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1807.] Observations made during a Tour in the United States. 117

For the Monthly Magazine, price of land: thence to Caulfield, in OBSERVATIONS made during a which were 70 resident families; we saw

through the UNITED STATES of AME- several respectable frame-houses, partiRICA.- NO. XIV.

cularly that of General Wandsworth's,

the commander of the militia of the ETTLERS in a new country are in- state of Ohio, which is a very excellent rary or log-boules, as their firfi thelter teran enjoys domestic happiness, amidit against the inclemencies of the weather : improvement directed by his own taste, theie houles are run up in a few days, and now nearly perfected by his own and at a small expence. Although their judgment. appearance is very uncouth, they make

Leaving Caulfield, we passed through a very good thift, as they are warm and Ellswood, which had but fix families, dry. They are inade by logs crossing and Mather, entirely unsettled ; and areach other, and filling the interitices rived the fame evening at Deerfield. with clay. Their windows are generally

Each township in Truinbull being a small, and slide in a frame: whilst the square of five miles, has a road from eait fire-place is an immense opening, in

to weit; which, in the centre of the which, wben necefsary, molt enormous township, is crolled by another road, fires are burnt The chimney is of clay, running from north to fouth. The farmand the house covered wiih bark. They houses are generally placed about 100 generally contain two rooins on the firit yards from the road, lo that the paffentoor, and a loft which is, or may be, ger lees every house as he palles along. divided into two apartments. Some of In the front of the house there is futsthen have a cellar, and inolt a kitchen, cient room for entrance, on each side of adjoining the house, built in the fame which are planted peach and apple ortuanner, and with the same materials. chards; and at the back is the kitchenIn these a new settler spends his tirst two garden: this is the cominon, though not or three years; and if they contain not the invariable distribution, of the proas much iplenuiour, I heditate not to say, perty neareit home. The roads were they pofleis as much happiness, secured very bad; and in forne places the horses on republican fimplicity and manly i- would plunge up to their bellies in mud, dependence, the relult of successful ap- formed by the rotting of the roots of plication, and often even as much ici- trees, in a very rich marrowy foil. The ence, as your more lofty palaces. After white pine, or (as it was by fome called) having cleared as much land as the far- the fatin wood, is very abundant in mer deems necessary, his first objeći is every part of Trainbull: this gigantic to build his barı), stalles, &c.; and here tree rises straight as an arrow for 60 Les bis vanity,-indutierent to the look feet, without a branch, and finooth as a of his house, whilft bis table is plenti- malt; after which it supports an enorfully fupplied, he will stretch his purje- inous head, the extremne point of which strings to the utmost to have his out- is from 100 tv 130 feet above the surface boutes the best pollible: when that is of the earth. The oaks, chesnuts, &c. accomplished, he has tiine to think about &c. also grow to a prodigious height. his dwelling-houfe, but that is with him The roads, though now bad, will ra. a very secondary consideration to his pidly improve, as the land gets cleared, barn. The perinanent houses at pre- and admits the sun and air : besides, one lent in Trumbull are all frame-build- half of the state-taxes are applied to ings, ruomy and commodious. At Po- make new and improve old roads, and land, where we entered this county to erect bridges. The only tax known (Trumbull), there were already 84 fa- in the state of Ohio is a land-tax, which miles seuled ; and 12 more, having pur- is raised in the following manner :-The cated land in the townthip, were daily land is divided into three clafles and expected. Five of the fettlers had designated first, second, and third quabuilt their barns and frame-houses, and lity of land; the first is taxed 40 cents the inhabitants generally appeared to the hundred acres, the second 60, and have fubdued molt of the inconveniences the third class pays annually 80 cents for of a new country,

every hundred acres. As this is the only Leaving Poland on the 20th of May, tax paid, and as half of it goes into the we entered Boardinad, not fettled, the public treasury, and the other half is proprietor refusing to sell at the procent applied in each county for the purposes


above above specified, I imagine an Englishman land for ten years, during which period will not deem the tas very oppretlive. he pays no rent, but engages to lay

Being myfelf unwell, our party ftaid down, and leave at the expiration of his the whole of the 211t of May at Deer- leate, 10 acres of orchard, 10 of meafield, where our accommodations were dow (meaning either land near or distant bad; but we made out with fried chick- from water in grass), and 10 in finall ens and egg-vog (made with whitkey, a grain or maize. The tenant moreover valt many eggs, maple sugar, and milk),' convenants to leave a house on the land, the fried han not being eatable. Tlie worth at lealt 100 dollars. It is calcuKeevor is navigable for imali craft up to lated, that one year's crop will pay for Deerfield, and its banks were covered clearing and fencing it. Girdling, which with beautiful flowers, and will, I think, is the most common mode of getting rid one day with the seats of men of taite. of the trees, costs one dollar the day, Along the Beevor, and the Ohio, and and the quantity girdled ought to be half Ditliilippi, the timber of this county has an acre; or laborers can be had for 10 already been fent to New Orleans, where dollars a week, who will completely clear it is in high repute The whole of the one acre of ground. Where the land is county is, I think, better adapted for girdled, a fair crop of maize averages grals ihan grain : however, the oak lands from 40 to 60 buthels an acre ; geneare considered well adapted for corn; rally speaking, there is no underwood in whilst the grazier mofi anxiously seeks for these forests. the beach, maple, and hickory.

As the Indians had been fummoned to Although two dollars may be consider- meet at Cleveland on the 1it of June, ed as the market price for wild lands in we proposed spending a part of the ins Trumbull, yet particular circumstances termediate time with our friends at Warwill advance the price, etpecially neigh- ren, and in visiting those parts of the bouring population and improvement. county which border on the lake. WarWe looked at a traćt of fine land on the ren is the present residence of Judge Beevor, covered with most luxuriant grass P-, who has cleared a considerable and lofty timber, beautifully receding piece of land, and laid out a garden from the river, and consisting of 5,700 with much tafie. With the amiable faacres, which was for sale, and for which mily of this respectable man we itaid was required three dollars per acre; but some days, and by him were informed, more, it fold in farms, would be de- that the British agents* were uling all manded. By a farm is always nieant their influence to prevent a meeting of 160 acres.

the Indians at Cleveland, and that there I think no part of the eattern division was great reason to fear they would of the county is so beautiful as Deer- frustrate the design. I received other infield; it is a poft-town, and has an of- formation, which was individually more fice; it had alto 26 families, one public tifying: expecting to meet numerous bofchool, a law and grist mill; and is a dies of Indians, I had procured, and very thriving settlement.

brought with me, some vaccine matter, On the 22d we left Deerfield, passed with the hope of inducing them to fub through the umfettled townships of Pal- init to inoculation ; but I was now told, myra, Boardman, and two others not that, if they came, the very mention of yet named, for Warren, the county-town such a design would immediately diffolve of Trumbull. In this journey of 22 the allembly; that their dread of the miles, we rode along many fine groves of small-pox was extreme, and that it would wild cherries and crabs, though some. not be in my power, or that of any other wivat inconvenienced by the effects of the man, to induce theia to submit to vacciwaters of Deerfield, which holding in nation. I therefore determined to die solution considerable quantities of neu- vide the matter as well as I could: part tral faults, are both very unpleasant and I gave to a medical man in Warren; purgative to firangers. In that townibip part to fome of the most respectable ine. we alto law lime-lione, free-tone, white habitants in the county; and with the flint, coal, allum, and fome mafles of reft I inoculated several individuals, in faltpetre. Although the greater part of the inhabitants in Trumbull are propri- * By British traders are here meant Cana. etors of the foil on which they live, yet dian traders, wbo had long smuggled through there are fume tenants; the mode of the Indian territories into tbosc of the United renting is as follows: tenunt leates the States.



various townslips in Trumbull. Having 104 Sarah Fisher, Knutsford thus introduced vaccination among the 104 Mary Lazell, Colchester inhabitants on Lake Erie, I may be per- 104 Mrs. Hunt, Limerick mitted to state the pleasure I felt on my 104 Gayner Thomas, Capel Cerig return, to know that all them I inoculated, 104 Jolin Turner, Eventhorpe as well as those who were under the care 105 Elizabeth Spencer, Farehana of any friends, went through the disease 105 Mrs. Lawrence, Lincola with that inildnels that ditinguithes this 103 Janet Cormack, Whitehill, N.B. great ducovery. I truit, tince I leti that 105 Mary Biggs, Thornbury part of the United States, the advan- 105 Robert Sheriffs, Udny tites ariling from its introduction bave 106 Anne Griffiths, Hereford been fullowed up, and that no neglect 106 John Hunter, Elh, Durbam bras occatioued au inability to continua \106 John Sbortal, Ireland thein.

107 John Benbow, Northwood As the mail will presently be closed, 107 Sufan Paxman, Great Glenham by which this letter will be trantinitted 107 Jofiah Freeman, Reading, America to the packet, I must hastily conclude 107 John Stubings, Breccles, Norfolk with the affurance of your polletting the 107 William Marchant, Liverpool clie. m and respect of

107 Sarah Parris, Jainaica

R. DINMORE. 111 Ann Strounge, Elthan Alexandria, 2 dugujt, 1806.

112 Mary Farmer, Sunderland

113 Mrs. Roope, Thurston, Norfolk To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

11+ John Blakeney, Skibbereen

120 Sarah OʻLeary, Ireland SIP,

125 Mr. Creek, Thurlow, Suffolk T the commencement of the last 131 John Tucker, Itchen Ferry

134 Catherine Lopez, Jamaica. the readers of your Magazine to recent Of the above forty-eight persons, ninemtances of persons who had died at teen wereinales, and twenty-nine females, great ages; and, as I conceive an annual of the latter, only one is mentioned as not notice of the subject may be the means having been married: forty were at the of gradually collecting much inforınation, time of their decease, inhabitants of relating to this neglected, though cer- England and Wales; two of Scotland, tainly not uninteresting branch of inquiry, three of Ireland, and three of other I lubjoin a litt of the initances which have countries. Occurred during the year 1806, requesting Ofabove half the number nothing more such additional particulars respecting any is recorded, than the inere name and age, of them, as your correspondents may be and the particulars given refpecting the able to furnith.

others, are fo few and uniaportant, that Ayes,

they supply very little additional infor100 Ann Dixon, Fenwick Ilall mation on the Tubject. Although it is 100 Margaret Barrow, Holker probable that nearly the whole number 100 Mr. Hornidge, Gloucester in the list were persons why had been 100 John Bell, Moorhuole

married, only fixteen are mentioned as 100 Mrs. Battie, Throttle Nest such; of these Mrs. Gayner Thomas had 100 Mary Gregory, Bristol

fourteen childıen, William Marchant 100 Mrs. Crisp, Lodden, Norfolk was the father of nineteen children, and 100 Mary Evans, Ofweltry

Samuel Grilliths the father of twenty-five 100 Samuel Griffiths, hennarth children. 100 Andrew Fraler, Ille of Sky

As instances of such great age, although 101 Margaret Shirwin, Kirkby

more numerous than is commonly fut101 Thomas Willy, Buckland St. Mary pected, bear a very small proportion to 101 Margaret Tate, South Shields the whole population of the country, it 101 J. Moore, Newcastle

would appear highly improbable, if lon101 Mrs. Galey, Norwich

gevity entirely depended on the natural 101 Mrs. llanmond, Horndean conftitution of the individual, that such 102 Sarah Chafe, Polruan

perfons should happen to meet with huf102 Ann John, Llandelog

bands or wives of conftitutions equally 103 Maria Teresa Twift, Birmingham durable; yet in the above lint there are 103 John Potts, Edlinghain

four instances in which this appears to 103 Sanuel Anitey, Colchill

have been the cale. Andrew Frater had


been married to one wife nearly seventy very sensible Memoir, descriptive of the years, and has left her behind him; John general principles of the art of war, Shortal has left a widow in her one hun- winich he exemplifies very successfully in dred and second year; John Hunter has the narrative of his four campaigns. His lett a widow aged ninety-two; and Wil- sentiments on the war between the Emliam Marchant, a widow, in her ninety- peror and the Turks, from 1661 to 1664, ninth year. This certainly thews that are truly edifying; as well on account the situation and mode of living of the of the high authority he quotes, as from parties must have materially contributed the scarcity of information on Turkith to their long life.

tactics. At that time two-thirds of their It is not probable that long life can be infantry were arined with pikes, and the atrained by any other means than fuch remainder loaded with inutkets fo vias promove health and vigour, and con- wieldy that they were obliged to rest the sequently qualify the individual the bet- barrels on pronged fupporters. His warter to enjoy existence, nor would it be at like manquvres are as unrefined as his all desirable under other circumstances; initruments of war; and, consequently, but it is almost invariably found, that per- useless fince the discovery of fire-arms fons who do attain to very great age, and bayonets. Still, with all thcle depotless their powers of body and mind, fects, his manner is admirable ; he leaves during the latter years of their life, in a nothing undefined, but gives us notes greater degree of vigour than most who on every paragraph, drawn up with great die at the more conmon periods of du- judgment, and containing maxims highly ration. Thus in the above lift, defective useful in their application, ever. to the as the accounts are from which it is prevent day. formed, there are ten persons mentioned FEUQUIERES unites precept with exas having retained the enjoyment of all ample. His is the work of a man well their faculties to the last. Your's, &c. versed in the mytteries of war, as well January 12th, 1807.

J. J. G. theoretically as experimentally; he estaN.B. Permit me to take this opportunity blishes maxims on various military opeof thanking Mr. W. Singleton for the parti. rations; examines into the duties of all culars refpecting W. Welsh, inserted in vol. ranks of otficers respectively; describes 91. p. 296.

marches and the neceflaries indispensable

for the occasion ; the manner of fubtiftFor the Monthly Magazine.

ing troops ; pursues the track of an army

through every poffible situation; and OBSERVATIONS on the writings of nis- palling from this theory to actual service,

TORIANS of all ages and COUNTRIES, he presents us with a critical review of chiefly with a view to the ACCURACY battles, at that time modern. The feof their MILITARY DESCRIPTIONS, and verity of his censures, sometimes ariling their KNOWLEDGE of the art of war.

from a disposition naturally morose, and By GENERAL ANDREOSSI.

sometimes without even that pretext, THE Memoirs of Bussy RABUTIN has procured him the name of The Arif

have every appearance of fincerity tarchus and Zoilus of generals. He has and candour. lle makes us very fully even been accused of intentional milacquainted with the Belgic wars carried representation, folely to indulge his ille on by llenry II. and Charles V.

natured propensity. Still, generally speakBRANTOME is very intelligent in his ing, the profound reasoning with which opinions on the existing war-system of he expounds the art of war, entitle him his day, and the state of our armies. to rank among the foremost of those who

Boivin appears to be an excellent have undertaken this arduous task. record of the French expeditions in Italy, We can only express our regret that from 1550 to 1561.

Marshal De Turenne's Memoirs are fo Rouan, author of the Finished Cap- Ahort. taiu, fhews us, that the tactics of the BERWICK's Memoirs are written with ancients are capable of unfolding much judgment and correctness; and are, on ufeful inftruction to mudern professors. the whole, very instructive, particularly His memoir on La Valteline may be set fo, indeed, during the period of his comdown as a very perfect topography of mand. He is the firit writer who has that mountainous country.

given us any perfect ideas on the defenOf foreigners, the celebrated Monte- live fyftem of the Alps du Dauphiné. eucullI ranks Juigh as the author of a In the Memoirs of the Marslınl DE



Noailles, we are introduced to all the of events simply set forth; an intimate great perfonages of Europe. These acquaintance with antiquity now became characters are well drawn, and are effential to their historical records. followed by a curious intight to the At the moment of dawning improvewar of 1741. The style is pure and cor- ment, the Prince of NASSAU restored Tect.

to light inodels of ancient warfare, which Marthal De Saxe, whom the King of indolence had buried in oblivion. Prullia surnamed the Proftfjör, or head GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS did the like; of all the generals in Europe, has write and the Tuccesses of those two great igen ten, under the modett title of Contem- became an additional motive, with other plations, a consuminate treatise on the nations, to study and compare ancient art of war. This work discovers en- with modern tactics. tirely oew ideas on the subject, resulting Towards the seventeenth century, the frum a vigorous inind, and profound works of FOLARD contributed materially obfervation. It is his opinion, that every to aliitè this investigation. He contendcitizen, of whatever rank, Thould terve ed, against violent opposition, for the w five years; that their clothing thould excellence of an extended and wellbe regulated by the seasons ; and that formed line of battle, supported by tteathe intantry should be drawn by means diners in the troops. Thele disputes, by of numerical tables. His maxims for arousing a general enquiry into the methe formation of a line of battle have been rits of the question, naturally gave birth adopted; and the whole of his difcution to many theoretical difquisitions ; whence on cavalry moveinents are judicious and may be said to have sprung that multiimproving. He composes his legions of uude of volumes on the art of war, battalion, light intavtry, and "cavalry which were written at a tiine when the troops; arms part of his infantry with practice was least understood. pikes; and contends, that fire-arms, as It was the principle of Folard, that an the moi destructive, thould only be re- army drawn up in line of battle, on an sorted to when not in motion. His chap- open plain, thould be protected in the ter on discipline deserves every pollible centre, and on the flanks, by columns ; attention ; be reprobates a continued or that such part of the line as led to hne of defence, as being difficult to pro- the attack thould be so supported; and, teci, and recommends out-works; allerts that this doctrine might have the air of that regular battle should never be given, being founded on the practice of the unless under evident advantages; that ancients, he made many comments on skirmisliing is inore haralling to the ene- those passages of Polybius, where he my, and less fatal to the party; but when maintains his system, partly by physical a general engagement takes place, he is arguments founded on the natural condecidedly for pursuing the enemy to the nećtion between causes and effects, and bait extremity, instead of being supinely partly by experience. He traces the fatisfied with gaining the field.

formation of columns to the Greck and The Memoirs of our Civil Wars are Roman schools; he details their mancucompletely descriptive; but they should vres ; explains that superiority of tactics hc read with caution. The leaders of which bad so long given then the reputapopular factions, however illustrious, can- tion of being our masters; he alsimilates nut escape the censure of adding fuel to our practice with their victories; and enthe flames of discord.

forces these long digressions by very able Sully's Meinnirs of Henry IV. illuf- and useful observations. He was the trate the character of those disastrous founder of a new inilitary school, and times, and display the native vigour of foon had numberless scholars. that great prince, who, in the conquest A sceptic, however, froin a remote part of bis kingdom, displayed all the talents of Holland, and then a fubalteru officer, of an experienced warrior.

whose name is CHARLES GUISCIARD, unCardinal de Retz's works are an un- dertook to fubvert the school of Folard, malled production of historical talent by contending that his syttem was all a roud a knowledge of mankind.

mance; that be affected to dress up chiThe geninl warınth of Louis XIVtb's merical objects in the garb of antiquity, cout, which foftered every rifing genius, without even understanding the language extender its influence to the miutary, of the authurities he cited that such ige utan regionly laboured for the improves norance led him to unisrepresent the tent of that science. Men were no actions described by Polybius; that his larger satisfied with an ingenuous detail puanæuvres were fallely translated; and MONTHLY MA6, No. 154.


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