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Paoli appears to bave been formed by ed, in 1760, of a few feluccus, under nature to attain the hearts and futfrages the command of Count Peres, who was oi his countrymen, for his deportment henceforward designated under the pomwas grave and prudent, and his judy- pous title of High Admiral of Corlica, ment was matured by reflection rather In 1761, the doge and fenate of Gethan by age, while his patriotilin was a- noa, perceiving the change lately effectqueftioned, and his eloquence superior ed among the natives by the good conto that of any of his rivals. Ile was duct of one man, fent a deputation to a accordingly unanimously, chosen gene- general consulta, convoked at Vescoralilimu, in a full affembly of the peo- vato, for the express purpose of proposple, when he had but attained the 29th ing terins of accommodation ; but as year of his age. This joyful event was the pulse of liberty now beat high, it immediately announced, by ineans of a was unaniinoully refolved never to make proclamation, “ in the name of the fu- any peace with the enemy, unless on preme and general council of Corsica, the express condition of Cortica being addressed to the beloved people of that guaranteed in the full enjoyment of its nation,” dated from St. Antonio of the independence. A memorial to the same White House, July 15, 1755. It was effect was also addrefied, at the same there ftated, " that having determined time, to all the fovereigns of Europe. on the election of one political and ge- At length, in 1708, this petty and neral chief, the voices had been unani- tyrannical republic, being now in despair mous in favour of Pafquale Paoli, a of ever bending the Corticaps again to man whose virtues and abilities ren- its yoke, actually determined to dispose dered him particularly worthy. Ile had of the island to the best bidder. Acexprefled great reluctance," it was add- cordingly, the fovereiguty was transferred ed, “to accept of the command, but to France (at lcalt, so far as such a transhad at length been prevailed upon to
fer can be efieemed legal), for the sum take upon himself the government; in of forty millions of livres, a large porthe conduct of which he was to be al- tion of which was however deducted as fifted by two counsellors of state, and an antecedent debt. one of the most reputable persons from But laoli, although greatly alarmed, each district, all of whom were to be was not utterly ditinayed by this ceflion, changed once a month."
On the contrary, he aroused and prePaoli was accordingly entrusted with pared the spirit of his followers for a the sole management of public affairs, freth contention, and animated them to both civil and military, and foon obtain- perfevere, with additional zeul, in the ed such an afcendancy over the miuds defence of their liberties and indepenof the people, that they implicitly af- dence againit all opposers. He, at the sented to every thing propofed in his fame time, folemnly promised never to naine. As his *patrimony was extremely abandon the cause, but either to triflender, it became absolutely neceflary umph or fall at the head of his countrythat he should obtain a settled revenue. men ! llis expences were accordingly provided
This heroic resolution, coupled with for, by in.eans of an annual tax, called the justice of the cause in which he bed “ Il pane del generale."
embarked, obtained for him the esteem The situation of the island, in respect and regard of every lover of lumanity to its internal government, being very throughout Europe. He had already unpromiling, this chief new-modelled added to his reputation, by driving the the laws, discouraged affaslinations, im- Genoese from the open country, frutting ported arms, and established the appear- them up in the maritime towns, and be ance, if not reality, of subordination, beging the city of St. Fiorenzo; wluch In addition to all this, he inttituted he was only prevented from taking polschools, erected an university at Corte, fefiion of by the ignorance of his couns and actually laid the foundation of a trymen in respect to the attack of larmaritime power; or, at least, what was
tified places, as well as the total want of conlidered as such in that part of the cannon of every defcription, without Mediterranean, although it only confill- which it was utterly imposible to make
aux impredlou on a town defended ac* It confifted solely, as has been confidei.- cording to the modern rules of war. ly said, of a house and garden at Reitino, the
Birt the situation of the e brure if. place of his birth.
landers wils foon altered for the worlc, as *M. de Marbouf, an officer of con- ing a word, while he looked at me witha liderable talents, had landed with fix a itedfast, keen, and penetrating eye, as batallions, in 1764. But yet Paoli was if he searched my very soul. full considered, by all parties, as the le- “This interview was for a while very gitimate chief, and it was not until fome severe upon me. I was very much ree time after that a new war, and that too lieved when his referve wore off, and he with such a powerful monarchy as France, began to speak more. I then ventured became inevitable.
to address bun with this compriment to Meanwhile, the people of England, the Corsicans: 'Sir, I am upon my always impressed with noble ideas in be- travels, and have lately vifited Roine. half of freedom, began to conceive a I am come from seeing the ruins or one high notion of the inhabitants of Cor- brave and free people: 1 now see the bca, and to feel a generous with to serve rise of another.” them. This pallion was uot a little in- This event, trifling as it may appear, fiamed by the writings of a young tended not a little, in consequence of Scotchman, who had been induced to the policy of Paoli, to raise him in the vitit that itland in 1765, without any estimation of his own countrymen, and other introduction than a letter froin the even of the ueighbouring itetes. Boja celebrated author of the Social Con- well was immediately lodged in the house tract
of Sigoor Coinina, the lord of the maBy this means he obtained an intro- nor, and yuured by all the nobility; and duction to Paoli, whom he describes as whenever he ciwie to survey the country, follows: “I found him alone, and was was attended by a party of soldiers. ttruck with bis appearance. He is tall, “ One day,” says he, when I rode out, ftrung, and well mare; of a fair com- I was mounted on Paoli's own horse, plexion, a sensible, free, and open coun- with rich furniture of crimson velvel, tenance, and a manly and openi carriage. with broad gold !ace, and had my guards He was then in his fortieth year. ile marching along with me. I allowed mye was dressed in green and yold. He used self to indulge a momentary pride in the to wear the common Corlican habit; but parade, as I was curious to experience on the arrival of the French he thought what could really be the pleasure of state
little external elegance might be of and distinction, ivith which mankind are ule, to make the government appear in a so strangely intoxicated." It was easy more respectable light.
to countenance, or even to originate, “ He alked me, what were my com- the report that a gentleman, wholé zeal mands for hiin? I presented him a let- alone carried him into the wilds of Core ter from Count Rivarola; and when he fica, had been fent thither on a secres had read it, I thewed him my letter from mission; and the “ Amafciadore InRoufienu. He was polite, but yery referv- glese,” hy means of the Avignon Gazetre, ed. I had itood in the presence of many was foon introduced to the notice of alí a prince, but I never had such a trial as the people of Europe. in the prefence of Paoli. I have al- Wbile Paoli was thus flattering the tesdy said, that lie is a great physiogno- vanity of his countrymen, and confolimift. In consequence of his being in dating his own power, the conquest of contingal danger froin treachery and the whole island seems to have been mealfaffination, he has formed a habit of ditated by the court of France. Louis kudioully observing every new face. For XV. an indolent and voluptuous prince, ten minutes we walked backwards and addicted to the looseit pleasures, and reforwards through the room, hardly lay- gulated by the will of his mistresses and
his miniiters, was prevailed upon to
make the attempt in 1768. M. de Chaue • M. de Marbæuf was much beloved by velin, one of his favourites, and the fathe natives. It was he, indeed, who pro- ther of that ambasador wborn we have teđed the family of Bonaparte ; and being seen at our own court, as the represenvery much attached, as has been faid, to his tative of Louis XVI., was accordingly mother, obtained leave for him, during the nominated to the command of the expereign of Louis XV., to be sent to l'Ecole Militaire
dition. + The late Mr. Boswell, son of Lord
The army destined for the acquisition Auchinleck, one of the lords of session, a,
of the poor, barren, and defolute inland gentleman who feems to have begun the" of Corica, was cuinposed of fixteen bao Sorld as a speculative whig, and to hare ead- tallions and two legions, amounting ia it as a practical tory.
all to about 5000 men. Theie were to MOSTILY Mac. No. 154,
be fupported by a squadron, consisting of General. He was a singular man, who tuo tail of the line, two frigates, lix united the most exemplary deference to armed brigantines, a number of trans- the superstitions of the church, with a ports, &c. It was evidently the interest patsionate attachment to the profeffion of of the English nation to have prevented arms, and led the life of a monk, when this acquilition on the part of France: he did not act in the capacity of a warbut a jecret understandiug appears at rior. Perceiving that a contiderable body that time to have sublisted between the of French troops, with the usual audacity two courts, and a spirit of conipliance of that nation, had penetrated into the actually evinced itself on this occasion Pieva, or district of Calinca, he called on that cannot be accounted for on any ho- the natives to rise in a body; and having Dourable principle. Lord Chatham did afsembled four or tive thoutaud of them, not at that humiliating period prelide in he attacked the enemy, forced the post of the councils of the nation; yet we have La Penta, obliged the fue to recrofs the always understood, that the late Mar- river, and actually drove them before him quis of Lansdowne (then Earl of Shel- to Notre Dame dell' Orto. But this was burne) objected to the tameness with not all, for no fooner had his succets been which such an insult was borne, and that made generally known, than the detached he actually religned the important office camp of St. Nicholas was attacked by then held by bin, in confequence of it. multitudes of armed men, and General
Be this as it may, a furious war en Grandmaison, who commanded there, sued between France and Corsica ; in was obliged to fall back to Olcttà. The which numbers, military science, money, town of Borgo was the next object, on and discipline, were on one lide, and on which the conquerors fixed their attenthe other, an almost unarined multi- tion; and although utterly unacquainted tude, enthusiasın, bravery, and a good with both the art and the means of atcaule.
tacking fortified stations, they found As the Corsicans were unprovided with means to penetrate into the place, and artillery, and even with bayonets, and make a lodgement there. combatted individually ratlier than in On this, M. de Chauvelin, resolved to regular malles, it would have been high- advance in person, with the main body of ly impolitic for them to have encountered the army, while Paoli, being encouraged the French in the plain, and thus placed by the recent conduct of his troops, dethe fate of their country on the illue of termined to give bim battle. An action a pitched battle. On the contrary, it accordingly took place on the 5th of was their interest to prolong the war, in September, 1708 ; for the French Imving order to give time for the intervention advanced in three separate columus, of the neutral powers. Paoli, therefore, hoping, by means of a combined morepotted his troops on the heights of Nebo ment, to carry every thing before them, bio, de la Croce, and St. Antonio, where the Corlieans, as usual, placed themselves they remained firm ; hoping, in a moun- in ambush, and, as they fired with all the tainous warfare, to be able to contend certainty of American riflemen, they of with less inequality than in the low coun- course made a great flaughter. Of three try. They were obliged, however, after hundred of the garrison of Borgo, who repeated charges, to retire before the fallied out during the fight, one man only veteran troops of France, who acted in returned alive; and that place was ac. concert, and pofsefled a variety of ad- cordingly obliged to surrender next day. vantages.
After this, the French General retired On this, the islanders withdrew behind firit to Bafiia, and then to Versailles, the Guulo, but not until they had already chagrined to behold fome of the best exhibited such a specimen of their bravery, troops of France circumvented, defeated, that, inttead of pursuing the enemy, and killed, by a body of mountaineers, Chauvelin found absolutely neceffary headed by a General, who was acquaio. to draw reinforcements from his own ted with the theory of war alone, aud liad coast.
acrer, until now, beheld an engagement. In the course of a sort period, the tide The conclusion of the campaign of 1768, of war turned against the invaders; and fo disgracetul to the French army, and to che (orlicans, (who bad hitherto acted on honourable to its enemies, afforded a fair the defentive) at length became the af- opportunity for the interventinn of the farlants. Many officres distinguished maritime poners. But as M. de Chuileul, theinfelves on this nccalion, particularly at that time minister to Louis XV. was Clernente Pauli, the older brother of the but too well acquainted with the disph bition of the British cabinet, which could “Paoli,” says he, in another place, alerne have animated the allied courts into " has rendered his name illustrious, in action, he determined to send powerful confequence of the vigour with which he reinforcemeuts to Cortica. Theti con- fupported the cause of public liberty fried of twenty battalions, two legions, among the Corsicans; but in truth, it was and twelve hundred mules; and the com- a little at the expence of their individual mand of the whole was entrusted to the freedom. In the course of this war, die Corint de Vaux,
displayed great genius, and a noble conThis officer unfortunately happened listency; bad be been endowed with m. not only to be brave and active, but also litary talents, had he known how to have to pofiels a mind well acquainted with instructed his countrymen iu that species all the resources of war. lle himself was of hotiility best suited to the natural beut faniliar with the secne of action, and of their genius, he would have deitroyed well aware of all the faults committed by our little arıny in 1768, and done us much his predecessor, who had only scaped more harm than we experienced in 1769." from disgrace, and even írom punishment, This celebrated chief had the good by the perfonal attachiaent and regard fortune to escape during the general conof the monarch, in whole debaucheries fusion, with the loss of his library and his he had for many years participated. baggage. Having with fome difficulty
The new coinmander in chiet, fcaring affernbled a few of his faithful followers, above all things left the war thould be among whom was his own brother, be protracted, determined to divide his army repaired to the fea-lide, and being acinto two columns, of about twelve bate companied by these on board an armed talons each, and hy one grand move- yeslel, bearing the English flay, which had went put an end to the contest, by the been provided for his reception, he was complete subjugation of the whole illand landed in Italy. of Curtica. Paoli, from this moment, After remaining a short time at Leg. forefax that his country must not only bé horn, he repaired to England, where he srerrun, but conquered. He, however, had inany friends and admirers. Indeed, defended the bridge of Guolo, and the it was but a few days before his final revillage of Valle, with a considerable de- treat, that he had received a liberal subgree of obstinacy; after which, he retired fcription, from a number of private indiwith about it thousand nien to the top viduals, for the express purpose of en of a mountain, surmounted with a Tur- abling bim to continue the war against kill mosque, originally built by the Sara- France.* tens, and since converted into a christian Iminediately on his arrival, the patriots, church, dedicated to St. Peter. As this at the easiern extremity of the metroCurumanded the four adjacent valleys, polis tranfinitted a formnal invitation to and was considered as the laft and chief the General, to repair to the city, where defence of the illanu, every thing de- an entertainment had been provided for peniled oa keeping pofseflion of it. But him. Alderman Beckford, Mrs. Macauthe ('orticans were equally overpowered lay, Alderman Fecothick, and a number by aumbers and by tkill; and fifteen of his friends and admirers were all prehundred of them having been nearly cut fent on this occasion, and expected his of, in an attempt against the French appearance with impatience but the army at Ponte Nuovo, the final subjuga- General having receired an intimation tion of the natives was now unhappily from the patriots of the west end of the accomplified.
town, that his presence would give offence Dumourier, who served on this occa- to the court, “he felt himself suddenly iitfinus, with the rank of Adjutant-General, disposed, and sent his secretary with an i liberal enough, in the Memoirs of his excuse. own Life, to pay the highet compliments
Meanwhile Paoli was presented to loth to the Corticans and their chiet. His Majesty, at St. James's, and most In respect to the former, he observes as graciously received. He was at the same follows:
time gratified with a pension † for himfelf, "It is astonishing that this handful of while a liberal provision was inade for his flunders, deftitute of artillery, fortifica- brother Signor Clemente Paoli, and also tins, magazines, and money, should have kepe France at bay during two campaigns, * The Aldermen Beckford and Fecothick, although the bad no other enemies to together with Samuel Vaughan, efq. were Empe with. But liberty doubles the the trustees. Talour and the strength of man."
+ Twelve hundred pounds per annum. l's
for his nephew Signor Barbaggio, the lat- thus enabled to reinstate himself, in all ter of whom, had accompanied him to his former power and authority, Soon England, while the former relided in after this, he embarked for Corlica, Italy.
where he was received with an extraors From this time forward, the Ex-Gene. dinary degree of attachment and respect. ral remained chiefly in London, leading In confequence of this, he was elecied the quiet life of a private gentleman, mayor of Bastia, commander in chief of keeping an hospitable table, a carriage, the national guard, and prelident of the and every thing appertaining to a man of department; in fine, he foou acquired fortune. Having been waited upon, foon more authority in the island, than before after his arrival, by Mr. Boswell, the lat- its fubjugation by the French, ter presented Dr. Johnson to him, on the Notwithstanding this, he appears to 10th of October, 1769. “ They inet with have been Itill ainbitious of its entire inà mạnly ease," says Mr. B.*" mutually dependence, and an epoch soon arrived, conscious of their own abilities, and of when he imagined ibat so desirable an the abilities of each other. The General event might be effected with impunity. spoke Italian, and Dr. Johnson, English, This was the execution of Louis XVI, and understood one another very well, which divided the French nation into two with a little aid of interpretation from partics, rendered a civil war exceedingly, me, in which I compared myself to an probable, and animated the enemies of isthmus, that joins two great Continents." the new republic with new hopes.
During the space of twenty-three years, The Convention having been informed Paoli enjoyed an honourable and fecure of his secret practices, inmediately iffued afyluin in Great Britain, where he of orders to Paoli, to repair to their bar, and course expected to end his days. But defend himself against the accufations of the extraordinary events of the French his enemies: but he pleaded his age and Revolution at length induced hiin to em- infirmities, with a view of gaining time, bark anew in the storms of civil strite. and assured that assembly, he would never
No sooner had the Constituting Allem- be found defective in respect to his duty. bly proclaimed liberty to the nation, than To a second decree, more peremptory the fate of Corsica appeared to be me- than the first, he replied in a different liorated, and a people so long oppressed, manuer, and with more frankness; after received a glimpie of freedom. On per- whici he repaired to Corte, the ancient ceiving that his native country had be- capital, situate in the centre of the island, come one of the departments of France, where, surrounded by his friends and adher ancient chief transmitted a letter to herents, he laughed at the proclamation his fellow-citizens, in which he expreffed which had been issued, declaring him a his congratulations on this event, but la- traitor, and setting a price on his head, mented at the same time that he could On this occasion, however, a number not rejoin them consistently with his gra- of the most powerful families in Corfica titude and attachment to the British declared against him; and Saliceti, Arena, nation,
Gentili, Casa Bianca, together with many Notwithstanding this, he took leave of of those who had sworn fidelity to the his friends here, and repaired to Paris in new constitution, and like himself sub1792 ; having been well received by the scribed the civic oath, publicly declared, party then in power, he pronounced a that they could not allift in subverting ipeech at the bar of the afleinbly, in which those regulations, in favour of which they be observed, " that after a painful exile had taken fo folemn a vow, in the face of of niore than twenty years, he now re- Heaven and of mankind. joiced to behold his country reliored to On the other hand, the wholc body of chie poffeffion of her rights and pri- the clergy, disgusted at the late reforms, vileges, by the generolity of the French which had deprived then of a large por imation." ble, at the same time, expressed tion of their revenues, lided with their an to readiness to contribute, as much as cient clief'; and to these adhered all is was in his power, to the happiness of such as were eminently devoted to the bis fellow-citizens."
church of Rome, a numerous and powerThele sentiments being, highly popularful class of men, who affuned to themat that period, experienced general ap- felves the appellation of the sucred band. plane; und Paoli huving taken the oath But as l'aoli knew from long experience, of fidelity, in the face of the oation, was that it was imposible to relitt the power
of France, alone and unsuppurted, he "Liic us Samue! Johnsoo, LL.D.vol, ii p. 7o. determined to call in the aflittuce of