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for the exhibition of lights is erected— mendous coast; paint to your imaginaIt was raised with the benevolent inten- tions, the crew of helpless leamen unking tion of securing the property of indivi- among the overwhelining billows, and duals, and of preserving human life, froin railing their fupplicating voices, in vain, the calamities of shipwreck.

for aid !-reflect on the inexpreshble To the honour of the Elder Brethren agony of their tender connexions, deof the Trinity-house, Deptford Strond, prived in one fad moment of all that is London, it mult be observed, that with esteemed dear in lite, and left perhaps lau olé zeal they have patronized the detolate and forlorn, in a state of helj undertaking, and completed the build- less indigence, to mourn the loss of a ing in a stile fuperior to every other of husband, a father, or a fon! These are the same class in the United hingdom- not visionary ideas : they are scenes, an eminent display of taste and judgment. alas! which have too frequeutly been The grandeur of its situation on this ele- realized. With such impressions on your vated promontory is unequallerl—the minds, you must assuredly acknowledge sublimity of the prospect mult excite the the utility of a design calculated, under admiration of every belolder-the vast Providence, to prevent consequences lo sweep of the northern ocean tills the eye wounding to the tender sentibilities of with its immeasurable expanse, and ex- human nature. llad this building been hibits a scene which inspires exalted erected at a more carly period, the late ideas. Innumerable fleets laden with lots of his Majetty's ihip the Nautilus, the produce of the coal-mines, and rich Captain Gunter, from the Baltic, and trading vessels from Scotland, daily pass several of the veffels under her convoy, in view; thips freighted with naval stores with many valuable lives, might, in all and valuable inerchandize, from Arch- huinan probability, have been preventangel, frorn Norway, the ports of the ed. Baltic, and Holland, and others from From the exhibition of these brilliant the whale-fisheries, direct their courses lights, innuinerable will be the advanto this distinguilhed promontory. Scenes tages to navigation. I will detail the of this kind are characteristic of national molt prominent :-The fight of them grandeur: the bold enterprise and mer- will dispel the gloom which frequeuty cantile spirit of Britain attonith the seizes the boldest and most kilti world; the magnitude of her commerce navigator, in a critical ponent; and covers the sea with her fleets; ber flag direct him, when surrounded by the waves triumphant in every quarter of the obscurity of a winter's night, to avoid globe; the unrivalled skill, industry, ho- the dangers of this projecting coast. nourable conduct, and opulence of the They will guide the tempest-beaten macountry, are the folid balis of its itabi- riner to the Humber, or to a fare anlity. Surely, such important interetts chorage in Bridlington-bay, fained for its merit a fedulous attention to their le- convenience and security. Ditfusing their çurity.

friendly lustre afar, they will shine as While you view with complacency the leading itars to enable thips in a large multitude of thips floating on the ex- offing to ascertain their situations with tended ocean, should you at the saine accuracy, and to take a new departure ; moment take into conlideration the im- and also warn o:hers contending with mente value of their cargoes, and the eastern gales, to keep at a proper difa any thousands of seamen by which tance from the dangers of a lee-lhore. they are navigated, you would then be To the 6Mermen, who are frequently ex. able to form fome judgment of the ex- poted to great perils on the unstable tenlive advantages which must result element, they will be eminently useful from the execution of a plan fo highly in the night : they will guide them to the uleful and beneficent If, prompted by proper tilhing grounds, and direct tim, curiosity, you have ever surveyed the on ibeir return to the thre, to a place formidable rocks which line the adjacent of fatety, umerous have been the diffore, and have oblerved the foaming aliers of this induttrious race of men at waves of the stormy ocean dathing with llamborougti. I un pentivaded that irretiltihle fury against the perpendicular many of you, who are now prelept, lave clills, the light alone must lave filled you witnessed the painful foene of the whole witla aliunilhment and dread!— Figure village in mourning: the lacuentations of then to yourselves the melancholy scene the discuntulate widow and mazher inzi at funne unfortunate vesel enveloped in have pierced your souls. midnight darkness, doiven by the tenis With inexpreilible anguilli, I hare seen peft, and suddenly Itranded on the tre- the tears of the helpless orphan Auw for an indulgent parent, who perished in thire; William Sheppard, of Frome in the mercuets wave:—while I retain the Somerset/hire; Daniel Lloyd, of Uley faculty of memory, the fac inprellion in Gloucesterthire; John Jones, of Bradwill never be eruted; and at this moment ford in Wiltshire; Abraham Lloyd Ede it is duticult to reitrain my emotions: ridge, of Chippenham in Witthire ; but the contideration that my humble Jolin Wanley, of London; Henry Dyer, exertions have been inftruinental in pro- of Wotton upon Edye in GlouceiterDoung a detin to prevent those cala- dire; George Wantey, of Warminster mities in future, will be a source of fa- in Wilt hire ; Richard Bowsher, of Bath; tisfaction to me to the remoteli period of Thomas Joyce, of Freshford in Somerlife. This description of an undertaking fetthire; John Wallington, of Stinchlo conducive to the security of navigation, combe in Gloucestershire ; John Vizard, will not, I truit, be deemed too highly of Duriley in Glouceiierture ; Jolin culoured the facts are incontrovertible, King, of Freshford in Somersetthire; the utility is iudifputable. So long as John Maitland, Esq.of Balinghall-itreet; this puble edifice thall stand unshaken on and Charles Brooke, Esq. M.P. also of its firia foundation, and lift its afpiring Balinghall-ftreet, London. Minmit to the view of the aliniring (pec- The following were the principal facts tator, it will remain a confpicuous ino- ascertained by the tettiinony of theie witnument of the bumanity and muniticence nelles, of ue Britih nation, unparelleled by I. Apprentices.-By the ancient law, any other of the inaritime alates on the (a fyftem gradually formed between the face of the globe.

reigns of Edward III. and George II.) May the kind Providence of Almighty no person ought to be employed in the God favour this and every other ettort of woollen manufacture, without having Dational utility with success, and crown ferved an apprenticeship of leven years : with glory the ardent courage and deter- but this law has gone into dilute, hy the mined resolution of our matchless fca- changes and improvements in the manumen, in the defence of their native facture. The inajority of the weavers land. While afiheted Europe mourns now employed in Gloucesterdhire, Wilther defolated provinces and fubjugated fhite, and, have become flate, may this United Kingdom, firm in such without having been apprentices. loyalty, in patriotisin, and every exalted The art of weaving may be competently virtue, oppose an infurmountable barrier learned within twelve months. It is now to the iinpetuous torrent which threatens practised by women, as well as by meu; to orerwhelm the earth. May Britain and children begin to learn it from the erer continue in the envied poffeffion of age of tive or lix years. The spring, the empire of the main; and, litting her looms, which, with great advantage to unclouded hend with distinguished luftre the manufacture, have becoine general, anud the gloon which, at this awful would be rendered at once useless, if the crits, overfladows the world, exhibit to old law of apprenticeship thould be now Afponding nations a bright example of entorced. The wiple manufacture and glory-invincible on every bottle llock, trade would be brought to a stop. It unflaken as the rocks which guard her would be impollible to anfwer, on the les-yirt thore.

fudden, any extraordinary demand; nor

could the manufacture be extended into For the Monthly Magazine. villages, for the convenience of falls of ABSTRACT of EVIDENCE given before a water to work the mills, as it has lately

COUXITTEE of the House of COMMOxs, been. Of the cloth-workers, ftill fewer relative to the use of NACHINERY, than of the weavers have served apprenthe raclusion of, PERSONs not huving ticethips. The use of the fpring-huttle Jerted APPEENTICESHIPS, the ASSEN- has proved of advantage chiefly to the BLAGE of the WEAVERS in large MANU- working weaver. In consequence of its FACTORIES, and the MAINTENANCE of being adopted, one weaver executes the OLD Laws of RIGELATIox in the what was before the work of two, and WOOLLEN MaxTFACTORES in the receives the wages of two. None of the COL NTIES of soMERSET, WILTS, und weavers or cloth-workers that served reGLORCESTER.

gular apprenticeships of teren years, THIS evidence was received in the have been left without employment in

consequence of persons being einployed The gentlemen examined were, Ed- who have not served apprenticethips. wurd Sheppard, of Uley in Gloucetter. Yet combinations of the weavers and


Tyear 1803.


cloth-workers, inftructed by regular ap- mcllower, and more uniform, than that prenticeships, have been formed to pro- winchis dretter with the bound Clothes, iccute thole who were not to bred to the untaleable as being died with tile butinefs. The pool's rites have not bunci, toad purchaters atter they are re been enhanced in contenience of ilic dreied in the gig-anill. Before the wie employment of unapprenticed weitvert, of the giy-inill was adopard in Wilts and cioch-workers, and thoro.

Somertet, much of the cloth made in II. The weniers ait alorse from being hole counties was fent into Gloucesterailemalled to work together in lurge a fire Elemmill-drenied. nufréories. The manufacturers have to I'ro'n tieni-nill, the cloth is put into induceinents to incline thein is sucubic the hands of the thesise'n, or into shvartheir workmen to labour together, but ing machinay, to be finiled tor the that they may liave the work performneid narket. The thearmen in Niluihire requicher, and with leis emkezelement of iutch, for a long time, to work atter the the yarn. The nearers are avesse tren gie-mill. They have been livice menced, this, because they do not like to work in general, to return to their mafiers. under tvo vinorous an int; ection of their in confequence of the rists of the wedre employers. Great quouties of yarn ers, cloth-workers, and thearmen, bem are embezzled while it is in the hands of caufe machinery was inuoluced, the the ucaveis. The winners are, als), principal part of the Wiluihine cloud-workacculionied 10 tone in work from dutei- ing branch was transferred, in 1302, to ent enıployers, and in beep it nuclı too London, Batlı, and other places. long beide wein uneseuled: a practice It is imposable now for the manuficwhich would be decked by bringing turers to find fale for clubs made of the them to work together under the cm- exact tragih, brendil, and weight preployer's eye.

Within these last thirty scribed in the old fiatutes. The diverity years, Spanish wuol las risen in price of the markets now requires a variety 200l. per cent.; the ways to cloths of fabrics unhnown when the old statuteworkers, 1001. per cent.; the price of law was tramed, 1 The fineft and thiuthe manutaciured cluth, only 301. per neil cloths are made for the Turkeycent.

trade; 2, ladies' cloths are in the next III. Machinery and Regulations.-- degree thicker; 3, the neat in thicknels The new pachinery, ár, employed in are made for the West India trade; 4, the woollen manufacture, is contrary to the next are for the Rullia trade; 5, futhe regulations of the ancient law, vèt pertine clothis are thicker ftill; 6, the indispensably reyuilite to the profperity of thickefi of all are double-milled fuperthe trade,

tines, and a species of varrow-cloths By the use of the spring-shuttle, much named ruticons. The statutes which formore cloth thau formerly is now made. bid the exportation of cloths tacked and The amoal 'manutacture of fupertine pienied, and clothis unbarbed or unslorn, broad-cloth, in the town of Chippenham, cannot now be enforced without renderj; now twice as much as it was at the ing the manufacturer unable to fupply his ditance of twenty-five years fince. foreign orders.

The gig-nill, probibited by two fta- The ute of the hot-press, prohibited tutes of the seizo os Edward II., is used by the old laus, has become general, and in the operations called the rowing and could not be now discontinued wihoot the dretling of cloth It renders the ruin to certain branches of the mangexpence lets, by oue ball, than it the facture. fame work were performed with the Certain prohibited ingredients are now hand only. It does not thetch out the used with advantage in the Guiling, fram cloth to more than one-{:entieth part of the improvedeats in the chemnitry of that which was his fint lensel when it dyeing. came out of the loom, li has becu uled, Sjranijh uou! has been introduced into time out of wind, in Gloucetiert. ise; the manufacturi fince the enaruinent of and is now employed all in the comes the fututes, and his occalioned great of Wilts and sonerler. The cloth is changes in it, which are most beneficial, Dot Fund to think inore from the ute but much the Itatues could not intui. of this machine, than it it were dreilu pale and provide for. with the band only. Clothis dreiled au Lamb's wool, of which the use is forthe sia-ill are preferred, both in the bidden in the featutes, has, by the im{wise and the foreight carnets, a: funer, provenents in machunery, uod the prin

grofs of Lill in manufacture, become a writer of our own), have not only affertvaluable material in the fabrication of ed that no luch poet as Homer ever certain cloths.

exilied, but have even denied the ocUnder the ancient laws, there are in- currence of any such event as the taking Auctors to exanine the cloths, and re- of Troy. But the attempt to establish port at the quarter-fellions whether they so fanciful an liypothetis, coutradicted by le made according to the statute-reyu- the whule body of ancient literature, Latijns. These persons Duw take their can be contikoreil only as the chimera of ines; but yieldig to the progress of the men who, dildaining to follow the tract I. wuiufacture, no longer iulilt upon the purfued by to many other writers, have Dopus performance of their duty. fought for novelty in the willett para. Their office appears to be quite unne- doxes and in the lnofelt conjectures. It

is too late for all the ciforts of modern The quantity of capital in the woollen scepticilin to throw doubts upon a tranftrade and manufacture in the West of action corroborated by the testimony of Encrud, has been prodigioully augment- every claliic author, and which is in no one extince machinery came to be einployed. of the ancient writings either expressly Ilie confequence of its employment has denied or even incidentally questioned. thus been to increase the quantity of the That we are indebted for many of the Danutarture, not at all to throw the incidents in the poem folely to the inwurkmen of any clats out of bread. vention of the poet, is beyond dispute;

The Spaniards, having oil, toap, and but it may be contistered as equally cer60i, one-third or one-half cheaper than tain, that the subject was not invented me articles can be purchased in Eng- by him, buç is the representation of a landi, tght rival us in the woollen me real fact which took place long before balature if they could procure our ma- his time. chwery.

S. T. The Iliad is unquestionably the noblest

monument of buinan genius ever exhi-. For the Monthly Maracine.

bited to the world, and lias been trans

mitted to us with the jutteil admiration, Tur LYCEUM OF ANCIENT

through every age. But when we comLITERATURE.-10. III.

mence its perutal, we thould previouily TIC ILIAD.

conlider that we are about to read the CUCHI then is the uncertain account moil ancient book that ever was written, S

le base of Honer; fich are the except the Bible. It is highly necessary faint hndows which antiquity reflect at that we mould keep this in mind, or we abis diflance of time. But if we reca! cannot enter into the spirit, nor talte the the mind from this dark view of history, compotition, ot' the pijem. The reader And ta it all at once on the poems he mai not expect to find the correctnels bas left us, our pity is turned into won- and elegance of the Augustan age. He der. We forget the rude draught of his muti divent bineli ot all modern ideas perfon and furtune, to contemplate the ot' refinement, and suffer himself to be bubler image of his foul. The blind tranfported in imayination 3000 years fonctter irumediately vanithes, and in his back in the hillury of mankind. He Fond we are presented with the father will lee admirabile representations of and price of verte, the preacher of' wil characters and manners, but tiilt retainduiand virtue, the founder of arts and in a tiucture of the livage tiate; moral frences, the great maiter of civil life, idcas, as yet impuitectly formed; bodily enut the counfellor of kings. These were ftrength prized as a principai endowa the tides wlich the ancients conferred ment; puitions not curbed by the reou lum, in their enthutinllic admiration tiraints of a more advanced itale of loof the greatness of his thoughts, the tore ciety; untoumon beauty of language, rent of his words, the churnis of his functimes emploved on very trivial tube fictwas, and the utility of his precepts. jeris; and a motley ailemblare of por

The Thad, the first and most comtider- truits varioutly drawn, but each repreable puein vt Homer, is founded on the feating, in the truett colours, the virtues memomble war of Troy, occalioned by or the imperfections of the loumaa the feduction of llelen, carried on with mind. alternate fuccefles and misfurtunes, and The opening of the Iliad certainly hot 'n minated till after a close au vj- dues not poffefs ibat dignity which it inoquruus huge of ten years. Some critics dern capects in a great epic poemde It us former ages, and a very ingenious begins with ou kinber subject than the

difpute between two chieftains, respect. with him the palm of judgment and taste, ing a female llare. A priest of Apollo he is bere without a rival. It runs through implores Agamemnon to reitore his all the poem, and whether in the choice daughter, who, in the plunder of a city, of incidents, of descriptions, or of had fallen to that king's Phare of booty. images, is equally remarkalve. The proHe is refused. Apollo, at the requeti of digious number of events described, of his priest, sends a plague into the camp delineations of characters divine and huof the Greeks. The augur, when con- man; the infinite variety by which they sulted, answers that there is no way of are all dittinguished; the different coappeating the God, but by restoring the fair lours in wbich they are characterittically captive virgin to the arms of her parent. drawn,--display au almost boundless in. Agamemnon is enraged at this anfwer; vention. In order to give an air of dige declares that he prefers this llave to his nity and importance to the table, he has wite Clyteinnettra ; but since he mult re- fo constructed it as to intcreft the Gods store her in order to save his armiy, intists themielves, not only in the general caupon having another to supply her place, tastrophe, but in every particular inciand demands Briteis, the llave of Achilles dent that inight either bralien or retard The young warrior, as might be expect- it. It is adinirahily invented to make ed, is incensed at this demand; re- the calamities which Agamemnon and proaches the king of kings with rapacity the Greeks futered, the efect of Thetis' and infolence; and, after bestowing on importunate address to Japiter, in which him many injurious appellations, he fo- fhe implores vengeance on the Grecian lemnly fwears that, if thus treated, he army, that thcir leader might be fentible will withdraw his troops, and no longer of his injusticc to her fou Achilles, in aflilt the Grecians against the Trojans. depriving him of his fair captive, by lle accordingly leaves the camp. His feeling the want of his atlistance againit mother, the Goddess Thetis, interests the Trojans. The deluding phantom Jupiter in his cause, who, to revenge fent by Jupiter to the tent of Atrides, in the wrongs which Achilles has suffered, order to perfuade that monarch to give adopts his relentnient, and inflicts on battle to the enemy, deceiving liim with the Greeks many and tedious calamities, the vain hope of ending all bus labours until Achilles is pacified, and a recon- and dangers by one effort, which should ciliation effected between hinn and Aga- accomplifh the entire destrucuon of Troy, memnon. Such is the batis on which is a beautiful machine, and introduced the action is founded; such the Jpecioja with fingular propriety. The interpofimiracula of this extraordinary poern. tion of l'enus to refcue her fon frou the

From this (ketch it is feen, that Ho- danger of impending denth, is also highmer did not take for his subject the whole ly invented.' The episode of Glaucuz Trojan war, but selected the most inte- and Diomed, in the lixth book, makes resting part of it, the quarrel between an agreeable paure in the narration; but the two principal personages. Such a that of Hector and Audromache is, of fubject was, no doubt, happily chofen. all others, the most deeply interesting. The liege of Troy fornied a splendid and But this episode is more properly clafied dignified event, which hand engaged the under Homer's talent in exciting the attention of many ages, and was worthy passions, and is only mentioned in this to be commemorated by the verse of place as a tinely imagined incident. We Homer. A confederacy of the monarchs may add, the Itratagem of Juno's borof Greece to revenge the violation of rowing the girdle of Venus tu revive the hospitality committed by Paris, and to tenderness of Jupiter; and the art with vindicate the injured honour of Mene- which the lulls him to fleep, that Neplaus, combined at once a grandeur and tune in the mean time inay aslift the a moral in the action, eminently calcu- Greeks,--as exquilite fictions of a most lated to excite the admiration and in- creative imagination. The embally to prove the manners of his cotemporaries. Achilles, the intexibility of that hero, We ball consider the poem under three and the final extinction of liis relentment kea:is, with repert to the invention it against Agamemnon, fo paturally effected displays, its characters, and the narration by the death of Patroclus, by which or it yle.

alone a reconciliation could hure been The great merit of inexhaustible in- produced confiticntly with his character: vention has been universally allowed to these are a lew of thule beautiful and Homer; and thoughs Virgil iany dispute well-iuventod incidents which compofe


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