 lb. each, or 560 lb. avoirdupois = 1 long ton.

3. For weights of different commodities, refer to Table, page 125.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

REMARK.–For assistance, refer to rules under Troy WEIGHT. 400. 1. How many pints in 14} bu. ? 2. Reduce 9 bu. 1 pk. 3 qt. 1 pt. to pints. 3. Add 51 bu. 3 pk. 1 pt. ; 46 bu. 2 pk.; 37 bu. 2 qt. 1 pt.; 51 bu. 1 pk. 1 qt. 4. From of a bushel, take g of a peck.

5. What is the difference between 77 bu. and 2 bu. 2 pk. 2 qt. 1 pt. ?

6. A teamster's 12 loads of wheat measured 1000 bu. 1 pk. 6 qt. 1 pt. How much was the average of each load ?

7. What will be the cost, at 45€ per bushel, of 5 loads of oats, weighing respectively 2619 lb., 2554 lb., 2124 lb., 3051 lb., and 2745 1b. ?

LIQUID MEASURE. 401. Liquid Measure is used for measuring water, oil, milk, cider, molasses, etc.

The units are gills, pints, quarts, gallons, and barrels.

qt.

Table.
4 gills (gi.) = 1 pint...

pt.
2 pints = 1 quart..
4 quarts
= 1 gallon.

gal.
314 gallons = 1 barrel

bar. or bbl. Scale, descending, 314, 4, 2, 4; ascending, 4, 2, 4, 314. REMARKS.-1. The standard unit of Liquid Measure is the gallon, which contains 231 cubic inches.

2. Casks, called hogsheads, pipes, butts, tierces, tuns, etc., are indefinite measures; their capacity, being determined by gauging, is usually marked upon them.

3. In sales of oils and liquors, and in certain other cases, the barrel is also of indefinite capacity.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

REMARK,-For assistance refer to rules under TROY WEIGHT.
402. 1. How many gills in 5 bar. 27 gal. 3 qt. 1 pt. of cider?
2. Reduce 31479 gi. to higher denominations.
3. .646 of a barrel equals how many gills?
4. From .895 of a barrel take 21 gal. 2 qt. 1 pt. 1 gi.

5. From a cask containing 68 gal. 44 qt. of wine, 1.625 bar. were sold. What was the remainder worth, at 50¢ per pint ?

6. A reservoir contained 896 gal. 2 qt. of water, and its contents were put into 116 kegs. What was the quantity put into each ?

From of a barrel take 4 gal. 1 qt. 3 gi. 8. If 2 qt. 1 pt. 1 gi. of oil be consumed per day for the year 1890, what will be its cost for the year at 84 per gallon ?

9. From a cask of brandy containing 69 gal. 1 pt. and costing $3.75 per gallon, one-fourth leaked out, and the remainder was sold at 20° per gill. What was the amount of gain or loss ?

Comparative Table of Dry and Liquid Measures.

Cu, in, in one Cu. in. in one Cu. in. in one
gallon.
quart.

pint.
Dry Measure.
(1 pk.) 2684 671

33.
Liquid Measure...

231 573

281.

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